地理学报 ›› 2013, Vol. 68 ›› Issue (12): 1689-1701.doi: 10.11821/dlxb201312009

• 旅游与社会文化地理 • 上一篇    下一篇

中国入境旅游服务质量时空态势演变与区域影响因素

黄毅1, 马耀峰1, 薛华菊1,2   

  1. 1. 陕西师范大学旅游与环境学院, 西安710119;
    2. 青海师范大学生命与地理科学学院, 西宁810008
  • 收稿日期:2012-12-28 修回日期:2013-10-11 出版日期:2013-12-20 发布日期:2013-12-20
  • 通讯作者: 马耀峰(1949-),男,陕西兴平人,教授,博士生导师,中国地理学会会员(S110001611M),研究方向为旅游规划与GIS。E-mail:myfmx@snnu.edu.cn
  • 作者简介:黄毅(1981-),男,壮族,广西桂林人,博士生,研究方向为旅游者时空行为。E-mail:huangyi@stu.snnu.edu.cn
  • 基金资助:
    国家自然科学基金项目(41271158)

Spatio-temporal-situational evolution and regional influencing factors of the inbound tourism service quality in China

HUANG Yi1, MA Yaofeng1, XUE Huaju1,2   

  1. 1. College of Tourism and Environment Science, Shaanxi Normal University, Xi'an 710119, China;
    2. School of Life and Geographic Science, Qinghai Normal University, Xining 810008, China
  • Received:2012-12-28 Revised:2013-10-11 Online:2013-12-20 Published:2013-12-20
  • Supported by:
    National Natural Science Foundation of China, NO.41271158

摘要: 运用锡尔指数、ESDA、质—量矩阵、Pearson 相关系数等方法,从时序演变、空间关联、质—量态势、区域影响因素4 个视角对近10 年我国入境旅游服务质量进行了研究。分析发现:① 我国入境旅游服务质量整体呈提升态势,中部逐渐赶超东部,西部常年最低。② 省区间服务质量差异存在收敛趋势,地带内差异比重较高。东、中部服务质量势能差转换较好,差异在低值上表现出连续倒U型演变;西部差异高度震荡,服务质量势能差没有实现稳定、渐进式转换。③ 与入境旅游流及收入不同,多数年份入境旅游服务质量未呈现显著全局空间自相关。④ 局部空间相关关系的波动主要由邻近省区一方跃迁造成,多为质量下降型;低值集聚区在西部扩大的同时,由西南内陆向南部沿海扩散。⑤ 东部高值集聚区比重较大,但显著程度降低;中部随着吉林的崛起,形成以其为中心的高值集聚区,显著程度超过长三角;西部形成滇—川、新—青—藏两大显著低值集聚区。⑥ 东部质—量态势最优,但出现数量型粗放发展趋势;中部质量发展好于数量;西部质—量态势日渐堪忧。各省区表现出9 种质—量态势演变类型。⑦ 入境旅游服务质量与接待设施、劳动力供给、经济生活水平等区域因素正向相关,与入境旅游收入及接待量相关关系不强。

关键词: 入境旅游, 时空变化, 影响因素, 中国, 质—量态势, 服务质量

Abstract: To some extent, the development of China's tourism industry originated from inbound tourism. Generally speaking, the tourism industry has been keeping rapidly increasing in quantity. On the other hand, we should pay enough attention to its quality situation which has a great influence on the sustainable development. But through literature review, we find that there are some deficiencies in the related research, such as lack of time-series research, little attention paid to the spatial association and full of one-sided perspective: quantity or quality. As a result, based on the data of inbound tourist's evaluation on the service quality from 1999 to 2009, this paper conducts a research on the service quality of inbound tourism in China, in the view of time, space, situation and regional influencing factors. Research methods include Theil index, ESDA, quality-quantity matrix and Pearson correlation coefficient. Some conclusions can be drawn as follows. (1) On the whole, inbound tourism service quality had been improving in China from 1999 to 2009. The situation of central region had been better than that of the east since 2006. But western region had been in the worst situation. (2) Service quality differences among provinces presented a convergent trend. The percentage of differences in regions was very high. In eastern and central regions, service quality differences presented a continuous reversed U-shaped pattern at low level, while those in western region changed greatly. It can be concluded that the conversion of service quality potential energy difference in eastern and central regions was better than that of the west. (3) Inbound tourism service quality did not show significant global spatial autocorrelation in most years, which was different from the situation of inbound tourist flow and tourism revenue. (4) The fluctuation of local spatial relationship was primarily caused by the quality reduction of neighbor provinces. LL zone expanded from southwestern inland to southern coastal area. (5) In eastern region, HH zone accounted for a large proportion, but its significant degree began to reduce. In central region, as the rise of Jilin Province, HH zone with Jilin Province as the centre came into being and its significant degree became higher than that of the Yangtze River Delta. Yunnan-Sichuan and Xinjiang-Qinghai-Tibet were the significant LL zones in western region. (6) As for the situation of quality-quantity, eastern region was the best, but the quality of some provinces began to decline while the reception number remained large. In central region, the development situation of quality was better than that of quantity. Both the quality and quantity developments were in bad situation in the west. According to the evolution of quality-quantity, the 31 provinces can be divided into 9 types. (7) Inbound tourism service quality was positively correlated with service facility, labor supply and economic living level, but it was not so much affected by inbound tourism revenue or reception number.

Key words: inbound tourism, quality-quantity situation, influencing factors, service quality, China, spatio-temporal evolution