地理学报 ›› 2013, Vol. 68 ›› Issue (11): 1527-1537.doi: 10.11821/dlxb201311008

• 环境研究 • 上一篇    下一篇

河南省史前人类遗址的时空分布及其驱动因子

李中轩1, 朱诚2, 吴国玺1, 郑朝贵3, 邵仕训3, 冯非凡1, 王宁1   

  1. 1. 许昌学院城市与环境学院, 许昌461000;
    2. 南京大学地理与海洋科学学院, 南京210093;
    3. 滁州学院地理信息与旅游学院, 滁州239000
  • 收稿日期:2013-02-28 修回日期:2013-03-19 出版日期:2013-11-20 发布日期:2014-01-07
  • 通讯作者: 朱诚(1954-),男,安徽歙县人,博士,教授,博士生导师,中国地理学会会员(S110002572M),从事第四纪地质学研究。E-mail:zhuchengnj@yahoo.com.cn E-mail:zhuchengnj@yahoo.com.cn
  • 作者简介:李中轩(1971-),男,河南渑池人,博士,副教授,中国地理学会会员(S110007772M),自然地理学专业。E-mail:aysylzx@163.com
  • 基金资助:
    国家自然科学基金项目(41171163;40971115);中科院地球环境研究所黄土与第四纪地质国家重点实验室开放基金项目(SKLLQG1208);河南省科技攻关计划(112102310498);河南省教育厅研究项目(2011B170012)

Spatial and temporal distribution of prehistoric human sites and its driving factors in Henan province

LI Zhongxuan1, ZHU Cheng2, WU Guoxi1, ZHENG Chaogui3, SHAO Shixun3, FENG Feifan1, WANG Ning1   

  1. 1. Department of Urban and Environment, Xuchang University, Xuchang 461000, Henan, China;
    2. School of Geographic and Oceanographic Science, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093, China;
    3. Department of Geographic Information and Tourism, Chuzhou University, Chuzhou 239000, Anhui, China
  • Received:2013-02-28 Revised:2013-03-19 Online:2013-11-20 Published:2014-01-07
  • Supported by:
    National Natural Science Foundation of China, No.41171163; No.40971115; Foundation of State Key Laboratory of Loess and Quaternary Geology, Institute of Earth Environment, CAS, No.SKLLQG1208; Foundation of Major Scientific and Technical Plan of Henan, No.112102310498; Project of Educational Administration of Henan Province, No.2011B170012

摘要: 基于ArcGis10.0 平台分析了河南省史前时期的仰韶文化遗址和龙山文化遗址的空间分布、濒河性、空间集聚度等指标。结果显示,18.8%的仰韶期遗址分布在河流的1 km缓冲区内,而龙山期遗址只有16.5%,其濒河性呈减弱趋势。豫西山区、南阳盆地、颍河—淮河地区龙山期遗址的空间集聚度比仰韶期分别增加了0.006,0.016 和0.021,暗示龙山时期的自然条件逊色于仰韶期导致人类活动范围受到局限。遗址密度3-D分析表明,河南地区史前人类活动格局从仰韶期的“单核型”演化为龙山时期的“多核型”。这种空间格局的变化可能与5.4 kaBP降温事件相关,而且龙山期的气候特征与仰韶时期相比显得温凉、干燥,加之农业生产技术的进步和人口增加促使史前人类活动核心区从豫西山区向豫东平原和豫北平原地区扩散。同时4.0 ka BP前后河南地区的干旱、洪水、低温等自然灾害频发亦加速了人类活动范围的快速扩展,并且石家河、大汶口、关中等史前文化类型向河南地区的渗透,造成河南龙山文化类型的多元化和空间分布的复杂化。而全新世早期的裴李岗遗址和晚期的二里头遗址数目较少且均匀分布于嵩山两翼,初步推测环嵩山地区是河南史前文化的肇源地区。

关键词: 河南省, 龙山文化遗址, 古环境变迁, 仰韶文化遗址, 遗址时空分布

Abstract: Based on the ArcGis10.0 platform, this article analyzed the geographic indexes of prehistoric human sites in the Yangshao Cultural Period (approx. 6.9-6.0 ka BP) and in the Longshan Cultural Period (approx. 4.6-4.0 ka BP) in Henan, i.e. spatial distribution, river-orientation, spatial agglomeration etc. Results showed that 18.8% of the sites in Yangshao period are distributed within 1 km river-buffer area, while there were 16.5% in Longshan period, indicating that human activity in Longshan period became weaker at river-orientation. In contrast to the Yangshao period, spatial agglomeration indexes of the western part of Henan, Nanyang Basin and Yinghe-and-Huaihe river basin respectively increased by 0.006, 0.016 and 0.021, which suggested that human activity in Longshan-period was restricted by natural environment. At 4.0 ka BP, Henan was subjected to the cooling events, accompanied by natural disasters such as drought, flood and low temperature, which accelerated the spread of human activities. At that time, the exotic cultures such as Shijiahe and Dawenkou expanded into Henan and complicated the spatial-temporal patterns of human activities.

Key words: Yangshao cultural sites, Longshan cultural sites, Henan province, paleo-environment evolution, time-spatial distribution