地理学报 ›› 2014, Vol. 69 ›› Issue (7): 969-982.doi: 10.11821/dlxb201407009

• 青藏高原研究 • 上一篇    下一篇

西藏地区天然水的水化学性质和元素特征

田原1,2, 余成群1, 雒昆利1, 武建双1, 张宪洲1, 倪润祥1,2, 田兴磊1,2   

  1. 1. 中国科学院地理科学与资源研究所, 北京100101;
    2. 中国科学院大学, 北京100049
  • 收稿日期:2014-04-08 修回日期:2014-06-03 出版日期:2014-07-20 发布日期:2014-09-12
  • 通讯作者: 余成群(1965-),男,研究员,硕士生导师,主要从事农业经济与区域发展规划的研究。E-mail:yucq@igsnrr.ac.cn;雒昆利(1959-),女,博士,研究员,博士生导师,主要从事地质环境与健康研究。luokl@igsnrr.ac.cn E-mail:yucq@igsnrr.ac.cn;luokl@igsnrr.ac.cn
  • 作者简介:田原(1991-),男,陕西西安人,硕士研究生,主要从事地质环境与健康、西藏区域可持续发展研究。E-mail:tiany.13s@igsnrr.ac.cn
  • 基金资助:
    国家科技支撑项目(2011BAD17B05-4;2011BAC09B03);国家自然科学基金项目(41172310;40171006);国家重大基础专项(973)(2014CB238906)资助

Water chemical properties and the element characteristics of natural water in Tibet, China

TIAN Yuan1,2, YU Chengqun1, LUO Kunli1, WU Jianshuang1, ZHANG Xianzhou1, NI Runxiang1,2, TIAN Xinglei1,2   

  1. 1. Institute of Geographic Sciences and Natural Resources Research, CAS, Beijing 100101, China;
    2. University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049, China
  • Received:2014-04-08 Revised:2014-06-03 Online:2014-07-20 Published:2014-09-12
  • Supported by:
    National Key Technologies R&D Program in the12th Five-year Plan of China, No.2011BAD17B05-4; No.2011BAC09B03; National Natural ScienceFoundation of China, No.41172310; No.40171006; Major State Basic Research Development Program of China(973), No.2014CB238906; National Science and Technology Support Project of China, No.2011BAD17B05-4;No.2011BAC09B03

摘要: 为了调查西藏的水质和水资源特色,2013 年在西藏拉萨、那曲地区、阿里地区、日喀则地区36 个县乡镇采集了60 个水样(地下水35 个,地表水22 个,温泉水3 个),对其水化学性质与元素含量进行分析测定,并与周边的青海西南部、新疆南部、四川西部与西藏东部等地水的水化学类型进行了对比,讨论了不同地区内水化学类型的差异。总体上看西藏大部地区水质较好,能够满足国家生活饮用水卫生标准。水样pH 处于6.75~8.21 范围内;总溶解性固体(TDS) 均值为225.54 mg/L;阿里地区水中砷元素含量超标(超过10 μg/L),双湖地区水中氟含量超标(超过1 mg/L);水化学类型主要为Ca-HCO3型;由南向北水中阳离子由以Ca2+ 为主逐渐过渡到以Na+ 为主,阴离子HCO3- 逐渐减少,Cl- 与SO42- 逐渐增多;河流水与冰川融水的成因类型主要为岩石风化型,地下水成因受多种因素控制;构造分区控制水中主要元素进而影响水化学类型。

关键词: 西藏, 水化学性质, 区域水质对比, 水中元素特征

Abstract: The water quality and the water feature in Tibet were studied in this article. In 2013, we collected 60 water samples (35 groundwater samples, 22 surface water samples and 3 hot spring water samples) from 36 counties, villages and towns in Lhasa, Nagqu, Ali and Shigatse of Tibet. The element contents of the water samples were tested and compared with other regions such as southeast Qinghai, south Xinjiang, east Sichuan and west Tibet. Moreover, hydrochemical types in different areas were discussed. Generally, the water in most parts of Tibet is of good quality and reaches the national standards for drinking water. The pH values of water samples range from 6.75 to 8.21; The mean value of TDS is 225.54 mg/L; The arsenic content in water in Ali exceeds the permitted amounts of the national standards for drinking water (10 μg/L); The fluorine content in water of Shuanghu exceeds the permitted values of the national standards for drinking water (1 mg/L); The main hydrochemical type of water in Tibet is Ca-HCO3. From south to north, the main cations in water change from Ca2+ to Na+, while the main anions in water change from HCO3-to Cl- and SO42-. The genetic type of river water and glacier melt water is rock dominance and the groundwater formation is affected by many factors. Tectonic division determines the water main elements and affects hydrochemical types of water.

Key words: water quality, Tibet, water element contents, water chemistry