地理学报 ›› 2014, Vol. 69 ›› Issue (5): 632-639.doi: 10.11821/dlxb201405006

• 气候变化 • 上一篇    下一篇

近60年中国西南地区干旱灾害规律与成因

韩兰英1,2,3, 张强4,5, 姚玉璧1, 李忆平1, 贾建英2, 王静1   

  1. 1. 中国气象局兰州干旱气象研究所/甘肃省干旱气候变化与减灾重点实验室/中国气象局干旱气候变化与减灾重点开放实验室, 兰州 730020;
    2. 西北区域气候中心, 兰州 730020;
    3. 兰州大学大气科学学院, 兰州 730000;
    4. 甘肃省气象局, 兰州 730000;
    5. 定西市气象局, 甘肃定西 744300
  • 收稿日期:2014-01-19 修回日期:2014-03-12 出版日期:2014-05-20 发布日期:2014-07-30
  • 作者简介:韩兰英(1978-),女,甘肃民乐人,高级工程师,博士生,主要从事干旱监测、气候变化与风险评估研究。E-mail:sthan07@hotmail.com
  • 基金资助:
    国家重点基础研究发展计划资助2013CB430200(2013CB430206);甘肃省自然基金青年科技基金计划(1208RJYA027);甘肃省气象局科研项目(2010-08,2011-11)共同资助

Characteristics and origins of drought disasters in Southwest China in nearly 60 years

HAN Lanying1,2,3, ZHANG Qiang4,5, YAOYubi1, LI Yiping1, JIA Jianying2, WANG Jing1   

  1. 1. Key Open Laboratory of Arid Climatic Change and Reducing Disaster of Gansu Province/Key Open Laboratory of Arid Climatic Change and Reducing Disaster of CMA/Institute of Arid Meteorology, CMA, Lanzhou 730020, China;
    2. Northwest Regional Climate Center, Lanzhou 730000;
    3. College of Atmospheric Science, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou 730000, China;
    4. Meteorology Bureau of Gansu, Lanzhou 730020, China;
    5. Meteorology Bureau of Dingxi, Dingxi 744300, Gansu, China
  • Received:2014-01-19 Revised:2014-03-12 Online:2014-05-20 Published:2014-07-30
  • Supported by:
    National Key BasicResearch Program of China, No.2013CB430200 (2013CB430206);Natural Science Fund of Gansu Province, No.1208RJYA027;Gansu Meteorological Bureau Project, No.2010-08;No.2012-11

摘要: 利用西南60 多年干旱灾情资料,计算了干旱受灾率、成灾率、绝收率和综合损失率,分析了中国西南地区干旱灾害规律特点并对成因进行探讨。结果表明,西南近60 年干旱灾害范围、程度和频次均呈增加趋势。受灾率、成灾率和绝收率均呈明显上升趋势,同时,各省也呈上升趋势,四川最明显,其次是贵州,云南最小。西南干旱综合损失率呈上升趋势,多年平均综合损失率为3.93%,21 世纪综合损失率为7.29%,明显高于全国平均(5.51%)。近10年来干旱重灾中心发生了转移,云南和贵州干旱面积明显增加,西南干旱重灾中心向南北两边分离。综合损失率随土壤湿度、植被盖度和降水降低而增加,但随温度升高而增加。西南气温呈明显上升趋势,但降水呈减小趋势。西南温度升高是干旱灾害的主要因素,同时区域降水减少、土壤湿度降低和植被盖度降低等加剧了西南干旱损失和风险。

关键词: 西南, 损失率, 气象因素, 干旱受灾

Abstract: Drought is a meteorological disaster that causes huge losses to agricultural yields every year. This paper analyzed drought trends based on statistical disaster data, which included drought-induced areas, drought-affected areas, and lost harvests under the effects of global warming. The results showed that droughts are becoming more critical and frequent in China. The agricultural effects of drought for drought-induced areas, drought-affected areas, lost harvest areas and comprehensive loss rate increased in the last 60 years in each province of Southwest China. It is important to examine the spatial and temporal changes in the agricultural effects of drought in guiding disaster mitigation work. This paper analyzed the drought conditions in large farming areas of Southwest China, which were frequently hit by serious droughts. Total drought area ranked first in Sichuan Province, second in Guizhou Province, and third in Yunnan Province. The average annual comprehensive loss rate accounted for 3.9% in Southwest China, and increased in recent years. Drought tolerance of all provinces is related to regional climate change effects, such as temperature, precipitation, moisture, and vegetation coverage.

Key words: agricultural loss rate, meteorological data, drought disaster, spatial and temporal distribution