地理学报 ›› 2015, Vol. 70 ›› Issue (2): 283-296.doi: 10.11821/dlxb201502009

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中国城市基层地域的领域化与领域政治——基于东莞东泰社区的案例研究

刘云刚1(), 叶清露2   

  1. 1. 中山大学地理科学与规划学院 广东省城市化与地理环境空间模拟重点实验室,广州 510275
    2. 东京大学大学院工学系研究科都市工学专攻 国际都市计画·地域计画研究室,东京 1138656
  • 收稿日期:2014-03-17 修回日期:2014-12-17 出版日期:2015-02-20 发布日期:2015-06-17
  • 作者简介:

    作者简介:刘云刚(1973-), 男, 内蒙古呼和浩特市人, 博士, 教授, 中国地理学会会员(No.GD348), 主要研究方向为城市地理学、政治地理学、生活空间论。E-mail: liuyung@mail.sysu.edu.cn

  • 基金资助:
    国家自然科学基金项目(41271165, 41130747);教育部人文社会科学研究规划基金(12YJAGJW007);MOE (Ministry of Education in China) Project of Humanities and Social Sciences, No.12YJAGJW007

Territorialization and territorial politics in the urban grassroots of China: A case study of the Dongtai community in Dongguan city

Yungang LIU1(), Qinglu YE2   

  1. 1. School of Geography and Planning, Guangdong Key Laboratory for Urbanization and Geo-simulation, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou 510275, China
    2. International Development and Regional Planning Unit, Department of Urban Engineering, the University of Tokyo, Tokyo 113-8656, Japan
  • Received:2014-03-17 Revised:2014-12-17 Online:2015-02-20 Published:2015-06-17
  • Supported by:
    National Natural Science Foundation of China, No.41271165, No.41130747

摘要:

从领域视角出发,城市化过程即是城市地域的(再)领域化过程,也即空间资源在个人和社会群体间的(再)分配和(再)组织过程。20世纪90年代以来中国城市单位制的解体及社区制的建立,标志着中国城市基层地域领域化机制的变革,本文在此背景下以东莞市东泰社区为例,分析了变革后中国城市基层地域领域化动态,探究了其中政府、市场和民间力量主体作用的机制变化。研究发现:单位制下中国城市基层地域的行政领域化已经被社区制下的市场领域化所替代,同时民间力量开始参与其中。由于缺乏合理的领域化协调机制以及政府角色偏差,城市基层管治呈现恶性的领域政治,成为社区制下城市管治失败不可忽视的原因。换言之,领域单元及领域政治机制建设是当前城市基层管治的要务。为确立有效的城市基层地域管治模式,需要尽快改革社区体制、明确管治单元,并要防止资本和行政权力向生活空间的过度渗透。

关键词: 领域, 领域化, 领域政治, 地域管治, 单位制, 社区制, 东莞东泰社区

Abstract:

From a territorial perspective, urbanization is the process of the (re-) territorialization of urban spaces, in which space resources are constantly allocated among individuals and social groups. The collapse of the Danwei system and subsequent establishment of the community system in 1990 reflect a new form of governmental territorialization in the urban grassroots. Our study, focusing on the Dongtai community in Dongguan city, analyzes the dynamic territorial politics of government, market, and civil society in the urban grassroots of China. The Dongtai community is situated in the southern Dongcheng District of Dongguan and has an area of 3.8 square kilometers with 62,000 permanent residents, 76% of whom have no household registration. The fieldwork was conducted from the end of 2012 to the beginning of 2013. The dominant administrative territorialization under the Danwei system has significantly been replaced by market territorialization, in which the participation of civil forces has also increased. However, the lack of a mechanism for coordinating territorialization and deviated orientation of the government has caused the urban grassroots to engage in vicious territorial politics with the prevailing market forces, weakened administrative forces, and heavily suppressed civil forces. That accounts for the reason why the community system is still far from achieving the ideal status of urban governance. Therefore, institutional reform should construct multi-agent governing territorial units and mechanisms of territorial politics for urban grassroots management. The role of the government should be transformed from regulator to mediator of territorial structure, which in turn will motivate the civil forces to participate in urban governance, create diverse mediums of territorial politics, and prevent administrative and capital powers from over-permeating into the daily spaces. Resident-rights groups (e.g., owner committee) and indirect administrative territorialization (e.g., official means of laws, institutions, and planning) should be explored.

Key words: territory, territorialization, territorial politics, regional governance, Danwei system, community system, Dongtai community in Dongguan city