地理学报 ›› 2015, Vol. 70 ›› Issue (4): 615-624.doi: 10.11821/dlxb201504009

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福建省乡村发展与农村经济聚集耦合分析

肖黎姗1,2(), 余兆武1,2, 叶红1,2, 张国钦1,2, 郭青海1,2()   

  1. 1. 中国科学院城市环境研究所 中国科学院城市环境与健康重点实验室,厦门 361021
    2. 厦门市城市代谢重点实验室,厦门 361021
  • 收稿日期:2014-02-17 修回日期:2014-06-03 出版日期:2015-04-20 发布日期:2015-04-20
  • 作者简介:

    作者简介:肖黎姗(1984-), 女, 助理研究员, 主要从事城市地理、环境经济与环境管理研究。E-mail: lsxiao@iue.ac.cn

  • 基金资助:
    国家自然科学基金项目(41301621, 41201155);中国科学院城市环境研究所青年人才领域前沿项目(IUEQN201302);福建省软科学项目(2013R0104)

The research of coupling rural development and economycluster in Fujian province

Lishan XIAO1,2(), Zhaowu YU1,2, Hong YE1,2, Guoqin ZHANG1,2, Qinghai GUO1,2()   

  1. 1. Key Lab of Urban Environment and Health, Institute of Urban Environment, CAS, Xiamen 361021, Fujian, China
    2. Xiamen Key Lab of Urban Metabolism, Xiamen 361021, Fujian, China
  • Received:2014-02-17 Revised:2014-06-03 Online:2015-04-20 Published:2015-04-20
  • Supported by:
    National Natural Science Foundation of China, No.41301621, No.41201155;Knowledge Innovation Program of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, No.IUEQN201302;Soft science project of Fujian province, No.2013R0104

摘要:

中国的城镇化进程对农村产生深远的影响。本研究关注快速城镇化背景下的沿海农村发展和趋势,以福建省为例进行实证研究,结果表明,福建省的乡村性从2000年到2010年略有降低,并呈现从东南到西北增加的空间格局。本研究同时构建了区位商及其变化趋势的综合指标辨析农村经济聚集区及其动态发展特征。农村经济呈现明显的区位特征和聚集特征,非农产业聚集区出现在乡村性较弱但经济最为发达的东南地区。福建省西部和北部农村出现了非农产业新兴区和农业聚集区,区域内农业优势变化的驱动力较强。非农产业成熟区和新兴区是福建省的主体区域。传统农业区的空间比例最小,且呈现稳态的发展轨迹,转变的驱动力较小。乡村性与区位商总体上具有较好的正相关性。但是不同农村经济聚集区的乡村性和区位商的耦合程度具有多样性。农村的非农经济得到长足发展,出现新的农村类型。本文最后讨论了福建省县域尺度的农村发展和趋势,并对村镇这种新的农村形态的形成与聚集区域进行了探索性的研究,明确了不同形态的农村的发展区域,为新型城镇化建设和新农村建设两大国家战略的实现提供科学的依据。

关键词: 乡村性, 区位商, 城镇化, 村镇, 福建省

Abstract:

China's urbanization has significantly influenced rural areas. This research, taking Fujian province as a study case, focused on rural development and its trend in coastal regions. A rurality index was introduced to measure the level of rural development. Four dimensions of rurality were considered in the index including population size, population density, extent of urban built-up area and remoteness. The results showed that rurality has a significant spatial-temporal variation. Rurality declined from 2000 to 2010. In the spatial scale, rurality increased from southeast to northwest in 2000 and 2010. The spatial pattern was roughly consistent with distribution of landforms in Fujian province. The paper divided economic development into agricultural and non-agricultural types. Economic comparative advantage was evaluated by location quotients, which showed where economic sectors were more strongly represented in particular localities than they were in the province as a whole. The location quotients and their change were used to identify rural economic development. The results showed considerable spatial clusters. We characterized four economic clusters of rural Fujian including non-agricultural mature region, non-agricultural emerging region, agricultural cluster region and traditional agricultural region. The non-agricultural economy was clustered in southeast Fujian where the rurality was the weakest and the economy was well developed. This region was taken as non-agricultural mature region. A non-agricultural economy was emerging in west Fujian, which was non-agricultural emerging region. The two economic clusters, non-agricultural mature and emerging regions, accounted for most of Fujian. Agriculture was clustered in the north of the province, and the traditional agricultural economic region was the smallest. The paper examined the coupling relationship between rurality and location quotients to illustrate characteristics of rural economic clusters. There was a significant positive correlation between rurality and location quotients. The paper finally discussed the emergence and development of a new rural type, the town village. A similar phenomenon of town villages has been observed in other coastal provinces with a high urbanization rate in China. The paper can lay scientific foundation for advancing the combination of the national strategies of new urbanization and new rural construction.

Key words: rurality, location quotients, urbanization, town village, Fujian province