地理学报 ›› 2015, Vol. 70 ›› Issue (1): 85-96.doi: 10.11821/dlxb201501007

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中国中东部植被景观观赏季划分的物候学基础

陶泽兴1,2, 葛全胜1, 王焕炯1,2, 戴君虎1   

  1. 1. 中国科学院地理科学与资源研究所 中国科学院陆地表层格局与模拟重点实验室,北京 100101
    2. 中国科学院大学,北京 100049
  • 收稿日期:2014-08-20 修回日期:2014-10-07 出版日期:2015-01-20 发布日期:2015-06-17
  • 作者简介:

    作者简介:陶泽兴, 硕士研究生, 主要从事环境变化和物候学研究。E-mail: colwhoo@163.com

  • 基金资助:
    国家自然科学基金项目(41030101,41171043);国家重点基础研究发展计划项目(2012CB955304);中国科学院战略性先导科技专项(XDA05090301)

Phenological basis for determination of ornamental tourism season in China

Zexing TAO1,2, Quansheng GE1, Huanjiong WANG1,2, Junhu DAI1   

  1. 1. Key Laboratory of Land Surface Pattern and Simulation, Institute of Geographic Sciences and Natural Resources Research, CAS, Beijing 100101, China
    2. University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049, China
  • Received:2014-08-20 Revised:2014-10-07 Online:2015-01-20 Published:2015-06-17
  • Supported by:
    National Natural Science Foundation of China, No.41030101.No.41171043;National Basic Research Program of China, No.2012CB955304, Strategic Priority Research Program of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, N.XDA05090301

摘要:

利用中国物候观测网12个站点多种木本植物的展叶始期、开花盛期和叶全变色期观测数据,通过统计物候期的频率分布划分了上述3种物候期的观赏季节,分析了过去50年最佳观赏日的变化趋势,为旅游管理部门及游客的游憩活动安排提供理论依据。研究得出以下主要结论:① 最佳观赏日在不同站点间存在较大差异。展叶最佳观赏日范围为3月16日(桂林)到5月5日(哈尔滨);开花最佳观赏日从4月3日(昆明)到5月24日(牡丹江);叶变色最佳观赏日从10月1日(牡丹江)到11月30日(上海)。展叶、开花最佳观赏日和纬度显著正相关,叶变色最佳观赏日和纬度显著负相关;② 部分站点过去50年最佳观赏日发生了明显变化。尤其是北京和西安,展叶和开花最佳观赏日都以超过1.6天/10年的趋势显著提前,而叶变色最佳观赏日显著推迟(北京:1.6天/10年;西安:2.1天/10年)。③ 观赏季起止时间和最佳日期受站点气温控制。展叶、开花最佳观赏日与站点春季(3-5月)气温显著负相关。站点春季气温每升高1 °C,展叶和开花最佳观赏日分别提前4.02和4.04天。叶变色最佳观赏日与站点秋季(9-11月)气温显著正相关,在空间上对气温响应的敏感性为2.98天/°C。

关键词: 物候, 植被景观, 观赏季, 气温变化

Abstract:

Many plants have high ornamental value during specific phenophases, such as first leaf, flowering and leaf coloring. Thus, plant phenology correlates highly with seasonal aspects of landscape. Studying the determination of ornamental tourism season and its temporal and spatial patterns could provide tourism management departments and tourists with theoretical basis on tourism arrangement. Based on phenological data of 3 phenophases (first leaf date, full flower date, end of coloring date) and corresponding meteorological data at 12 sites in China, we divided the ornamental tourism season (including starting date, optimal tourism date and end date) by applying phenological frequency distribution method. The trend of optimal tourism date over the past 50 years was also analyzed. The results showed that: (1) The optimal tourism date, ranged from March 16 (Guilin) to May 5 (Harbin) for first leaf, April 3 (Kunming) to May 24 (Mudanjiang) for full flowering, October 1 (Mudanjiang) to November 30 (Shanghai) for leaf coloring. The optimal tourism date of first leaf and full flower was positively associated with latitude, while that of leaf coloring was negatively correlated with latitude. (2) The optimal tourism date of first leaf and full flower exhibited significant advancing trend of 1.6 days/decade over the past 50 years in Beijing and Xi'an, while that of leaf coloring showed significant delaying trend (Beijing, 1.6 days/decade; Xi'an, 2.1 days/decade). (3) The ornamental tourism season was significantly associated with temperature of each site. Optimal tourism date of first leaf and full flowering advanced by 4.02 days and 4.04 days per 1°C increase in spring (March-May) temperature, respectively. Optimal tourism date of leaf coloring showed significant positive correlation with September-November temperature and the spatial sensitivity was 2.98 days/°C.

Key words: phenology, vegetation landscape, ornamental tourism season, temperature change in different vegetation regions