地理学报 ›› 2013, Vol. 68 ›› Issue (10): 1432-1446.doi: 10.11821/dlxb201310012

• 时空格局与生态环境 • 上一篇    下一篇

中老缅交界地区橡胶种植的时空格局及其地形因素分析

封志明1, 刘晓娜1,2, 姜鲁光1, 李鹏1   

  1. 1. 中国科学院地理科学与资源研究所, 北京 100101;
    2. 中国科学院大学, 北京 100049
  • 收稿日期:2013-01-21 修回日期:2013-05-21 出版日期:2013-10-20 发布日期:2013-11-20
  • 作者简介:封志明(1963-), 男, 河北平山人, 中国科学院地理科学与资源研究所首席研究员, 博士生导师, 中国地理学会会员(S110000361M), 主要从事农业资源高效利用与区域可持续发展研究, 旁及资源科学的理论探讨。E-mail: fengzm@igsnrr.ac.cn
  • 基金资助:
    国家自然科学基金项目(41271117);中国科学院地理科学与资源研究所战略科技计划项目(2012SJ008)

Spatial-temporal analysis of rubber plantation and its relationship with topographical factors in the border region of China, Laos and Myanmar

FENG Zhiming1, LIU Xiaona1,2, JIANG Luguang1, LI Peng1   

  1. 1. Institute of Geographic Sciences and Natural Resources Research, CAS, Beijing 100101, China;
    2. University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049, China
  • Received:2013-01-21 Revised:2013-05-21 Online:2013-10-20 Published:2013-11-20
  • Supported by:
    National natural science foundation, No.41271117; Strategy of Science and Technology Planning Project of Institute of Geographic Sciences and Natural Resources Research, CAS, No.2012SJ008

摘要: 橡胶林地是东南亚地区主要的土地利用类型,动态监测橡胶种植并分析其时空变化规律,对于区域土地资源开发、生态环境保护以及维护边境安全稳定具有重要意义。本文基于遥感技术实地研究了中老缅交界地区1980-2010 年的橡胶林地分布格局及其时空变化规律,定量分析了橡胶林地的分布特征及其地形因素的影响与限制。结果表明:(1) 2010 年中老缅交界地区橡胶林地面积为60.14 万hm2,占土地面积的8.17%,是研究区最大的土地利用类型。就林地结构来看,橡胶成林(≥10 年) 与橡胶幼林(<10 年) 之比大体是5:7,近10 年来橡胶林地扩展迅速。(2) 1980-2010 年中老缅交界地区橡胶林地已由最初的7.05 万hm2增加到60.14 万hm2,扩展近9 倍,橡胶林地扩张显著。橡胶林地已呈现由集中至分散、由边境向国外,“以景洪为中心、北上南进、西拓东扩”的空间分布格局与地域扩展特征。(3) 中老缅交界地区橡胶种植受地形因素制约,橡胶林地4/5 以上集中在600~1000 m适宜区间,很少超过1200 m;近2/3 集中分布在8°~25°的坡地,极少或很少分布在超过35°的急陡坡;主要分布在南坡和东坡,北坡和西坡相对较少,橡胶种植强度也呈现相同规律。(4) 橡胶林地国别对比分析表明,中国境内橡胶林地在向高海拔、陡坡地扩展,老缅境内具有较大地形适宜空间,有利于橡胶种植的跨境发展。(5) 中老缅交界地区的橡胶种植必将由中国向老挝和缅甸跨境发展,老挝和缅甸境内,特别是近中国边境地区的橡胶林地持续扩张已是不可避免。

关键词: 替代种植, 橡胶林地, 中老缅交界地区, 地形因子, 时空格局

Abstract: Rubber plantation is a major land use type in Southeast Asia. Monitoring the spatial-temporal pattern of rubber plantation is significant for regional land resource development, eco-environment protection, and the maintenance of border security. With remote sensing technologies, we analyzed the rubber distribution pattern and spatial-temporal dynamics with GIS and a newly proposed index of Planted Intensity (PI). Furthermore, we quantified the impacts and limits of topographical factors on rubber plantation in the border region of China, Laos and Myanmar (BRCLM) between 1980 and 2010. The results showed that: (1) As the dominant land use type in this region, the area of rubber plantation was 6014 km2 in 2010, accounting for 8.17% of the total area. From the aspect of rubber plantation structure, the ratio of mature (≥10 years) and young rubber forest (<10 years) was about 5:7. (2) From 1980 to 2010, rubber plantation expanded significantly in the BRCLM from 705 km2 to 6014 km2, nearly nine times. The distribution of rubber plantation showed a transition from a concentrated to a dispersed pattern and greatly expanded throughout Jinghong City and abroad. (3) Restricted by the topographical factors, more than 4/5 of rubber plantation was concentrated in the appropriate elevation gradients between 600 and 1000 m, but rarely occurred at elevations beyond 1200 m in BRCLM. Nearly 2/3 of rubber plantation was concentrated on slopes of 8°-25°, but rarely distributed on slopes above 35°. Rubber plantation was mainly distributed in the south and east aspects, but less in the north and west aspects. Correspondingly, rubber plantation intensity displayed the similar distribution trend. (4) Comparative studies of rubber plantation in different countries showed that there was a remarkable increase in area at higher elevations and steeper slopes in China, while there were large suitable areas for rubber plantation in Laos and Myanmar, which benefited China for rubber trans-boundary expansion. (5) Rubber plantation in BRCLM will expand in the territories of Laos and Myanmar, and the continuous expansion in the border region of China will be inevitable.

Key words: topographical factors, plantation intensity, the border region of China, Laos and Myanmar (BRCLM), spatial-temporal pattern, rubber plantation