地理学报 ›› 2014, Vol. 69 ›› Issue (4): 459-473.doi: 10.11821/dlxb201404003

• 城市地理 • 上一篇    下一篇

中国创新型城市建设的综合评估与空间格局分异

方创琳, 马海涛, 王振波, 李广东   

  1. 中国科学院地理科学与资源研究所, 北京 100101
  • 收稿日期:2013-04-19 修回日期:2013-10-10 出版日期:2014-04-20 发布日期:2014-04-20
  • 作者简介:方创琳(1966-),男,甘肃庆阳人,教授,博士生导师,中国地理学会会员(S110001715M),近年来主要从事城市发展与规划研究,主编出版专著17 部,发表论文300 余篇。E-mail:fangcl@igsnrr.ac.cn
  • 基金资助:
    国家社会科学基金重大项目(13&ZD027);国家自然科学基金项目(41371177,41201128)

Comprehensive assessment and spatial heterogeneity of the construction of innovative cities in China

FANG Chuanglin, MA Haitao, WANG Zhenbo, LI Guangdong   

  1. Institute of Geographic Sciences and Natural Resources Research, CAS, Beijing 100101, China
  • Received:2013-04-19 Revised:2013-10-10 Published:2014-04-20 Online:2014-04-20
  • Supported by:
    National Social Science Foundation of China, No.13&ZD027;National Natural Science Foundation of China, No.41371177, No.41201128

摘要: 创新型城市是开展创新活动、建设创新型国家的重要基地,是探索城市发展新模式和推进城市可持续发展的迫切要求,因而在中国建设创新型国家中具有举足轻重的战略地位。当前,中国已进入到2020 年建成创新型国家的攻坚阶段,但创新型城市建设尚处初级阶段,尚未完成从要素驱动向创新驱动的战略质变,与真正意义上的创新型城市还有很大差距。本文以全国287 个地级以上城市为综合评估对象,采用自主构建的中国创新型城市综合评估体系和开发的中国创新型城市综合评估监测系统软件,从自主创新、产业创新、人居环境创新和体制机制创新四大方面对中国创新型城市的建设现状做了综合评估,分析了创新型城市建设的空间分异特征。结果认为,中国城市综合创新水平偏低,建设创新型国家难度大,87.8%的城市综合创新水平低于全国平均水平;城市综合创新水平与城市经济发达水平呈密切的正相关关系,东部地区城市明显高于中西部地区;城市自主创新水平、产业创新水平、人居环境创新水平和体制机制创新水平呈现出与城市综合创新水平一致的空间分异规律。到2020 年争取将北京、深圳、上海、广州建成4 大全球创新型城市,成为全球创新中心;把南京、苏州、厦门、杭州、无锡、西安、武汉、沈阳、大连、天津、长沙、青岛、成都、长春、合肥、重庆共16 个城市建成国家创新型城市,成为国家创新中心,形成由4 个全球创新型城市、16 个国家创新型城市、30 个区域创新型城市、55 个地区创新型城市和182 个创新发展型城市组成的国家城市创新网络空间格局,进而为到2020年建成创新型国家做出贡献。

关键词: 综合评估, 建设格局, 中国, 创新型城市, 空间分异特征

Abstract: Innovative cities are not only important basis for innovation activities, but also play a strategically critical role in constructing an innovative country. Meanwhile, the development of innovative cities can meet the urgent requirements of setting new forms of urban development and fostering the urban sustainable development. Currently, China is marching toward the goal of establishing an innovative country by 2020, but the start-up phase of innovative cities construction cannot realize the fundamental transition from factor driven development to innovation driven development, which means that there is a wide gap between China's innovative cities and the advanced innovative cites. Constructing innovative cities confronts with some bottlenecks like investments, income, techniques, contributions and talents. This article takes 287 prefecture-level cities as the object of comprehensive assessment. With the method of comprehensive assessment system of innovative cities and innovative monitoring system software, this article evaluates the current situation of innovative city construction from four aspects, namely independent innovation, industrial innovation, living environmental innovation and institutional innovation, and analyzed the characteristics of spatial heterogeneity of innovative cities construction. The results are as follows. The level of innovation of Chinese cities is low, and building an innovation-oriented country is difficult. Some 87.8% of cities are lower than the national average of comprehensive level of innovation. The level of city's comprehensive innovation has close and positive correlation with economic development. The level of the eastern region of China is significantly higher than that of the central and western regions. The levels of urban independent innovation, industrial innovation, habitat of environmental innovation and institutional mechanisms innovation show consistent spatial heterogeneity law with the city's comprehensive level of innovation. In the future, China should speed up the construction process in accordance with the basic principles of "independent innovation, breakthroughs in key areas, market-driver, regional linkage, personnel support". The purpose is to build Beijing, Shenzhen, Shanghai, Guangzhou into global innovation centers, to build Nanjing, Suzhou, Xiamen, Hangzhou, Wuxi, Xi'an, Wuhan, Shenyang, Dalian, Tianjin, Changsha, Qingdao, Chengdu, Changchun, Hefei, Chongqing into national innovation centers by 2020, through which China will finally build a national urban innovation network that includes 4 global innovative cities, 16 national innovative cities, 30 regional innovative cities, 55 local innovative cities, and 182 innovation-driven development cities and contributes to the establishment of an innovative country by 2020.

Key words: comprehensive assessment, future configuration, spatial heterogeneity, China, innovative city