地理学报 ›› 2014, Vol. 69 ›› Issue (11): 1697-1706.doi: 10.11821/dlxb201411010

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30年来武昌湖湿地退化过程与原因

周葆华(), 尹剑(), 金宝石, 朱磊   

  1. 安庆师范学院资源环境学院, 安庆 246011
  • 收稿日期:2013-10-16 修回日期:2014-05-13 出版日期:2014-11-20 发布日期:2014-12-26
  • 作者简介:

    作者简介:周葆华 (1963-), 女, 安徽潜山人, 教授, 中国地理学会会员 (S110000725M), 主要从事生态环境与生态经济研究。E-mail: zhoubh@aqtc.edu.cn

  • 基金资助:
    安徽省高校省级自然科学重点项目 (KJ2010A228);安徽省高校省级自然科学项目 (KJ2011B085)

Degradation of Wuchang Lake wetland and its causes during 1980-2010

Baohua ZHOU(), Jian YIN(), Baoshi JIN, Lei ZHU   

  1. School of Resources and Environment, Anqing Normal University, Anqing 246011, Anhui, China
  • Received:2013-10-16 Revised:2014-05-13 Online:2014-11-20 Published:2014-12-26
  • Supported by:
    The Key Program of the Natural Science Foundation of the Anhui Higher Education Institutions of China, No.KJ2010A228;The Natural Science Foundation of the Anhui Higher Education Institutions of China, No.KJ2011B085

摘要:

湖泊湿地是敏感脆弱的生态系统,极易受气候变化和人类活动的影响。通过对长江中下游沿岸武昌湖湿地1980-2010年生态系统变化进行分析,具体包括:(1) 选择Landsat MSS影像进行遥感解译,结合GIS技术分析武昌湖集水区的景观变化情况;(2) 统计研究区1980年以来的气象水文数据,分析湿地生态系统主要气候因子的变化趋势;(3) 结合气候因子和土地利用变化,初步分析武昌湖湿地生态系统变化的自然-人工原因。结果表明,1980年以来,湿地景观发生较大程度的变化:湖域面积减少了近40%,尤其是下湖青草湖水域面积从52.76 km2减少为13.92 km2,萎缩约73.62 %。跨湖公路建成以后,集水区内与人类活动关系密切的建设用地面积显著增加。武昌湖湿地温度呈明显的上升趋势,而降雨、蒸散发等气候变量变化趋势均不显著。建设用地、气温与湿地退化的相关性显著,降雨和蒸散发与湿地退化无明显相关性,公路的跨湖修建加速了湿地的退化速度。

关键词: 武昌湖, 气候变化, 人类活动, 湿地退化

Abstract:

The lake-wetland ecological system is sensitive to climate change and human activities. This study investigated the ecological changes of Wuchang Lake wetland (located at the downstream of the Yangtze River) from 1980 to 2010, and the potential causes of wetland degradation. We first overviewed the landscape changes in the study area by analyzing the Landsat MSS/TM imageries; and then examined the dynamics of hydrometeorology during the study period. Based on the analysis of changes of landscape patterns and variations of hydrometeorological variables, the natural and anthropogenic causes of Wuchang Lake wetland ecosystem degradation were discussed and differentiated. Results show that over the past three decades the total area of Wuchang Lake has decreased by 40%. In particular, area of the Qingcao Lake at the downstream of the lake-wetland system has over 73%, from 52.76 km2 to 13.92 km2. The area of construction land, which manifests the human activity in the watershed, had increased significantly since the building of the Anjiu Road across the lake. The average annual temperature in the study area showed a significant increasing trend, while the annual rainfall and evapotranspiration were relatively stable with little variations. We concluded that the degradation of the Wuchang Lake wetland was accelerated mainly by constructions in the area and the increased temperature, while the annual rainfall and evapotranspiration had little influence.

Key words: Wuchang Lake, climate change, human activity, wetland degradation