地理学报 ›› 2014, Vol. 69 ›› Issue (4): 485-496.doi: 10.11821/dlxb201404005

• 城市地理 • 上一篇    下一篇

生态阻力面模型构建及其在城市扩展模拟中的应用

叶玉瑶1, 苏泳娴1, 张虹鸥1, 吴旗韬1, 刘凯2   

  1. 1. 广州地理研究所, 广州 510070;
    2. 中山大学地理科学与规划学院, 广州 510275
  • 收稿日期:2013-07-18 修回日期:2013-12-30 出版日期:2014-04-20 发布日期:2014-04-20
  • 作者简介:叶玉瑶(1980-),女,四川乐山人,博士,副研究员,中国地理学会会员(S110008400M),研究方向为区域发展与城市规划。E-mail:yeyuyao@gdas.ac.cn
  • 基金资助:
    国家自然科学基金项目(41001385);国家科技支撑计划项目(2012BAJ15B02)

Ecological resistance surface model and its application in urban expansion simulations

YE Yuyao1, SU Yongxian1, ZHANG Hong'ou1, WU Qitao1, LIU Kai2   

  1. 1. Guangzhou Institute of Geography, Guangzhou 510070, China;
    2. School of Geography and Planning, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou 510275, China
  • Received:2013-07-18 Revised:2013-12-30 Published:2014-04-20 Online:2014-04-20
  • Supported by:
    National Natural Science Foundation of China, No.41001385;12th Five-year National Science Supported Planning Project, No.2012BAJ15B02

摘要: 本文将城市扩展视为城市用地克服生态阻力向外扩散的过程,基于最小累积阻力模型(MCR) 进行方法创新,在模型中引入不同等级源的相对阻力因子,并考虑生态障碍对于城市扩展的刚性约束,构建适合于城市扩展模拟的生态阻力面模型(UEER)。在此基础上,利用广州市土地利用第二次调查数据、遥感影像数据、DEM数据以及其他生态要素相关数据,通过源的确定与分级、基面阻力综合评价、UEER模型运算等步骤,构建了广州市城市扩展的生态阻力面,并用于模拟城市用地扩展至不同规模情景时的空间分布及边界。结果表明:① 通过UEER模型生成的生态阻力面能够综合反映城市扩展水平过程所需克服的生态阻力,因此能够反映生态约束下城市扩展的空间运动趋势,可以用于城市扩展模拟。② 与基于MCR模型的模拟结果相比,基于UEER模型的模拟结果更加符合实际并体现生态保护的要求。从城市扩展的规模与强度控制看,模拟结果更加符合实际需求,并体现政策调控方向。从城市形态以及与生态要素的关系看,一些重要的生态要素在快速城市化进程中能够得以保留,同时生态障碍作为生态隔离,能够有效地防止城市的蔓延式扩展,从而使城市扩展表现出明显的组团式特征。

关键词: 城市扩展, 生态阻力面, 模拟, 广州

Abstract: Urban expansion models are a useful tool for understanding urbanization process and have been given much attention. However, urban expansion is a complicated socioeconomic phenomenon that is affected by complex and volatile factors involving in great uncertainties. Most dynamic models focus on the interaction between the urban expansion and various influencing factors, and have continuously evolved for greater nuance and precision. However, accurately simulating the urban expansion process remains ambiguous. In this paper, we try to solve such uncertainties through a reversal process and view the urban expansion as a process in which the urban landscape competes with other landscapes for control by overcoming ecological resistance. We apply an innovative method based on the minimum cumulative resistance (MCR) model to construct an urban expansion ecological resistance (UEER) model and then to apply it to the urban expansion in Guangzhou. The results indicate that the ecological resistance surface generated by the UEER model reflects comprehensively the ecological resistance for the urban expansion and indicates spatial trends in the urban expansion. Thus it can be used as an effective model for the urban expansion and compensates for the inadequacies in most dynamic models that ignore ecological constraints to a certain extent. Compared with simulation results to the conventional MCRbased model, the simulation results from the UEER-based model are more realistic and accurately reflect ecological protection requirements. Based on the scale control of the urban expansion, simulation results better accord with the actual demand and reflect the land development policy. Considering the urban form and its relationship with ecological factors, all of the important ecological elements are preserved in the process of simulation. The ecological barriers act as ecological isolations, prevent the urban sprawl and result in the group urban form.

Key words: Guangzhou, urban expansion, model, ecological resistance surface, simulation