地理学报 ›› 2013, Vol. 68 ›› Issue (12): 1702-1713.doi: 10.11821/dlxb201312010

• 旅游与社会文化地理 • 上一篇    下一篇

美国《时代》杂志对中国的地理想象——基于东方主义视角的研究

安宁1, 朱竑2   

  1. 1. 中山大学地理科学与规划学院, 广州510275;
    2. 华南师范大学文化地理与文化产业研究中心, 广州510631
  • 收稿日期:2013-05-06 修回日期:2013-09-18 出版日期:2013-12-20 发布日期:2013-12-20
  • 通讯作者: 朱竑(1968-),男,甘肃人,教授,博士,博士生导师,中国地理学会会员(S110001607M),主要研究方向为文化地理和旅游地理。E-mail:zhuh@scnu.edu.cn
  • 作者简介:安宁(1987-),男,陕西汉中人,硕士研究生,研究方向为地缘政治、社会文化地理。E-mail:ning_ann@126.com
  • 基金资助:
    国家自然科学基金(41171125;41201137);广东省自然科学基金项目(S2011010005996;10251063101000007)

American magazine TIME's geographical imaginations of China:A case study on the perspective of Orientalism

AN Ning1, ZHU Hong2   

  1. 1. School of Geography and Planning, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou 510275, China;
    2. Center for Cultural Industry and Cultural Geography, South China Normal University, Guangzhou 510631, China
  • Received:2013-05-06 Revised:2013-09-18 Online:2013-12-20 Published:2013-12-20
  • Supported by:
    National Natural Science Foundation of China, No.41171125; No.41201137; Natural Science Foundation of Guangdong Province, No.S2011010005996; No.10251063101000007

摘要: 伴随着信息社会的到来,媒体如何反映人地关系逐渐成为人文地理研究的热门话题。1970 年代以来,以Said 为代表的西方学者开启了“想象地理”的大门,将后殖民主义研究与地缘政治等地理话题结合起来。本研究援引“东方主义”理论,采用文本分析方法深入剖析美国《时代》杂志对中国地方知识的生产和传播过程,探讨西方是如何通过其话语体系想象和重塑东方世界的。研究的主要结论如下:① 《时代》杂志作为全球地方知识生产和传播的重要场所,建构了中国的国家身份,生产了中国的消极地方知识,并通过读者阅读的过程将其传播;② 在中美既有的二元差异基础之上,《时代》杂志话语权力建构了一种东、西方二元对立的话语策略,将中国与美国分别表述成为落后与先进的形象,并为其政治意图服务;③ 中国作为一个特殊的“东方”文本被西方的话语霸权想象、解构和重构。研究弥补了Said 东方学研究在地理学上的缺陷,从想象地理的角度为国家形象的研究注入新的元素,并对我国国家形象的建构以及更加清楚地认识中美关系等提供具有价值的参考意见。

关键词: 想象地理, 东方主义, 《时代》杂志, 中国, 后殖民主义

Abstract: Alongside the ascendancy of the Information Age, how the mass media restructures human-land relationship has gradually become one of the most influential and debated human geographical subjects. Since the 1970s, western scholars, such as Edward Said who is concerned with the subject of Orientalism, have opened up a field of inquiry concerned with imaginative geographies, and linked geographical topics such as geopolitics to the study of post-colonialism. This article introduces the theory of Orientalism which investigates the construction of Oriental subjects and reflects on how the western world gazes the Oriental world with a view of colonialism. Empirically this paper analyzes the process in which TIME, an American popular magazine, produces and spreads knowledge of China. It employs the method of text analysis, and also discusses how the Occident imagined and re-sculptured the Oriental world through the western discourses. By reviewing and elaborating relevant literatures on China, this article summarizes and analyzes the empirical studies in this body of research. In the first place, as an important place that has been and is producing and spreading global knowledge, the magazine TIME has constructed national identities of China and produced negative knowledge about it. In the second place, the magazine TIME has employed a dualist discursive strategy based on the historical and geographical facts which seem to exhibit naturalized distinctions between China and America. On the one hand, it has described China as an unenlightened Oriental country. On the other hand, it has portrayed America as an advanced nation, and thus finally served the political purpose of the Occident. Finally, China has been imagined, deconstructed, and reconstructed by the Occidental hegemony as a special "Oriental" text. In summary, this article has addressed the absence of Chinese research on Orientalism and has injected new elements in the studies of national images from the perspective of imaginative geography. Furthermore, this article also puts forward some suggestions for the Chinese scholars on research about national images and Sino-US relationship both in cultural geography and other disciplines.

Key words: imaginative geographies, post-colonialism, TIME, Orientalism, China