地理学报 ›› 2014, Vol. 69 ›› Issue (10): 1496-1509.doi: 10.11821/dlxb201410009

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中国道路网络的通达性评价与演化机理

王成金1(), 王伟1,2, 张梦天1,2, 程佳佳1,2   

  1. 1. 中国科学院地理科学与资源研究所, 北京 100101
    2. 中国科学院大学, 北京 100049
  • 收稿日期:2013-12-10 修回日期:2014-06-21 出版日期:2014-10-20 发布日期:2014-12-11
  • 作者简介:

    作者简介:王成金 (1975-), 男, 汉, 博士, 副研究员, 硕士生导师, 从事交通地理与区域发展的研究。E-mail: cjwang@igsnrr.ac.cn

  • 基金资助:
    中国科学院地理资源所“一三五”战略科技计划项目 (2012QY004);中国科学院重点部署项目 (KZZD-EW-06-02);国家自然科学基金项目 (41171108)

Evolution, accessibility of road networks in China and dynamics:From a long perspective

Chengjin WANG1(), Wei WANG1,2, Jingjuan JIAO1,2, Jiajia CHENG1,2   

  1. 1. Institute of Geographic Sciences and Natural Resources Research, CAS, Beijing 100101, China
    2. University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100039, China
  • Received:2013-12-10 Revised:2014-06-21 Online:2014-10-20 Published:2014-12-11
  • Supported by:
    Exploratory Forefront Project for the Strategic Science Plan in IGSNRR, CAS, No.2012QY004;Key Research Program of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, No. KZZD-EW-06-02;National Natural Science Foundation of China, No.41171108

摘要:

现代交通方式产生之前,传统道路设施及道路运输是主要交通方式,成为各历史时期社会经济联系的主要途径,本文力图探究道路设施网络的长期演化规律。为此,本文以具有国家意义的“国道”为研究对象,以商周以来3500年为时间尺度,设计了道路网发育指标和可达性—最短距离模型;刻画了中国道路网的拓展和演化过程,总结各时期的发展特征、空间格局及模式,揭示演变规律;评价了道路网的结构特征、成熟水平与连通性,分析各时期的可达性格局及演变,识别可达性优势与劣势区域;考察了道路网演变与中国社会—经济系统的关系机制。研究发现,中国道路网遵循了“内陆扩张”模式尤其从内陆向边疆拓展,可达性形成明显的“核心—边缘”中心圈层格局,并同国防建设和国家集权、邮驿系统、贸易运输有紧密关系。

关键词: 中国, 道路网络, 可达性, 演化, 发展机制

Abstract:

Before the emergence of modern transport modes, the traditional road infrastructure and road transport (carriage) was a widely used land transport mode, and became a major approach to complete the nationwide social and economic exchanges throughout all historical periods. But the long-term evolution of transport infrastructure is an important studying topic, which has received little research attention. Under this background, this paper, choosing the national road as the studying subject, and taking 3500 years from 1600 BC to 1900 AD as the studying period and designing the model of shortest distance path, aims to examine the developing regularities of traditional road network in a long-term dimension, involving the expansion of spatial network, network structure and accessibility, and developing dynamics. Our analysis reveals long-term regularities: the continuously expanding road network, which experiences four phases with different developing features and spatial pattern, follows a path of inland expansion especially to border areas and brings the peripheral region much closer to the core area of China's homeland, but its coverage and accessibility is characterized by 'concentric rings' and 'core-peripheral' configuration, and the middle and lower reaches of the Yellow River has been the core region. The development and evolution of traditional road network has close relationship with the national defense and warfare, centralization of national power around the capital, homeland governance, the postal transport, and specialized cargo and trade transport. This research pays attention to a long-term pattern and attempts to fill the gap of extant literatures, to deeply and better understand the evolving regularities of transport infrastructure network and China's homeland development.

Key words: China, road network, evolution, accessibility, dynamics