地理学报 ›› 2013, Vol. 68 ›› Issue (10): 1331-1343.doi: 10.11821/dlxb201310003

• 城市与区域发展 • 上一篇    下一篇

中国地级以上城市科技资源配置效率的时空格局

范斐, 杜德斌, 李恒, 游小珺   

  1. 华东师范大学科技创新与发展战略研究中心, 上海 200241
  • 收稿日期:2012-07-31 修回日期:2013-02-21 出版日期:2013-10-20 发布日期:2013-10-20
  • 通讯作者: 杜德斌(1963-), 男, 教授, 博士生导师, 中国地理学会理事(S110000210M), 主要从事世界地理和科技创新问题研究。E-mail: dbdu@re.ecnu.edu.cn
  • 作者简介:范斐(1984-), 男, 河南南阳人, 博士研究生, 主要从事城市与区域创新研究。E-mail: fanfei0716@sina.com
  • 基金资助:
    国家软科学研究计划重大公开招标项目(2012GXS1D002)

Spatial-temporal characteristics of scientific and technological resources allocation efficiency in prefecture-level cities of China

FAN Fei, DU Debin, LI Heng, YOU Xiaojun   

  1. Center for Innovation Strategic Studies, East China Normal University, Shanghai 200241, China
  • Received:2012-07-31 Revised:2013-02-21 Online:2013-10-20 Published:2013-10-20
  • Supported by:
    National Key Public Bidding Project for Soft Science Research Plan, No.2012GXS1D002

摘要: 根据科技资源的内涵与结构,利用全国286 个地级以上城市2001-2010 年科技资源的相关数据,应用改进的数据包络分析方法(DEA) 计算出各城市在不同时期的科技资源配置效率,在此基础上,借助探索性空间数据分析方法(ESDA) 对研究期内各城市科技资源配置效率的空间分布格局及演变态势进行分析和探讨。结果表明:① 全国地级以上城市的科技资源平均配置效率一直处于较低水平,且在高低交错中呈现逐年递减趋势,东部地区与中西部地区的科技资源平均配置效率差距逐渐扩大。② 在空间分布上,科技资源平均配置效率与城市群存在较好拟合。从空间的演变格局来看,科技资源配置效率空间自相关显著,呈现出相似值(高高或低低) 之间的空间集聚,空间分布的集聚现象逐步增强,在地理空间上总体差异具有变小的趋势。③ 科技资源配置相对效率的差异是区域发展的普遍现象,它的存在与演变是地理位置、科技资源禀赋、科技环境等诸多方面直接或间接的影响和反映。

关键词: 科技资源配置效率, 改进的数据包络分析, 探索性空间数据分析, 地级以上城市

Abstract: The scientific and technological (S&T) resources allocation efficiency of China's 286 cities at prefecture-level during 2001-2010 is measured from both input and output perspectives in this paper. From an input perspective, employees in scientific research and technical services (ten thousand persons), financial expenditure on science (ten thousand yuan), total social investment in fixed assets (a hundred million yuan) and the number of Internet users (household) represent scientific human resources, scientific financial resources, scientific material resources and scientific information resources respectively, while the number of scientific thesis and the numbers of three types of patents which can be retrieved represent the output of technological resources allocation efficiency. The S&T resources allocation efficiency of each city is calculated by the improved data envelopment analysis (DEA) in different periods, while differences of distribution and change rule of it are revealed from spatial and temporal dimensions. Based on this, the spatial-temporal distribution pattern and evolution trend of S&T resources allocation efficiency in prefecture-level cities during the research period are analyzed and discussed with the method of exploratory spatial data analysis (ESDA). The results show that: (1) the average allocation efficiency of S&T resources in prefecture-level cities has been at low level, decreasing annually in a process of high-low crisscross, and the gap between the eastern and central-western China gradually expands. (2) In the aspect of spatial distribution, S&T resources allocation efficiency in prefecture-level cities remains unevenly distributed, and basically presents downtrend from East China, Central China to West China. The cities whose S&T resources allocation efficiency is at high level and higher level present a cluster distribution, which fits well with the 23 forming urban agglomerations in China. (3) In terms of spatial evolution trend, S&T resources allocation efficiency of prefecture-level cities illustrates significant spatial autocorrelation and has positive correlation in every stage. The S&T resources allocation efficiency of adjoining cities with similar values (high-high or low-low) is featured by spatial agglomeration. The phenomenon of spatial distribution agglomeration is gradually increasing, while the general geographic difference changes in the trend of diminishing. (4) By observing the LISA map of S&T resources allocation efficiency at different stages, we can find that the spatial location and spatial agglomeration range of four agglomeration types of S&T resources allocation efficiency have changed in different degrees with the elapse of time. The geographical space continuity of S&T resources allocation efficiency progressively enhances. (5) Economic development has been found to be positively correlated with S&T resources allocation efficiency to some extent. However, the improvement of S&T resources allocation efficiency does not depend only on economic development. The differences of S&T resources allocation relative efficiency appears universally. Geographic location, S&T resource endowment, innovation environment and other aspects are directly and indirectly influencing and reflecting the existence and evolution of those differences.

Key words: exploratory spatial data analysis, prefecture-level cities, scientific and technological resources efficiency, improved data envelopment analysis