地理学报 ›› 2015, Vol. 70 ›› Issue (2): 186-201.doi: 10.11821/dlxb201502002

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中国主体功能区划方案

樊杰()   

  1. 中国科学院地理科学与资源研究所 中国科学院区域可持续发展分析与模拟重点实验室,北京 100101
  • 收稿日期:2015-01-07 修回日期:2015-01-09 出版日期:2015-02-20 发布日期:2015-06-17
  • 作者简介:

    作者简介:樊杰(1961-), 男, 研究员, 博士生导师, 中国地理学会会员(S110005375M), 主要从事区域可持续发展问题研究。E-mail: fanj@igsnrr.ac.cn

  • 基金资助:
    国家发改委委托重大课题(国家发改委发改办规划(2006)2853号);科技部支撑计划项目(2008BAH31B01);国家自然科学基金重点项目(40830741);中国科学院创新工程方向性项目(KZCX2-YW-321)

Draft of major function oriented zoning of China

Jie FAN()   

  1. Institute of Geographic Sciences and Natural Resources Research, CAS, Key Laboratory of Regional Sustainable Development Modeling, Beijing 100101, China
  • Received:2015-01-07 Revised:2015-01-09 Online:2015-02-20 Published:2015-06-17
  • Supported by:
    Key Project of National Development and Reform Commission;National Science & Technology Pillar Program, No.2008BAH31B01;Key Project of National Natural Science Foundation of China, No.40830741;Knowledge Innovation Project of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, No.KZCX2-YW-321

摘要:

中国主体功能区划方案是刻画未来中国国土空间开发与保护格局的规划蓝图,主体功能区规划已上升为主体功能区战略和主体功能区制度。2004-2014年,笔者组织系列研究项目,配合国家编制主体功能区规划,研究地域功能基础理论和功能区划技术流程,提出国家和省区尺度进行空间管制的地域功能区域类型为城市化区域、粮食安全区域、生态安全区域、文化和自然遗产区域等4类,在此基础上转化为以县级行政区划为单元的优化开发、重点开发、限制开发和禁止开发4类主体功能区。研制了由水资源、土地资源,生态重要性、生态脆弱性、环境容量、灾害危险性、经济发展水平、人口集聚度和交通优势度等9类可定量指标及战略选择为1项定性指标构成的地域功能识别指标体系,进行了单项指标评价,开发并运用地域功能适宜程度综合评价指数进行了综合评价,测算了各省区保护类区域下限、开发类区域上限以及开发强度等关键参数;研讨了以规划为应用指向的主体功能区划分方法,形成中国首部主体功能区划方案,按照全国主体功能区规划口径,2020年与2010年相比,全国国土空间开发强度从3.48%增加到3.91%;按照省区集成的主体功能区规划口径,优化、重点、限制开发区域的土地面积比重分别为1.48%、13.60%、84.92%,城市化、粮食安全、生态安全区域的土地面积比重分别为15.08%、26.11%、58.81%。结合区域发展水平、资源环境承载状态、民生质量等相关分析,给出了主体功能区的主要特征。通过区划方案校验,国家和省区分两级采用笔者主持制定的《主体功能区划技术规程》互动完成的全国主体功能区划方案,同预判的吻合程度多为80%以上。

关键词: 主体功能区, 区划, 区域, 可持续发展, 空间规划, 区域战略, 区域政策, 中国

Abstract:

Major Function Oriented Zoning (MFOZ) is the blueprint for the future developmnt and protection pattern of China's territory, and has been raised to from major function zones planning to major function zoning strategy and major function zoning institution. From 2004 to 2014, the author organized a series of research projects to compose MFOZ for the country, studied basic theory of regional function and MFOZ technical process, and proposed that space controlling zones of national and provincial scales can be divided into four types: urbanized zones, foodstuff-security zones, ecological safety zones, cultural and natural heritage zones. On this basis, major function zones of county scale should be transferred to optimized, prioritized, restricted, and prohibited zones. In this paper, a regional function identification index system comprising nine quantitative indicators (including water resources, land resources, ecological importance, ecological fragility, environment capacity, disaster risk, economic development level, population concentration and transport superiority) and one qualitative indicator of strategic choice is developed. Based on the single index evaluation, comprehensive evaluation using regional function suitability evaluation index is conducted, aiming at testing several key parameters including lower limit of protection zones and upper limit of development zones at the provincial level. In addition, a planning-oriented zoning method of major function zones is also discussed, which has brought the first MFOZ planning in China. According to the MFOZ caliber, it is forecasted that national spatial development intensity will rise from 3.48% in 2010 to 3.91% in 2020. Furthermore, according to caliber of the provincial integrated MFOZ planning, the area of optimized, prioritized and restricted zones accounts for 1.48%, 13.60% and 84.92%, respectively, and that of urbanized, foodstuff-security and ecological safety zones accounts for 15.08%, 26.11% and 58.81%, respectively. In combination of analyses of development level, resources and environmental carrying status and quality of the people's livelihood, the main characteristics of MFOZ were identified. Through verification, MFOZ draft of national and provincial scales, which is interactively accomplished with "MFOZ Technical Process" put forward by the author, is mostly above 80% identical with what have been forecasted.

Key words: MFOZ, zoning, region, sustainable development, spatial planning, regional strategy, regional policy, China