地理学报 ›› 2014, Vol. 69 ›› Issue (2): 156-168.doi: 10.11821/dlxb201402002

• 城市与社会文化地理 • 上一篇    下一篇

跨国机构与地方共同作用下的城市全球化——德国波恩的案例研究

梅琳1, 薛德升2, Frauke KRAAS3   

  1. 1. 华中师范大学城市与环境科学学院, 武汉430079;
    2. 中山大学城市与区域研究中心, 广州510275;
    3. 科隆大学地理系, 德国科隆90532
  • 收稿日期:2013-04-22 修回日期:2013-08-26 出版日期:2014-02-20 发布日期:2014-04-04
  • 作者简介:梅琳(1982-),女,湖北人,讲师,博士,主要研究方向为城市地理、区域可持续发展。E-mail:meilin@mail.ccnu.edu.cn
  • 基金资助:
    国家自然科学基金重点项目(41130747);武汉社会科学基金项目(13001)

Urban internationalization under joint actions of transnational institutions and locals:The case study of Bonn, Germany

MEI Lin1, XUE Desheng2, Frauke KRAAS3   

  1. 1. School of Urban and Environmental Sciences, Central China Normal University, Wuhan 430079, China;
    2. Geography and Planning School of Sun Yat-Sen University, Guangzhou 510275, China;
    3. Geography Institute of University of Cologne, Cologne 90531, Germany
  • Received:2013-04-22 Revised:2013-08-26 Online:2014-02-20 Published:2014-04-04
  • Contact: 薛德升,教授,博士生导师,中国地理学会会员(S110004311M),主要研究方向为城市地理。E-mail:eesxds@mail.sysu.edu.cn E-mail:eesxds@mail.sysu.edu.cn
  • Supported by:
    The Key Programof National Natural Science Foundation of China, No.41130747; Program of Wuhan Social Science Foundation, No.13001

摘要: 城市是一个动态发展系统,外生和内生的行动者通过互动促进城市发展。跨国机构作为重要的外生行动者,在一些城市的全球化发展过程中产生了重要的作用。案例城市波恩正是在联邦、州和地方政府的权力和政策安排下,创造了跨国行动者嵌入的制度环境和背景,以联合国机构为主的众多跨国机构通过与政府、企业和居民,以及非人类行动者在建立国际合作的共同诉求下积极转译,产生互动效应,为城市建构了稳固而“无缝”的行动者网络。行动者的不同目的和行为方式在塑造网络的同时,也重新建构了城市空间,空间成为检验网络构建是否成熟的一种重要的表现方式。波恩的城市空间实现了从外交政治功能向国际合作功能的转型;形成以联合国机构为轴心,其他机构点状辐射的轴辐式空间集聚;同时,由于资源、信息和所处地位的不同,波恩不同行动者在网络节点之间产生不均等的权力空间。行动者不断的排斥、冲突、协商和融合的过程,促进了城市空间功能不断完善,也致使以跨国机构为核心的行动者网络逐步成熟。通过引入行动者网络理论(ANT),本研究把跨国机构作为重要行动者与城市全球化发展相结合,更深入地解析了城市全球化过程中多重行动者的互动过程。

关键词: 跨国机构, 行动者网络理论(ANT), 城市全球化, 波恩

Abstract: As a dynamic process, urban system develops through actions of exogenous and endogenous actors. Transnational institutions are significant exogenous actors, whose critical efforts for urban globalization deserves more attentions. In the case of Bonn, institutional milieu and situation is created by the power and policies of the federal, state and local government, which is indispensable for embedding of transnational actors. Under the common appeal of establishing international cooperation with government, companies, local people and also non-human actors, transnational institutions such as UN institutions, NGOs, science and research institutions have settled down in Bonn with positive translation and produced interactive effect with them, which creates firmly "seamless" actor network for urban development of globalization. Different intentions and behavioral patterns also reshape urban space, which becomes the way to investigate maturity of the actor network in Bonn. In fact, Bonn has experienced: (1) spatial reconstruction from politics to international cooperation; (2) spatial agglomeration with hub-spoke model. UN institutions as hubs and others diffuse regularly; (3) at first, resources, information and locations of actors are diverse, which shapes unequal power space through the operation of network hubs; With the process of rejection, conflict, negotiation and accordance at last, urban spatial function advances with progressive maturity of the actor network. Through establishing theoretical connection between ANT and urban study while combining transnational institutions within urban globalization research, on the one hand it is broadening the approach of urban study, on the other hand it is also the way to explore more through the interaction of multi-actors during the urban development process of globalization.

Key words: transnational institutions, actor network theory (ANT), Bonn, urban globalization