地理学报 ›› 2014, Vol. 69 ›› Issue (12): 1833-1846.doi: 10.11821/dlxb201412009

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高速铁路对中国城市空间相互作用强度的影响

王姣娥1(), 焦敬娟1,2(), 金凤君1   

  1. 1. 中国科学院地理科学与资源研究所 区域可持续发展分析与模拟重点实验室, 北京 100101
    2. 中国科学院大学, 北京 100049
  • 收稿日期:2013-11-21 修回日期:2014-05-28 出版日期:2014-12-25 发布日期:2015-01-24
  • 作者简介:

    作者简介:王姣娥 (1981-), 女, 副研究员, 主要研究方向为交通运输与区域发展。E-mail: wangje@igsnrr.ac.cn

  • 基金资助:
    中国科学院地理科学与资源研究所一三五项目 (2011RC201, 2012QY004);国家自然科学基金项目 (41171107)

Spatial effects of high-speed rails on interurban economic linkages in China

Jiao'e WANG1(), Jingjuan JIAO1,2(), Fengjun JIN1   

  1. 1. Key Laboratory of Regional Sustainable Development Modelling/Institute of Geographic Sciences and Natural Resources Research, CAS, Beijing 100101, China
    2. University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049, China
  • Received:2013-11-21 Revised:2014-05-28 Online:2014-12-25 Published:2015-01-24
  • Supported by:
    Project of Institute of Geographic Sciences and Natural Resources Research, CAS, No.2011RC201, No.2012QY004;National Natural Science Foundation of China, No.41171107

摘要:

高速铁路作为一种新型的交通方式,其快速发展将会带来交通运输史上一次重大的飞跃,且其对区域空间结构、人口流动、经济联系和土地利用等的影响也越来越成为人们关注的焦点。在中国区域经济一体化进程不断加快的背景下,研究高速铁路对城市空间相互作用强度的影响,对加强区域间经济联系、促进区域经济发展和地域空间组织模式的重构具有重要意义。本文基于GIS网络分析工具,构建时间成本矩阵,研究中国333个地级行政单元和4个直辖市对外经济联系总量和城市对间经济联系强度的空间分布特征,构建无高铁、高铁现状和规划高铁三种情景,并对三种情景进行模拟与探讨。结果显示:① 城市空间相互作用呈现出明显的地带性和“廊道效应”,反映了高速交通在重塑区域空间结构中的作用;② 高速铁路建设提升了城市对外经济联系强度总量,且逐渐从追求“效率”转向“公平性”;③ 高速铁路建设缩小了全国城市对外经济联系总量的差异,但却扩大了城市对间经济联系强度的差异;④ 三大城市群成为城市对外经济总量绝对获益量最大的地区,而其毗邻的中小城市成为提升速率最大的城市。

关键词: 高速铁路, 网络分析, 经济联系强度, 空间差异, 中国

Abstract:

As a new mode of transportation, the rapid development of high-speed rail (HSR) will bring a leap in the history of transportation and have a comprehensive impact on the regional structure, population mobility, geographical division of labors, regional linkages, land use, and so on. Therefore, it is significantly important to study the impacts of HSR on regional spatial interactions, especially under the background of regional economic integration. The paper researches the impact of high speed rail on the reconstruction of spatial economic linkages. Based on the GIS network analysis tools, this paper first calculates the time cost matrix of 333 prefecture-level administrative units and four municipalities, and then uses the gravity model to calculate the interurban economic linkages, and lastly analyzes the distribution of the total economic linkage and the economic linkages between any two cities. In order to analyze the impact of HSR on regional spatial interaction, this paper resumes three scenarios: the current transport network in 2012 without the HSR network (scenario 1), the current transport network in 2012 (scenario 3), and the planning HSR network in 2020 (scenario 3) based on the current transport network, to calculate the time cost matrix of 337 cities. Results indicate that: (1) Cities in the east have the highest economic linkages, and cities with the highest increase of economic linkages are located along the HSR lines, which will lead to regional restructuring; (2) The development of HSR lines will improve the economic linkages between cities, and the increasing rate during the first period (comparing scenario 2 with scenario 1) is much higher than that during the second period (comparing scenario 3 with scenario 2); (3) From different perspectives and regional scales, the development of HSR has different impacts on spatial difference; (4) It is possible for cities in a long distance to have high economic linkages with the construction of HSR lines, which could also change the linkage directions.

Key words: high-speed rail, network analysis, economic linkage, spatial disparity, China