地理学报 ›› 2014, Vol. 69 ›› Issue (11): 1604-1614.doi: 10.11821/dlxb201411002

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中国东北平原及毗邻地区古水文网变迁研究综述

裘善文1(), 王锡魁2, 阎百兴1, 廉毅4, 朱金花1, 张凤礼5, 张振卿1   

  1. 1. 中国科学院东北地理与农业生态研究所, 长春 130102
    2. 吉林大学地球科学学院, 长春130061
    3. 俄罗斯科学院远东分院水和生态问题研究所, 哈巴罗夫斯克 680000
    4. 中高纬环流系统与东亚季风研究开放实验室, 长春 130062
    5. 大庆博物馆第四纪哺乳动物研究中心, 大庆 163316
  • 收稿日期:2014-06-30 修回日期:2014-08-16 出版日期:2014-11-20 发布日期:2014-12-26
  • 作者简介:

    作者简介:裘善文, 研究员, 原中国地理学会地貌专业委员会委员, 中国第四纪专业委员会委员, 主要从事东北地貌与第四纪研究。E-mail: qswen@neigae.ac.cn

  • 基金资助:
    国家自然科学基金 (41175083);水体污染控制与治理科技重大专项 (2012ZX07201004);中俄国际合作项目 (4947-1013)

Summary of the paleodrainage pattern changes in the Northeast China Plain and its neighboring areas

Shanwen QIU1(), Xikui WANG2, A.N. MAKHINOV3, Baixing YAN1, Yi LIAN4, Jinhua ZHU1, Fengli ZHANG5, Zhenqing ZHANG1   

  1. 1. Northeast Institute of Geography and Agroecology, CAS, Changchun 130012, China
    2. College of Earth Sciences, Jilin University, Changchun 130061, China
    3. Institute of Water and Ecology Problems, Far Eastern Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Khabarovsk 680000, Russia
    4. Laboratory for Middle-High Latitude Circufluence System and East Asia Monsoon Study, Changchun 130062, China
    5. Research Center of Quaternary Mammal of Daqing Museum, Daqing 163316, Heilongjiang, China
  • Received:2014-06-30 Revised:2014-08-16 Online:2014-11-20 Published:2014-12-26
  • Supported by:
    National Natural Science Foundation of China, No.41175083;Major Science and Technology Program for Water Pollution Control and Treatment, No.2012ZX07201004;Sino-Russian Cooperation Project, No.4947-1013

摘要:

本文论述东北平原及毗邻地区黑龙江中游的第四纪水文网变迁与时代。首次完整、系统提出下松花江溯源侵蚀切穿佳~依分水岭,袭夺了上松花江、牡丹江形成松花江的袭夺水系。黑龙江中游由于三江平原平均每年以1~6 mm速度下沉,下黑龙江溯源侵蚀,切穿了中俄境内的小兴安岭,形成萝北—嘉荫峡谷,袭夺了上黑龙江、结雅河和布列亚河,形成黑龙江袭夺水系。根据依兰达连河煤矿钻孔岩芯岩相分析,发现在古近纪和新近纪时在达连河—祥顺地区有一古大湖,上松花江和牡丹江流向该大湖,沉积了厚700~1000多米的湖河相碎屑岩含煤地层。后因伊通—依兰裂谷上升,下松花江溯源侵蚀,袭夺了流向该大湖的上松花江和牡丹江。所以松花江和牡丹江从来没有向西流向松嫩平原。松花江和黑龙江袭夺水系的形成时期是在上新世末—早更新世初。此后,松辽平原偏西区域从早更新世至中更新世末形成古大湖,周围河流流向该大湖,呈向心状水系,从松辽平原湖相黏土层分布和古地磁测年确定,至中更新世末该古大湖衰亡。晚更新世以来松辽平原进入河流发展时期,松辽分水岭缓慢上升,并不断北移。黄、渤海在20年内下沉了60 mm,辽河溯源侵蚀,袭夺了东、西辽河。从此形成了辽河与松花江水系的基本格局。

关键词: 袭夺水系, 向心状水系, 古水文网变迁, 东北平原

Abstract:

The evolutions of Quaternary drainage pattern in the Northeast China Plain are discussed in the paper. According to analytical results of core samples, we found that during Paleogene and Neogene periods there was a large paleolake in Dalianhe-Xiangshun region that deposited more than 700 m of lacustrine-aluvial coal-bearing fragmental rocks, and proved that the upper Songhua River and the Mudan River flowed into the large paleolake at that time. Because of the rising of Yitong-Yilan rift, the lower Songhua River eroded headwards and captured upper Songhua River and Mudan River; for this reason, we believe, that the Songhua River and Mudan River had never been able to flow westwards to the Songnen Plain. The capture river systems of the Songhua River and Heilong River were formed between the end of Pliocene and beginning of the Early Pleistocene. After that period, another large paleolake was formed in the western Northeast China Plain during the Early and Middle Pleistocene, thus the surrounding rivers to flow into the paleolake to form a centripetal drainage.

Key words: capture river system, centripetal water system, paleodrainage pattern, Northeast China Plain and its neighboring regions