地理学报 ›› 2014, Vol. 69 ›› Issue (4): 448-458.doi: 10.11821/dlxb201404002

• 土地利用 • 上一篇    下一篇

19世纪末黑龙江省的耕地覆盖重建

张丽娟1, 姜蓝齐1, 张学珍2, 张安康1, 姜春艳1   

  1. 1. 黑龙江省普通高等学校地理环境遥感监测重点实验室, 哈尔滨师范大学, 哈尔滨 150025;
    2. 中国科学院地理科学与资源研究所, 北京 100101
  • 收稿日期:2013-08-04 修回日期:2013-12-06 出版日期:2014-04-20 发布日期:2014-06-14
  • 通讯作者: 张学珍(1981-),男,山东济宁人,博士,助理研究员,主要从事地—气相互作用研究。E-mail:xzzhang@igsnrr.ac.cn E-mail:xzzhang@igsnrr.ac.cn
  • 作者简介:张丽娟(1965-),女,河北唐山人,博士,教授,主要从事土地覆盖变化研究。E-mail:Zlj19650205@163.com
  • 基金资助:
    国家自然科学基金项目(42171217;41030743;41001122)

Reconstruction of cropland over Heilongjiang Province in the late 19th century

ZHANG Lijuan1, JIANG Lanqi1, ZHANG Xuezhen2, ZHANG Ankang1, JIANG Chunyan1   

  1. 1. Key Laboratory of Remote Sensing Monitoring of Geographic Environment, College of Heilongjiang Province, Harbin Normal University, Harbin 150025, China;
    2. Institute of Geographic Sciences and Natural Resources Research, CAS, Beijing 100101, China
  • Received:2013-08-04 Revised:2013-12-06 Online:2014-04-20 Published:2014-06-14
  • Supported by:
    National Natural Science Foundation of China, No.42171217;No.41030743;No.41001122

摘要: 揭示过去100年尺度上的土地利用/覆盖变化是认识人类活动对气候和环境影响的基础。本文在充分吸收既有成果的基础上,利用历史文献中的县(府、州、厅) 级耕地面积记录,通过构建综合聚落、地形和水系信息的垦殖倾向指数模型,在1 km×1 km像元尺度上重建了黑龙江省19 世纪末的耕地覆盖,并与基于卫星遥感反演的2009年的耕地覆盖进行了对比。结果表明,黑龙江省19世纪末的耕地总面积为25397.00 km2,主要分布于中南部,其中在海伦市、巴彦县、五常市、呼兰区、双城市、望奎县有集中分布;2009年的耕地面积为163808.70 km2,广布于西南部、中南部和东北部。20 世纪期间,黑龙江省耕地面积增加了138411.70 km2,与之对应,垦殖率由5.60%增加至36.20%,增幅为30.6%。这意味着,20世纪农业开垦改变了黑龙江省30.6%的自然地表性质,其中,大约60962.00 km2 (约占新增耕地的44.00%) 来自对森林的开垦,这部分新增耕地主要出现在东北部和西部边缘地区。本文的重建结果为进一步研究20世纪农业垦殖的气候、生态和环境效应提供了高分辨率的基础数据。

关键词: 黑龙江省, 19 世纪末, 垦殖倾向指数, 耕地覆盖

Abstract: To understand human effects on climate and environment in the historical times, it is primary to reconstruct land use/cover changes over the past centuries. In this study, based on the previous studies, we collected county level-based cropland area from the multiple historical documents. The original records from different historical documents were calibrated with each other. The area units were also converted to present square kilometers. As a consequence, we obtained one integrated dataset which is one county level-based cropland area dataset. Next, we defined an agricultural suitability index (ASI) calculated by using distance from settlements, slope and complex of topography, and distance from rivers. The documental county level-based cropland area was spatially distributed into 1 km by 1 km size of pixels in the order of high ASI to low ASI. Then, we retrieved cropland of 2009 at a resolution of 1 km by 1 km using Landsat ETM+ imageries. We found that total cropland area in the late 19th century was 25397.0 km2. The cropland was mainly found in centralsouthern part of Heilongjiang Province, especially in the counties of Hailun, Bayan, Wuchang, Hulan, Shuangcheng and Wangkui. In 2009, the total cropland area increased to 163808.7 km2, which spread over the southwestern to the central and northeastern parts of Heilongjiang. In the 20th century, cropland increased by 138411.7 km2. The cropland area fraction increased from 5.6% in the late 19th century to 36.2% in 2009. This implicates that 30.6% of natural land surface of Heilongjiang was replaced by anthropogenic cropland. Some 60962 km2 (accounting for 44%) of increased cropland was derived from deforestation, which was mainly distributed in the western edge and northeastern part of the present agricultural area. The reconstructed cropland in the late 19th century supplies a basic dataset for studies on effects of agricultural development on climate and environment in the future.

Key words: Heilongjiang Province, late 19th century, cropland area, agricultural suitability index (ASI)