地理学报 ›› 2013, Vol. 68 ›› Issue (12): 1619-1631.doi: 10.11821/dlxb201312003

• 城乡发展 • 上一篇    下一篇

三峡地区城市与河流关系的时空演化研究

龚胜生1, 林月辉1, 戈大专1,2   

  1. 1. 华中师范大学城市与环境科学学院, 武汉430079;
    2. 潍坊工程职业学院建筑工程系, 山东青州262500
  • 收稿日期:2012-12-02 修回日期:2013-10-01 出版日期:2013-12-20 发布日期:2013-12-20
  • 作者简介:龚胜生(1965-),男,湖南涟源人,博士,教授,博士生导师,中国地理学会会员(S110001186M),主要从事历史地理学、医学地理学、区域与旅游可持续发展研究。E-mail:shshgong@mail.ccnu.edu.cn
  • 基金资助:
    国家自然科学基金项目(41171408);国家社会科学基金项目(11AZD117;12&ZD145)

A research on the spatial-temporal process of relationship between cities and rivers of the Three Gorges Area

GONG Shengsheng1, LIN Yuehui1, GE Dazhuan1,2   

  1. 1. Department of Geography, Central Normal University, Wuhan 430079, China;
    2. Department of Architectural Engineering, Weifang Engineering Vocational College, Qingzhou 262500, Shandong, China
  • Received:2012-12-02 Revised:2013-10-01 Online:2013-12-20 Published:2013-12-20
  • Supported by:
    National Natural Science Foundation of China, No.41171408; National Social Science Foundation of China, No.11AZD117; No.12&ZD145

摘要: 主要采用历史文献和城市沿革分析,对314BC-AD2013 年间三峡地区城市与河流关系的时空演变特征进行宏观分析,结果表明:从时间演变看,战国西汉时期,三峡地区城市主要沿长江干流缓慢增长;东汉隋唐时期,三峡地区城市由长江干流向支流迅速蔓延;宋元明清时期,三峡地区城市沿长江干流调整稳固;民国以来,三峡地区城市主要依托重庆、宜昌两市极化增长;唐代是三峡地区城市发展的分水岭,明清是三峡地区城市格局的成型期,现代则是三峡地区核心城市的极化期。从空间分布看,2300 年来,以城址论,三峡地区共出现过61 个城市,其中71%的城市分布于长江干流沿岸,73%的城市分布于两河交汇处,82%的城市分布于海拔300 m以下的河谷地带,小河流域城市多从河流下游向上游拓展。总体来看,三峡地区的城市发展体现了其由易到难、由低到高、溯江而上的区域开发时序。

关键词: 城市—河流关系, 三峡地区, 长江支流, 长江干流, 时空演化

Abstract: Based on historical documents of urban evolution, this paper makes a macro-analysis of the spatial-temporal evolution of the city-river relationships in the Three Gorges Area during the period 314BC-AD2013. The conclusions can be drawn as follows. From temporal evolution, in the stage from the Warring States to the Western Han Dynasty (475BC-AD8), cities in the Three Gorges Area grew slowly along the Yangtze River Mainstream; in the period from the Eastern Han to Sui and Tang dynasties (25-906), cities there spread rapidly from the Yangtze River Mainstream to its tributaries; in the epoch from the Song through Yuan and Ming to Qing dynasties (960-1911), cities there consolidated their distribution mainly along the Yangtze River Mainstream; and since then, from 1912 to 2013, cities there increased aggregately around central districts of core cities of both Chongqing and Yichang; therefore the Tang Dynasty (618-906) was the turning point of urban evolution of the Three Gorges Area, while the Ming and Qing dynasties (1368-1911) were the shaping stage of urban pattern, and contemporary era (1912-2013) is the polarization phase of the core cities. In terms of the spatial distribution, according to the site of cities, a total of 61 cities at the county level emerged in the Three Gorges Area during the past 2300 years, of which, 71% were distributed along the Yangtze River Mainstream, 73% on the junction of rivers, and 82% in the valley below an altitude of 300 m. Moreover, the evolution of cities in a small watershed usually tended to spread from downstream to upstream of the river. As a whole, the urban evolution in this area reflects the fact that a region is developed generally based on natural conditions, such as from lower to higher altitude and from downstream to upstream.

Key words: Yangtze River tributary, spatial-temporal evolution, Three Gorges Area, city-river relationship, Yangtze River mainstream