地理学报 ›› 2014, Vol. 69 ›› Issue (2): 227-242.doi: 10.11821/dlxb201402007

• 农村发展与土地利用 • 上一篇    下一篇

山区耕地边际化特征及其动因与政策含义

邵景安1, 张仕超2, 李秀彬3   

  1. 1. 重庆师范大学地理科学学院, 重庆400047;
    2. 西南大学资源环境学院, 重庆400716;
    3. 中国科学院地理科学与资源研究所, 北京100101
  • 收稿日期:2013-04-01 修回日期:2013-10-30 出版日期:2014-02-20 发布日期:2014-04-04
  • 作者简介:邵景安(1976-),男,汉族,安徽亳州人,博士,研究员,主要从事土地利用与生态过程研究。E-mail:shao_ja2003@sohu.com
  • 基金资助:
    国家自然科学基金重大国际合作项目(41161140352);水体污染控制与治理科技重大专项(2012ZX07104-003)

Farmland marginalization in the mountainous areas:Characteristics, influencing factors and policy implications

SHAO Jing'an1, ZHANG Shichao2, LI Xiubin3   

  1. 1. College of Geographical Science, Chongqing Normal University, Chongqing 400047, China;
    2. College of Resource and Environment, Southwest University, Chongqing 400716, China;
    3. Institute of Geographic Sciences and Natural Resources Research, CAS, Beijing 100101, China
  • Received:2013-04-01 Revised:2013-10-30 Online:2014-02-20 Published:2014-04-04
  • Supported by:
    The NSFC-IIASA Major International Joint Research Project, No.41161140352;Major Science and Technology Program for Water Pollution Control and Treatment, No.2012ZX07104-003

摘要: 利用SPOT-5 影像、1:1 万地形图、退耕还林和森林工程图、社会经济统计等数据,分析了重庆市石柱县耕地边际化的特征和发生原因。结果发现:① 10 年间研究区耕地边际化率16.18%,主要分布于七曜山的北部高山区和南部中山区,而且伴随农村劳动力的非农化和留守劳动力的老龄化,边际化在很大程度上还会加剧。② 海拔、地块相对村庄的分布半径和道路连接度对耕地边际化的发生影响较大。边际化率随海拔升高而增加,特别是≥1000 m集中边际化的60.88%,在坡度和地块相对村庄的分布半径上也有类似规律。③ 劳均耕地面积和务农劳均年龄是影响耕地边际化的主要因素,耕地流转和微型农机台数是从适度规模经营、提高劳动生产率上影响耕地边际化。④“比较劣势主导边际化”分布最广,占总边际化的55.32%,其次是“区位主导边际化”,占33.80%。⑤“地形主导边际化”实施类似退耕还林继续扩大的“顺边际化”政策,“区位主导边际化”从合理安排新居点、完善农村道路体系上实施“反边际化”,“比较劣势主导边际化”从提高适度规模经营、微型机械化程度上开展“反边际化”。

关键词: 耕地边际化, 动因, 山区, 政策含义, 特征

Abstract: Based on data sources (e.g., SPOT-5 images, 1:1 million topographic maps, distribution maps of returning farmland to forest and Chongqing forest project, social and economic statistics information, etc.) this paper identified the characteristics and influencing factors of farmland marginalization. The results indicated that: (1) During the last 10 years (2002-2012), the rate of farmland marginalization was 16.18% in the study area. This phenomenon was mainly found in high mountainous areas of northern Qiyao mountain and middle mountain areas of southern Qiyao mountain. Moreover, farmland marginalization, to a great extent, will increase, associated with non-agriculturalization of rural labors and aging of remaining labors. (2) Elevation, relative distribution radius from village and road connection degree had a greater influence on farmland marginalization in the study area. Farmland marginalization rate showed an increasing trend with the increase of elevation, and 60.88% of the total farmland marginalization area is found at an altitude above 1000 m asl. The marginalization trend for slope and distribution radium was similar with altitude. (3) Farmland area per labor and average age of farm labor were major driving factors of farmland marginalization. Farmland transfer and small agricultural machinery sets affected the farmland marginalization in the aspects of management and productivity efficiency. (4) Farmland with "comparative disadvantage dominated marginalization" accounted for 55.32% of the total farmland marginalization area, followed by "location dominated marginalization"(33.80% ). (5) According to the specific real situation, different policies are suggested to mitigate the marginalization as follows: "continuous marginalization" policy will further exert the impact of returning farmland to forest on "terrain dominated marginalization"; "anti-marginalization" policy is suggested from arranging new rural residence and improving rural road system for "location dominated marginalization"; while "anti-marginalization" policy is planned from improving management and micro-mechanization point of view for "comparative disadvantage dominated marginalization". A new idea was promoted by integrating high resolution remote sensing and statistical data as well as survey information to identify land marginalization and driving forces in mountainous areas, and hence solved the scale problem on patches and villages.

Key words: farmland marginalization, characteristics, policy implications, influencing factors, mountainous areas