地理学报 ›› 2015, Vol. 70 ›› Issue (2): 257-270.doi: 10.11821/dlxb201502007

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基于多功能理论的中国乡村发展多元化探讨——超越“现代化”发展范式

房艳刚(), 刘继生()   

  1. 东北师范大学地理科学学院,长春 130024
  • 收稿日期:2014-01-03 修回日期:2014-12-20 出版日期:2015-02-20 发布日期:2015-02-20
  • 作者简介:

    作者简介:房艳刚(1979-), 男, 山东曲阜人, 副教授, 博士生导师, 中国地理学会会员(S110008452M), 主要从事乡村地理学与乡村发展研究。E-mail: fangyg578@nenu.edu.cn

  • 基金资助:
    国家自然科学基金青年项目(41001107);吉林省科技厅项目(20130522061JH);Project of Jilin Technology Committee, No.20130522061JH

Diversified agriculture and rural development in China based on multifunction theory: Beyond modernization paradigm

Yangang FANG(), Jisheng LIU()   

  1. School of Geographical Sciences, Northeast Normal University, Changchun 130024, China
  • Received:2014-01-03 Revised:2014-12-20 Published:2015-02-20 Online:2015-02-20
  • Supported by:
    National Natural Science Foundation of China, No.41001007

摘要:

传统的乡村现代化发展范式和地理学关于乡村的区域差异研究之间存在缝隙,不足以为快速演化分异的乡村地域发展提供直接理论支撑。本文引入西方近20年来逐渐兴起的多功能农业与多功能乡村理论,从新的视角观察思考中国乡村多元化发展的目标、路径及对策。首先从经济、社会和环境三个方面反思中国乡村现代化的基本历程与得失,以及西方国家乡村现代化产生的问题,指出传统的农业农村现代化发展在很大程度是以牺牲乡村环境和乡村社会机理脆弱化为代价的,也造成了乡村经济对外部支持的过度依赖,仅仅强调“现代化”发展范式显然是不够的;然后简要介绍了国外多功能农业与多功能乡村理论;在此基础上,从功能角度提出中国农业农村发展的多元目标,推演探讨农业农村发展的区域差异化路径及对策。

关键词: 乡村发展, 乡村现代化范式, 乡村转型, 多功能农业, 多功能乡村, 范式转换

Abstract:

There is a big gap between general rural modernization paradigm and huge empirical rural geography studies. This gap results in impotent development strategies on regionally differentiated countryside. Based on multifunctional agriculture theory and multifunctional rural theory which emerged in Western World as a new paradigm, this paper discusses the multiple objectives, differentiated pathways and policies of agriculture and rural development in China. Firstly, this paper reflects the problems and challenges caused by modernization paradigm in rural China on economic, social, and environmental aspects, as well as that of western developed countries. It can be concluded that conventional agricultural and rural modernization is developed largely at the expense of rural environment, social fabric and economic viabilities. Obviously, "modernization development paradigm" alone is not enough for healthy agricultural and rural development in such booming economy as China. A better paradigm should be developed which takes economic development, social justice and environmental sustainability into account at the same time. After a brief review of multifunctional agriculture theory and multifunctional rural theory overseas, the multiple objectives of agriculture and rural development in China are put forward. These multiple objectives, however, should not and could not be a burden on rural space indiscriminatingly due to the enormous differentiation of natural and socio-economic conditions. Thus, the final but main part of this paper envisions the differentiated pathways and policy portfolios of agricultural and rural development in China from the perspective of territorial division.

Key words: rural development, rural modernization paradigm, rural transition, multifunctional agriculture, multifunctional rural, paradigm shift