地理学报 ›› 2015, Vol. 70 ›› Issue (1): 143-156.doi: 10.11821/dlxb201501012

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南阳盆地新石器文化的地理分布、传播路径及生业模式

李中轩1, 朱诚2(), 袁胜元1, 徐佳佳2, 吴国玺1, 王宏3, 郭志永4   

  1. 1. 许昌学院城乡规划与园林学院,许昌 461000
    2. 南京大学地理与海洋科学学院,南京 210093
    3. 中山大学人类学系,广州 510275
    4. 河南大学环境规划学院,开封 475001
  • 收稿日期:2014-08-26 修回日期:2014-10-12 出版日期:2015-01-20 发布日期:2015-06-17
  • 作者简介:

    作者简介:李中轩(1971-), 男, 河南渑池人, 博士, 自然地理学专业, 中国地理学会会员(S110007772M)。

  • 基金资助:
    国家自然科学基金(41371204;41171163);中科院湖泊与环境国家重点实验室开放基金(2012SKL003);国家社科重大基金(11&ZD183);国家科技支撑计划项目(2013BAK08B02);江苏高校优势学科建设工程资助项目;国家基础科学人才培养基金(J1103408);南京师范大学江苏省环境演变与生态建设重点实验室开放基金;南京大学现代分析中心测试基金

Geographical distribution, diffusion and subsistence variation of prehistoric cultures in Nanyang Basin, Henan Province

Zhongxuan LI1, Cheng ZHU2(), Shengyuan YUAN1, Jiajia XU2, Guoxi WU1, Hong WANG3, Zhiyong GUO4   

  1. 1. School of Urban-rural Planning and Architecture, Xuchang University, Xuchang 461000, Henan, China
    2. School of Geographic and Oceanographic Sciences, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093, China
    3. Department of Anthropology, Sun Yat-sen University; Guangzhou 510275, China
    4. School of Environment and Planning, Henan University, Kaifeng 475001, Henan, China
  • Received:2014-08-26 Revised:2014-10-12 Online:2015-01-20 Published:2015-06-17
  • Supported by:
    National Natural Science Foundation of China, No.4117116,No.40971115;Foundation of State Key Laboratory of Lake Science and Environment, Nanjing Institute of Geography & Limnology, CAS, No.2012SKL003;National Key Foundation of Social Sciences, No.11&ZD183;National Key Technology R&D Program, No.2013BAK08B02;Project of the Priority Academic Program of Jiangsu Higher Education;National Basic Science Personnel Training Fund, No.1103408;Foundation of Jiangsu Key Laboratory of Environment Change & Eco-Construction;Testing Foundation of Modern Analysis Center of Nanjing University]

摘要:

全新世以来南阳盆地的新石器文化以中原类型为主导,但源于汉水中下游的屈家岭文化和石家河文化深刻影响了南阳盆地史前文化演变的内容和过程。除石家河期遗址集中分布于盆地南缘的低地外,仰韶文化、屈家岭文化和龙山文化的人类遗址均分布于100~200 m地势和缓的岗地区。盆地内史前文化相互角逐的动力源于中原型和江汉型两种原始农业的消涨,因而旱作农业快速发展期对应仰韶文化和龙山文化的南扩;粟作农业的衰落对应屈家岭文化和石家河文化的北进。南阳盆地史前时期的生业模式序列表现为:仰韶文化早期的采集捕捞业、仰韶中晚期的粟作农业、屈家岭时期的稻作农业和石家河—龙山时期的稻粟混作业。其中,屈家岭文化后期生产工具的精细化、家庭畜牧业的规模化改变了先民的食谱结构。

关键词: 南阳盆地, 新石器文化, 史前遗址地理分布, 古文化传播, 古生业模式

Abstract:

The Neolithic cultures of the Zhongyuan type played a leading role in the Nanyang Basin since the Holocene, yet the exotic cultures (e.g. the Qujialing culture and the Shijiahe culture) from the middle and lower reaches of the Hanjiang River exerted influences on the contents and forms in cultural evolution processes. Apart from the sites in the Shijiahe period, which were clustered in the southern margin of the basin, the sites of the Yangshao, Qujialing and Longshan periods were settled in northern highland areas with an elevation of 100-200 m. Impetus of inter-cultural rivalry derived from the rise and fall of various primitive agriculture. Therefore, the dry farming climax corresponded with southward expansion of the northern cultures (i.e. the Yangshao and Longshan cultures), and the rice-farming boom years consisted with the period of northward advance of the southern cultures (i.e. the Qujialing and Shijiahe cultures). In time sequence, the subsistence model of the study area experienced three stages: (i) collecting-hunting in the early Yangshao period; (ii) millet-farming in the middle and late Yangshao period and (iii) millet-rice mixed farming in the Qujialing and Shijiahe periods. In the transformation process, it was by advance of production instruments, handicraft industry and animal husbandry that the cultures could make great leaps. Besides, variable footprints of cultural fronts for the northern and southern types demonstrated complicated landscape of prehistoric cultures, and reflected mutual relationships between cultural evolution and environmental changes.

Key words: Nanyang Basin, Neolithic cultures, geographical distribution of prehistoric sites, paleo-cultural diffusion, paleo-subsistence model