地理学报 ›› 2014, Vol. 69 ›› Issue (3): 334-342.doi: 10.11821/dlxb201403005

• 自然地理 • 上一篇    下一篇

中国森林生态系统能值与服务功能价值的关系

吴霜1, 延晓冬2, 张丽娟1   

  1. 1. 黑龙江省普通高校地理环境遥感监测重点实验室, 哈尔滨师范大学, 哈尔滨150025;
    2. 地表过程与资源生态国家重点实验室, 北京师范大学, 北京100875
  • 收稿日期:2013-07-22 修回日期:2014-01-04 出版日期:2014-03-20 发布日期:2014-03-20
  • 作者简介:吴霜(1988- ),女,黑龙江省哈尔滨人,硕士研究生,主要从事生态系统与气候变化研究。Email:shuang_1988@hotmail.com
  • 基金资助:
    国家重大科学研究计划项目课题(973计划)(2012CB95570003);国家自然科学基金(42171217)

The relationship between forest ecosystem emergy and forest ecosystem service value in China

WU Shuang1, YAN Xiaodong2, ZHANG Lijuan1   

  1. 1. Key Laboratory of Remote Sensing Monitoring of Geographic Environment, College of Heilongjiang Province, Harbin Normal University, Harbin 150025, China;
    2. State Key Laboratory of Earth Surface Processes and Resource Ecology, BeijingNormal University, Beijing 100875, China
  • Received:2013-07-22 Revised:2014-01-04 Published:2014-03-20 Online:2014-03-20
  • Supported by:
    The National Basic Research Program of China (973 Program),No.2012CB95570003;National Natural Science Foundation of China,No.42171217

摘要: 本研究利用1901-2009 年全球温度和降水数据以及全国1266 块森林样地主要森林类型数据作为基础数据,应用能值理论和生态系统服务功能理论,建立了中国森林能值与服务功能价值之间的函数关系,并且研究了1990 年和2009 年中国森林服务功能价值密度的变化。结果表明:应用函数关系模拟1994 年中国森林生态系统服务功能价值的结果与Costanza 评估结果在空间分布上具有较高的一致性。2009 年全国有林地栅格数目比1990 年增长14.02%,其平均森林生态系统服务功能价值密度增加了54.46 USD/hm2。北京、上海、江苏、天津、河北平均森林生态系统服务功能价值密度分别降低了86.87%、85.45%、81.99%、46.48%和23.07%。河南、湖南、吉林、江西、黑龙江和浙江平均森林生态系统服务功能价值密度分别下降了71.35%、58.65%、52.70%、34.56%、23.36%和22.03%。广西、西藏、甘肃、内蒙古、四川、云南、宁夏森林破坏也比较明显,这些省份的平均森林生态系统服务功能价值密度下降了2.89%~22.36%。根据全国第四次和第七次森林清查报告显示,近年来我国森林面积持续增加。但研究结果显示很多省份的森林生态系统服务功能价值密度仍然降低,这说明森林生态系统仍然没有完全恢复。中国森林生态系统服务功能普遍低于全球森林生态系统服务功能值的平均水平,说明我国森林生态环境并不理想,人类活动对生态系统产生巨大的负面影响。

关键词: 森林生态系统服务功能, 中国森林生态系统, 能值

Abstract: In this study, with the help of emergy value theory and ecosystem service value theory, we established the function relationship between forest emergy value and ecosystem service value in China using the global temperature and precipitation data during 1901-2009 and 1266 sample forest data of major vegetation types in China. Results indicate that: there was a high consistency of the spatial distribution of the Chinese forest ecosystem service value in 1994 between the simulated results by the established function relationship and the evaluation results from Costanza. In particular, the raster number of forest areas in China increased by about 14.02% from 1990 to 2009, and the mean forest ecosystem service value density increased by about 54.46 USD/hm2. In addition, the mean forest ecosystem service value density for Beijing, Shanghai, Jiangsu, Tianjin, Hebei decreased by about 86.87%, 85.45%, 81.99%, 46.48% and 23.07%, respectively, and the mean ecosystem service value density for Henan, Hunan, Jilin, Jiangxi, Heilongjiang and Zhejiang decreased by about 71.35%, 58.65%, 52.70%, 34.56%, 23.36% and 22.03%, respectively. There was also a severe forest destruction in Guangxi, Tibet, Gansu, Inner Mongolia, Sichuan, Yunnan, and Ningxia, and the mean forest ecosystem service value density of those provinces decreased by about 2.89%-22.36%. According to the fourth and seventh National forest survey reports, the forest areas have continually increased in recent years. However, the reports show that the forest ecosystem service value density in several provinces have decreased, and indicate that the forest ecosystem has not been fully recovered. Generally speaking, the forest ecosystem service value is lower than the global average level, suggesting that the forest eco-environment is not good enough in China, and human activities have a tremendous negative impact on the ecosystem.

Key words: emergy, forest ecosystem service value, Chinese forest ecosystem