地理学报 ›› 2015, Vol. 70 ›› Issue (1): 17-28.doi: 10.11821/dlxb201501002

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1977-2014年江苏中部滨海湿地演化与围垦空间演变趋势

李建国1, 濮励杰1,2, 徐彩瑶1, 陈新建1, 张云峰3, 蔡芳芳1   

  1. 1. 南京大学地理与海洋科学学院,南京 210023
    2. 国土资源部海岸带开发与保护重点实验室,南京 210023
    3. 盐城师范学院城市与资源环境学院,江苏盐城 224051
  • 收稿日期:2014-10-13 修回日期:2014-11-05 出版日期:2015-01-20 发布日期:2015-06-17
  • 作者简介:

    作者简介:李建国(1986-), 男, 江苏泗阳人, 博士生, 主要从事土地利用与规划研究。E-mail: lijianguo531@126.com

  • 基金资助:
    国家自然科学基金重点项目(41230751);南京大学优秀博士生提升计划A(2014001A004);南京大学研究生科研创新基金项目(2012CL14)

The changes and dynamics of coastal wetlands and reclamation areas in central Jiangsu from 1977 to 2014

Jianguo LI1, Lijie PU1,2, Caiyao XU1, Xinjian CHEN1, Yunfeng ZHANG3, Fangfang CAI1   

  1. 1. School of Geographic and Oceanographic Sciences, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210023, China
    2. The Key Laboratory of the Coastal Zone Exploitation and Protection, Ministry of Land and Resources, Nanjing 210023, China
    3. School of Urban and Resource Environment, Yancheng Teacher's University, Yancheng 224051, Jiangsu, China
  • Received:2014-10-13 Revised:2014-11-05 Online:2015-01-20 Published:2015-06-17
  • Supported by:
    National Natural Science Foundation, No.41230751;The Program A for Outstanding PhD Candidate of Nanjing University, No.2014001A004;The Scientific Research Foundation of Graduate School of Nanjing University, No.2012CL14]

摘要:

通过野外实地调研与遥感影像解译相结合的方式,研究1977-2014年(1977、1984、2000、2007与2014年)江苏中部滩涂湿地演化与围垦空间演变的规律。结果表明,1977-2014年江苏中部滨海湿地射阳河口以南岸线段总体以淤长为主,但是也存在侵蚀的岸线段,总体淤长/侵蚀速度在±20 m/yr左右,最高值出现在东台和如东洋口港附近。研究区湿地围垦的速度远高于岸线淤长的速度,基本维持在50 m/yr以上。1977-2014年江苏滨海湿地的生态关键区面积出现了快速的退化趋势,特别是盐生植被空间的快速萎缩,主要出现在射阳南部和大丰市。调查发现研究区传统的湿地围垦开发演变模式是光滩→盐生植被→养殖水面→耕地→建设用地。但是现在由于新技术和新方法的应用,极大地缩短了围垦演变路径和周期,有助于围垦经济效益的提高。江苏滨海湿地围垦后土地开发利用强度呈较为明显的上升趋势。同时,江苏滨海湿地开发的热点空间在区域上主要集中于几个重要的港口及其腹地建制镇附近,但总体规模不大。

关键词: 滨海湿地, 围垦模式, 淤长/侵蚀, 演变路径, 江苏

Abstract:

Five remote sensing images (1977, 1984, 2000, 2007 and 2014) were obtained to study the spatial dynamics of coastal wetlands and reclamation area in central Jiangsu province. The results indicated that most of the coastal wetlands showed an accretion trend from the south of Sheyang estuary, while there still existed some erosion phenomena in the past 40 years. The mean rate of accretion/erosion of Jiangsu coastal wetlands was ±20 m per year, and the highest value was observed at Dongtai and Yangkou ports. Meanwhile, the reclamation rate was significantly higher than the accretion ones, and the former kept a level of 50 m per year. In addition, the key ecological areas of Jiangsu coastal wetlands reduced rapidly from 1977 to 2014, which can be found from the shrinkage of natural halophytic vegetation in the southern part of Sheyang County and the whole part of Dafeng County. It was found in field surveys that the evolution pattern of reclamation in coastal wetlands was in the order of bare flat → halophytic vegetation → aquaculture pond → cropland → built-up land. However, with the aid of new technology, the period of evolution pattern was shortened. Moreover, the development of coastal wetlands has been intensified due to reclamation activities. The hotspots of reclamation were presented at major ports and central towns.

Key words: coastal wetland, reclamation pattern, expanding/erosion, evolution path, Jiangsu