地理学报 ›› 2013, Vol. 68 ›› Issue (10): 1401-1410.doi: 10.11821/dlxb201310009

• 时空格局与生态环境 • 上一篇    下一篇

认知地图的空间句法研究

鲁政   

  1. 湖南师范大学资源与环境科学学院, 长沙 410012
  • 收稿日期:2012-07-26 修回日期:2013-06-07 出版日期:2013-10-20 发布日期:2013-10-20
  • 作者简介:鲁政(1975-), 男, 湖南株洲人, 博士, 主要研究领域为行为地理学。E-mail: lz2003lz@126.com
  • 基金资助:
    教育部人文社会科学项目(10YJA760017)

Spatial syntactic analysis of cognitive maps

LU Zheng   

  1. College of Resources and Environmental Science, Hunan Normal University, Changsha 410012, China
  • Received:2012-07-26 Revised:2013-06-07 Online:2013-10-20 Published:2013-10-20
  • Supported by:
    Ministry of Education Humanities and Social Science Foundation of China, No.10YJA760017

摘要: 将意识层面的空间意象外化为可被度量及分析的对象,一直是行为学、地理学、旅游学等学科关注的重要课题。本文主要从构建空间意象的结构而非意义入手,对该领域研究中的两种重要方法,即认知地图法和空间句法进行了比较,意图找到两种方法在空间结构性认知方面的相关性。基于句法空间结构的表达模型,分别就长沙太平街历史街区集成度及其认知地图的调研结果进行了比对,通过真实地图句法集成度与579 份认知地图意象要素出现频率等指标的比较,发现集成度指标与意象出现频率等指标存在较好的相关性。在对认知地图样本进行轴线化转换并比照真实地图的轴线索引后,对真实地图句法集成度与579 份认知地图平均句法集成度进行比较,发现认知地图与真实地图的句法分析在结果上仍有较好的相关性,且节点、标志物两要素的出现频次等指标也与所在街道的集成度存在较为明显的对应性。结论说明空间构形对人们结构性意象的形成有着重要的影响力,认知地图的句法分析对揭示人们空间知识的形成机制具有一定的参考价值,两种方法有相互补充的可能性。

关键词: 空间句法, 空间认知, 认知地图, 结构性意象

Abstract: The topic on the externalization of spatial images of consciousness into the measurable objects is always valued by behavioral science, geography, tourism and other related disciplines. Starting with the structure of spatial images, this paper compares two important methods of this field: the cognitive map and the space syntax. The intention of comparison is to find the relevance between these two methods in the field of structural spatial cognition. This paper firstly gives a brief introduction of spatial diagram of syntactic formula, and compares the two results that are respectively derived from syntactic integration values and imaginable indexes of cognitive sketch-maps. Through the analysis of the correlation between the integration values of real map and the elements' imaginable indexes (e.g. frequency of road occurrence, degree of road accuracy) in 579 sketch maps on the Taiping Historical Block of the Changsha City, a better correlation coefficient has been found between integration value and frequency of occurrence. Then, it redraws 579 axial-line maps based on original sketch maps, finds corresponding road index in real map, and compares the syntactic integration values with the average values of syntactic integration in 579 sketch maps. Therefore, a relatively good correlation coefficient is presented between the above two comparisons. Meanwhile, a significant correlation is also formed between integration values of real map and the imaginable indexes such as nodes or landmarks in sketch maps. The above conclusions show that the spatial configuration has a great influence on the image configuration of human mind. And the spatial syntactic analysis of cognitive maps could be valuable to reveal the mechanisms of how people can achieve the image knowledge of spatial configuration. Furthermore, the conclusions imply the possibility of the combination of the space syntax and the cognitive map.

Key words: space syntax, spatial cognition, configurational image, cognitive maps