地理学报 ›› 2014, Vol. 69 ›› Issue (1): 3-14.doi: 10.11821/dlxb201401001

• 土地利用与土地覆盖 •    下一篇

20世纪80年代末以来中国土地利用变化的基本特征与空间格局

刘纪远1, 匡文慧1, 张增祥2, 徐新良1, 秦元伟1,3, 宁佳1,3, 周万村4, 张树文5, 李仁东6, 颜长珍7, 吴世新8, 史学正9, 江南10, 于东升9, 潘贤章9, 迟文峰1,3   

  1. 1. 中国科学院地理科学与资源研究所, 北京100101;
    2. 中国科学院遥感与数字地球研究所, 北京100101;
    3. 中国科学院大学, 北京100049;
    4. 中国科学院成都山地灾害与环境研究所, 成都610041;
    5. 中国科学院东北地理与农业生态研究所, 长春130012;
    6. 中国科学院武汉测量与地球物理研究所, 武汉430077;
    7. 中国科学院寒区旱区环境与工程研究所, 兰州730000;
    8. 中国科学院新疆生态与地理研究所, 乌鲁木齐830011;
    9. 中国科学院南京土壤研究所, 南京210008;
    10. 中国科学院南京地理与湖泊研究所, 南京210008
  • 收稿日期:2013-07-29 修回日期:2013-11-08 出版日期:2014-01-20 发布日期:2014-03-21
  • 作者简介:刘纪远(1947-),男,研究员,博士生导师,中国自然资源学会理事长,中国地理学会会员(S110001625M),主要从事资源环境遥感与土地利用/覆盖变化及其宏观生态效应研究。E-mail:liujy@igsnrr.ac.cn
  • 基金资助:
    国家重点基础研究发展计划项目(2010CB950900;2014CB954302);国家科技支撑计划项目(2013BAC03B00);中国科学院重点战略部署课题(KSZD-EW-Z-021-02)

Spatiotemporal characteristics, patterns and causes of land use changes in China since the late 1980s

LIU Jiyuan1, KUANG Wenhui1, ZHANG Zengxiang2, XU Xinliang1, QIN Yuanwei1,3, NING Jia1,3, ZHOU Wancun4, ZHANG Shuwen5, LI Rendong6, YAN Changzhen7, WU Shixin8, SHI Xuezheng9, JIANG Nan10, YU Dongsheng9, PAN Xianzhang9, CHI Wenfeng1,3   

  1. 1. Institute of Geographic Sciences and Natural Resources Research, CAS, Beijing 100101, China;
    2. Institute of Remote Sensing and Digital Earth, CAS, Beijing 100101, China;
    3. University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049, China;
    4. Chengdu Institute of Mountain Hazards and Environment, CAS, Chengdu 610041, China;
    5. Northeast Institute of Geography and Agricultural Ecology, CAS, Changchun 130012, China;
    6. Wuhan Institute of Geodesy and Geophysics, CAS, Wuhan 430077, China;
    7. Cold and Arid Regions Environmental and Engineering Research Institute, CAS, Lanzhou 730000, China;
    8. Xinjiang Institute of Ecology and Geography, CAS, Urumqi 830011, China;
    9. Institute of Soil Science, CAS, Nanjing 210008, China;
    10. Nanjing Institute of Geography and Limnology, CAS, Nanjing 210008, China
  • Received:2013-07-29 Revised:2013-11-08 Online:2014-01-20 Published:2014-03-21
  • Supported by:
    National Basic Research Program of China, No.2010CB950900; No.2014CB954302; National Key Technology R&D Program, No.2013BAC03B00; The Key Research Program of the Chinese Academy of Sciences No.KSZD-EW-Z-021-02

摘要: 土地利用/土地覆被变化(LUCC)是人类活动与自然环境相互作用最直接的表现形式,本文采用相同空间分辨率的卫星遥感信息源和相同的技术方法,对中国1980 年代末到2010 年土地利用变化数据进行定期更新。在此基础上,提出并发展土地利用动态区划的方法,研究土地利用变化的空间格局与时空特征。我们发现:1990-2010 年的20 年间,中国土地利用变化表现出明显的时空差异。“南减北增,总量基本持衡,新增耕地的重心逐步由东北向西北移动”是耕地变化的基本特征;“扩展提速,东部为重心,向中西部蔓延”是城乡建设用地变化的基本特征;“林地前减后增,荒漠前增后减,草地持续减少”是非人工土地利用类型变化的主要特征。20 世纪末与21 世纪初两个10 年相比,中国土地利用变化空间格局出现了一些新特征,原有的13 个土地利用变化区划单元演变为15 个单元,且部分区划单元边界发生变化。主要变化格局特征为黄淮海地区、东南部沿海地区、长江中游地区和四川盆地城镇工矿用地呈现明显的加速扩张态势;北方地区耕地开垦重心由东北地区和内蒙古东部转向西北绿洲农业区;东北地区旱作耕地持续转变为水田;内蒙古农牧交错带南部、黄土高原和西南山地退耕还林还草效果初显。近20 年间,尽管气候变化对北方地区的耕地变化有一定的影响,但政策调控和经济驱动仍然是导致我国土地利用变化及其时空差异的主要原因。2000 年后的第一个10 年,土地利用格局变化的人为驱动因素已由单向国土开发为主,转变为开发与保护并重。在空间格局变化的分析方法方面,应用“动态区划法”开展世纪之交两个10 年中国LUCC空间格局变化的分析,有效揭示了20 年来中国LUCC“格局的变化过程”,即动态区划边界的推移、区划单元内部特征的变化与单元的消长等;以及“变化过程的格局”,即土地利用变化过程与特征的分阶段区域差异,清晰刻画了LUCC动态区划中区划单元的消长,单元边界的变动,以及前后10 年的变化强度特征,揭示了土地利用“格局”与“过程”之间的交替转化规律,以及不同类型和区域的变化原因,证明了该分析方法的有效性。

关键词: 卫星遥感, 土地利用变化, 空间格局, 中国, 特征

Abstract: Land-Use/land Cover Changes (LUCC) are a direct consequence of human and nature interactions. China's Land Use/cover Datasets (CLUD) were updated regularly at five-year intervals from the late 1980s to the year of 2010 with standard procedures based on Landsat TM/ETM + images. A dynamic zoning method was proposed to analyze major land-use conversions. The spatiotemporal characteristics, differences, and causes of land-use changes at a national scale were then examined. The main findings are summarized as follows: Land-Use Changes (LUC) across China indicated a significant variation in spatial and temporal characteristics in the past 20 years between the 20th and 21st centuries. The amount of cropland change decreased in the south and increased in the north, but the total area remained almost unchanged. The reclaimed cropland was shifted from northeast to northwest. The built-up lands were expanded rapidly, which were mainly distributed in the east and gradually spread out to the midwest. Woodland decreased first and then increased, but desert area was inverted. Grassland continued decreasing. Different spatial patterns of LUC in China were found between the late 20th century and the early 21st century. The original 13 LUC zones were replaced by 15 units with changes of boundaries in some zones. The main spatial characteristics of these changes included (1) an accelerated expansion of built-up land in the Huang-Huai-Hai region, the coastal areas of southeastern China, the midstream area of the Yangtze River, and the Sichuan Basin; (2) the shifted land reclamation in the north from Northeast China and eastern Inner Mongolia to the oasis agricultural areas in Northwest China; (3) the continuous transform from rain-fed farmlands in Northeast China to paddy fields; and (4) the effectiveness of the “Grain-for-Green” project in the southern agricultural-pastoral ecotones of Inner Mongolia, the Loess Plateau, and mountainous areas of southwestern China. In recent two decades, although climate change in the north impacted the change in cropland, policy regulation and economic driving forces were still the primary causes of LUC across China. During the first decade of the 21st century, the anthropogenic factors that drove variations in land-use patterns have shifted the emphasis from one-way land development to both development and conservation. The "dynamic zoning method" was used to analyze changes in the spatial patterns of zoning boundaries, the internal characteristics of zones, and the growth and decrease of units. The results revealed "the pattern of the change process," namely the process of LUC and regional differences in characteristics at different stages. The growth and decrease of zones during this dynamic LUC zoning, variations in unit boundaries, and the characteristics of change intensities between the former and latter decades were examined. The patterns of alternative transformation between the "pattern" and "process" of land use and the reasons for changes in different types and different regions of land use were explored.

Key words: satellite remote sensing, characteristics, spatial pattern, land use change, China