地理学报 ›› 2013, Vol. 68 ›› Issue (12): 1668-1677.doi: 10.11821/dlxb201312007

• 交通与产业发展 • 上一篇    下一篇

中国民用运输机场的可达性溢出效应研究

戴特奇1, 张玉韩1, 赵娟娟2   

  1. 1. 北京师范大学地理学与遥感科学学院, 北京100875;
    2. 斯图加特大学基础设施规划学院, 德国斯图加特70567
  • 收稿日期:2013-01-26 修回日期:2013-10-04 出版日期:2013-12-20 发布日期:2014-03-21
  • 作者简介:戴特奇(1980-),男,重庆人,博士,讲师,中国地理学会会员(S110008061M),主要研究交通地理、城市与区域发展。E-mail:daiteqi@bnu.edu.cn
  • 基金资助:
    国家自然科学基金项目(41001071;41171107)

Using accessibility measures to assess spillover effect of civil airports in China

DAI Teqi1, ZHANG Yuhan1, ZHAO Juanjuan2   

  1. 1. School of Geography, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875, China;
    2. Institute of Infrastructure planning, University of Stuttgart, Stuttgart 70567, Germany
  • Received:2013-01-26 Revised:2013-10-04 Online:2013-12-20 Published:2014-03-21
  • Supported by:
    National Natural Science Foundation of China, No.41001071; No.41171107

摘要: 交通基础设施投资的“利己利人”甚至“损己利人”现象使得空间溢出效应一直是研究的热点。我国民用运输机场经过属地化改革之后,地方政府在机场投资和运营中的作用越来越突出,机场的空间溢出效应逐步受到地方政府和研究者的关注。针对机场所在地辖区和机场服务范围存在空间错位,本文定义某辖区的机场可达性溢出效应为该辖区范围内的机场对周边地区到机场可达性的改善程度,并基于潜力模型和网络分析方法设计了机场可达性溢出效应的计算方法;进而以我国民用运输机场为例,在机场属地化背景下确定了省级和市级两种研究尺度,采用县级数据分别定量计算了我国民用运输机场的可达性溢出效应。结果发现,我国省级尺度的机场可达性溢出较小;市级尺度的可达性溢出差异较大,部分城市机场可达性溢出显著,但空间分布较为复杂。本文还进一步讨论了计算结果对我国机场投资和运营成本空间分担制度设计的启示。

关键词: 溢出效应, 机场, 属地化, 网络分析, 可达性

Abstract: Spillover effect of transport infrastructure is a significant concern to researchers and policy makers, for the improvement of transport infrastructure by the local government in a region will increase the accessibility of the neighbouring regions, which may bring more benefits to the neighbouring regions than to the local region. After the reform of airport localization, the local governments in China are playing more and more important roles in airport investment and management. However, so far in China, there has been little research on the spillover effect of airports. Using the dataset in 2009 and the accessibility measures, this paper examines the spatial spillover effect of civil airports in China. Here the spatial spillovers of accessibility for a given region are defined as the overall increase in accessibility of the neighbouring regions brought by the airports in the given region. Based on the network analysis tools in GIS and the potential model, a methodology is devices to realize the definition. Then we calculate the spillovers of accessibility at province and city scales. Results indicate that the spillover effect of accessibility at the province scale is rather weak. The average ratio of the spillover effect of accessibility at the province scale is only 2.1%. It is much stronger at the city scale and varies significantly. The average ratio of the spillover effect of accessibility at the city scale is 8.1%, and the highest one reaches 55.3%. These results offer very useful information for both planners and policy makers. And particularly, the implications for institution design on the coordination at the city level are also discussed.

Key words: airport, network analysis, spillover effect, localization, accessibility