地理学报 ›› 2014, Vol. 69 ›› Issue (1): 73-79.doi: 10.11821/dlxb201401007

• 水土保持 • 上一篇    下一篇

陕北黄河中游淤地坝拦沙功能失效的判断标准

高云飞1, 郭玉涛1, 刘晓燕2, 何兴照1   

  1. 1. 黄河水利委员会黄河上中游管理局, 西安710021;
    2. 黄河水利委员会, 郑州450003
  • 收稿日期:2013-10-09 修回日期:2013-11-10 出版日期:2014-01-20 发布日期:2014-03-21
  • 作者简介:高云飞(1978-),男,博士,工程师,主要从事遥感、水土保持监测和规划研究。E-mail:gyfcsdn@mail.bnu.edu.cn
  • 基金资助:
    “ 十二五” 国家科技支撑计划项目(2012BAB02B05)

Failure criteria of the warping dams on sediment interception in the Middle Yellow River in northern Shaanxi

GAO Yunfei1, GUO Yutao1, LIU Xiaoyan2, HE Xingzhao1   

  1. 1. Upper and Middle Reaches of the Yellow River Administrative Bureau of Yellow River Conservancy Commission, Xi'an 710021, China;
    2. Yellow River Conservancy Commission, Zhengzhou 450003, China
  • Received:2013-10-09 Revised:2013-11-10 Online:2014-01-20 Published:2014-03-21
  • Supported by:
    National Key Technologies R&D Program, No.2012BAB02B05

摘要: 利用2011 年第一次全国水利普查中4157 座骨干坝数据、1989 年陕北淤地坝调查中1640座中小坝数据,分别计算了1950-2011 年期间骨干坝、1956-1989 年期间中小坝的逐年平均淤积比例,得到截至2011 年,1980 年前修建骨干坝的平均淤积比例基本稳定,平均值为0.77,1980 年后开始逐渐下降;截至1989 年,1980 年前修建中小坝的平均淤积比例基本稳定,平均值为0.88,1980 年后开始逐渐下降的变化趋势,确定平均淤积比例0.77、0.88 分别为骨干坝、中小坝拦沙能力失效的判断标准。利用陕北淤地坝调查数据计算得到的骨干坝拦沙功能失效判断一致;在无定河、延河流域,水文站输沙数据的变化趋势与淤地坝是否拦沙显著相关。最后从淤地坝工程结构的角度,剖析了排水排沙位置的改变是判断标准形成的原因。

关键词: 黄土高原, 淤地坝, 拦沙, 淤积比例

Abstract: In this paper, we tried to set up a new criterion. First of all, the average deposition ratio of the key dams was calculated year by year from 1950 to 2011 using 4157 key dams data in Water Census. The results showed that the average deposition ratio was around 0.77 as of the year 1980 and then decreased; the average deposition ratio of the small and medium-sized dams was calculated year by year from 1956 to 1989 using survey data for 1640 warping dams in northern Shaanxi. The results showed that the average deposition ratio was around 0.88 before 1980 and decreased gradually afterwards. Therefore, 0.77 and 0.88 were considered as the block sediments criterion for key and mid-small sized warping dams respectively. And then, the survey data for warping dams in northern Shaanxi were used for validation for the criterion of key dams and the results are consistent, which confirmed the applicability of the new criterion. With Wuding and Yanhe river basins as an example, the variation trend of the sediment transportation at hydrological stations is highly correlated with that of the warping dams. This paper also explains the formation of the criterion for the engineering structure of the warping dams, indicating that the spatial movement of water and sand drain point is the main reason.

Key words: warping dams, block sediments, deposition ratio, Loess Plateau