• 2004 Volume 59 Issue 5
    Published: 25 September 2004

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  • YAN Xiaopei, MAO Jiangxing
    2004, 59(5): 643-652.
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    Recently, along with the acceleration of urbanization and motorization, the urban transportation problem has been deteriorated increasingly in China. So the study of the mutual relationship between urban transport system and land use has aroused more and more attention of the Chinese scholars and specialists. On the basis of literature review on mutual relationship between urban transport system and land use, quantitative methods and spacial analysis technology like GIS and RS are cautiously adopted besides traditional methods. This paper studies the mutual relationship between transport system and land use in Guangzhou, a metropolis of southern China, in terms of documents, data and on-the-spot investigation. Firstly, the evaluative characters of the urban transport system and land use of Guangzhou are analyzed through a systematic analysis of the whole formative process of Guangzhou's transport system and land use. The level of transport system is still at a low level compared with the average of the cities in developed countries, and the land use of Guangzhou has the unique highly-densely developed and agglomerated character. Then, the interplay between urban land use and transport system is examined. Through theoretical and empirical analyses, this paper conducts an all-around research on the effects of urban transport system on urban land use, i.e., land use pattern, land exploitation, land price and functional distribution as well as the influence of urban land use on transport system, i.e., transport network pattern, traffic demand and transport modes. Finally, a brief conclusion is drawn that there is interplay between urban transport and land use of Guangzhou. This study will benefit the searching the root of urban transport problems and the solving measures of transport problems certainly.

  • DING Shengyan, LIANG Guofu
    2004, 59(5): 653-661.
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    With remote sensing data and GIS, the classification system of wetland landscape of the region along the Yellow River in Henan Province is established. Using the indexes of the landscape pattern, such as landscape diversity index, landscape dominance index, landscape fragmentation index, distribution centroid and extended dimension, this article presents the dynamic change of wetland landscape pattern from 1987 to 2002. The results showed that: (1) The total area, the patch number and other index of wetland reduced obviously. The total area of wetland reduced 19.18%. The number of patches increased 21.17%, the patch density increased 50%, and the total perimeter length increased 1,290,491 m from 1987 to 2002. (2) Disturbed by human activity, landscape diversity index decreased from 1.1740 in 1987 to 0.9803 in 2002. While landscape dominance index increased from 0.4355 in 1987 to 0.6291 in 2002, and landscape fragmentation index increased from 0.0141 to 0.0172, which means that the shape of wetland was much irregular. (3) During the last nearly 20 years, the total area of the rice wetland increased, while the area of other types decreased. Among these wetland types, the area of the marsh wetland decreased most obviously. In 1987, it occupied 0.5% of the total area, but in 2002, it only occupied 0.11%.

  • XIE Yaowen, CHEN Fahu, WANG Naiang
    2004, 59(5): 662-670.
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    Minqin Basin was once a pastoral area for Hun people in Chinese Qin and Han dynasties 2000 years ago. Since the Hun people were banished and Minqin Basin became part of Han Dynasty, agricultural techniques were introduced. As a result, the quondam pastoral area evolved into an agricultural area gradually. With the acceleration of exploitation, great changes have taken place in the environment. Since then, the fecund land that was once suitable for cultivation and fishery became a scene of "deserts occupying 90% of the area" and "no irrigation, no planting". At present, Minqin Basin has become a typical example of environmental deterioration, and the sustainable development of this area is facing significant challenges. Based on a great many field investigations, the authors made use of integrated data, including historical literature, archaeology, remote sensing imageries and maps, collected extensively evolvement evidence of Minqin Basin about 2000 years ago, reconstructed and mapped the typical oasis distribution of historical times. The result shows that the exploitation of Minqin Oasis, which began in the Han Dynasty, brought prosperity in the Wei and Jin dynasties, declined from the Southern and Northern Dynasty to the Song and Yuan dynasties, rebounded in the Ming and Qing dynasties and reached a climax in modern times. As a whole, the spatial development of Minqin oasis experienced a transfer process from west to east.

  • YU Dongsheng, SHI Xuezheng, WANG Hongjie, SUN Weixia, CHEN Zhicheng, GONG Zitong
    2004, 59(5): 671-679.
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    References between Genetic Soil Classification of China (GSCC) and Chinese Soil Taxonomy (CST), characteristics of distribution of GSCC-Ferralosols in CST were studied, based on 1:100M Soil Database of China. GSCC-Ferralosol is a type of zonal soil with a total area of 1,122,969.6 km2 in China. There are 6 CST Orders referenced with GSCC-Ferralosols, including 25 CST Groups and 53 CST Subgroups, such as Ferrosols, Argosols, Cambosols, Ferralosols, Primosols and Vertosols, in percentages of total area of GSCC-Ferralosols respectively 34.8, 32.2, 26.1, 6.3, 0.6 and 0.04. The reference relationship between GSCC and CST was so complicated that there were no obvious distribution rules for the GSCC-Ferralosols in CST. Results obtained from statistics of references area of the soils in CST show that it is easier to grasp references if the references are all at lower level for both GSCC and CST. Although CST has been finished at high level, it is important and urgent to study and develop the CST at basic level, in order that the CST can be widely used. The result is also useful for soil reference and application of CST.

  • HUA Lijuan, Ma Zhuguo, LUO Dehai
    2004, 59(5): 680-688.
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    Based on China's daily temperature data during 1961-2000, we analysed monthly averaged diurnal temperature range, seasonally averaged diurnal temperature range, yearly averaged diurnal temperature range, monthly temperature range, seasonal temperature range and annual temperature range in different areas of China. The results show that the decreasing trends of monthly averaged diurnal temperature range and seasonally averaged diurnal temperature range in most parts of China in spring and summer are greater than those in other seasons, and weaker in autumn than in other seasons. The yearly averaged temperature range also displays significant declining trends in most parts of China. While the decreasing trends of monthly temperature range are greater at the end of winter and spring than those in other seasons and the decreasing trends of seasonal temperature range are greatest in summer, other seasons have not evident decreasing trends. Yearly temperature range also displays evident decreasing trends in China. There exists an obvious regional difference in trends of them in China. The decreasing trends of monthly averaged diurnal temperature range, seasonally averaged diurnal temperature range and yearly averaged diurnal temperature range are obvious in Northeast China and Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region, and lower than in other areas of southern North China. As a whole, the decreasing trends of monthly averaged diurnal temperature range and seasonally averaged diurnal temperature range are more obvious in North China than in the South. And the decreasing trends of monthly temperature range are more obvious in North China than in the South. The decreasing trends of seasonal temperature range are obvious in those regions lying from Inner Mongolia to Southwest China and the southern part of North China in summer. The decreasing trends of annual temperature range are more obvious in East China than in the West.

  • LIAO Yaoming, ZHANG Qiang, CHEN Deliang
    2004, 59(5): 689-698.
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    Weather generator is an important tool in studying impacts of weather/climate on a variety of systems including ecosystem and risk assessment. The purpose of this work is to develop a weather generator for applications in China. The focus is on precipitation simulation since determination of other weather variables such as temperature is dependent on precipitation simulation. A framework of first order Markov Chain with Gamma Distribution for daily precipitation is adopted in this work. Based on this framework four parameters for precipitation simulation for each month at 672 stations all over China are determined using daily precipitation data from 1961 to 2000. Compared with previous works, our estimation for the parameters is made for more stations and longer observations, which makes the weather generator more applicable and reliable. The spatial distribution of the four parameters is analyzed in a regional climate context. The seasonal variation of the parameters at five stations representing regional differences is discussed. Based on the estimated monthly parameters at the 672 stations, daily precipitations for any period of time can be simulated. A 30 year simulation is made and compared with observations during 1971-2000 in terms of annual and monthly statistics.

  • ZHANG Xinping, LIU Jingmiao, Tian Lide, YAO Tandong
    2004, 59(5): 699-708.
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    Three sampling cross-sections along the south path starting from the tropics through the vapor passage in the Yunnan-Guizhou Plateau to the middle and lower reaches of the Yangtze River, the north path from west China, via north China, to Japan under the westerlies and the plateau path from South Asia over the Himalayas to the northern Tibetan Plateau, are set up, based on the IAEA/WMO global survey network and sampling sites on the Tibetan Plateau. The variations, and the relationship with precipitation and temperature, of the δ18O in precipitation along the three cross-sections are analyzed and compared. Along the south path, the seasonal differences of mean δ18O in precipitation are small at the stations located in tropics, but increase markedly from Bangkok towards the north, with the δ18O in the rainy season smaller than that in the dry season. Along the north path, the seasonal differences of the mean δ18O in precipitation for the stations in the west of Zhengzhou are all greater than that in the east of Zhengzhou. Along the plateau path, the mean δ18O values in precipitation in the rainy season are correspondingly high in the southern parts of the India Subcontinent, and then decrease gradually with latitude. A sharp depletion of the stable isotopic compositions in precipitation takes place due to the very strong rainout of the stable isotopic compositions in vapor in the process of the lifting on the southern slope of the Himalayas.

  • ZHANG Mingjun, XIAO Cunde, REN Jiawen, LI Zhongqin, QIN Dahe
    2004, 59(5): 709-715.
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    During the 1992-1993 joint Australian-Chinese over-snow traverse on the western Lambert Glacier Basin (LGB), two firn cores were drilled respectively at MGA and LGB16. During the 1996-1997 and 1997-1998 austral summers, two firn cores were drilled respectively at DT001 and DT085 on the eastern LGB. Based on the achievements made during the expeditions, the climatic and environmental features on both sides of the LGB have been studied. Results show that during the past 50 years, the trends of both air temperature and accumulation rate show a slight increase on the east side of the LGB, in contrast to the west side of the LGB. The spatial trends of the accumulation rate measured by accumulation canes at 2 km intervals along the nearly 500 km of the traverse lines on both sides of the LGB are different. Moreover, correlations of δ18O vs T10 along the two sides of the LGB are also different. In addition, the variations of sea salt ion concentrations show different trends in the past 50 years. All the evidences show the Lambert Glacier is a dividing region for the different climatic regimes over the East Antarctic ice sheet, which may be due to different moisture resources resulted from the special local circumfluence such as cyclone activities and local terrain influences. The International Trans-Antarctic Scientific Expedition (ITASE) has its initial aim to reveal an overall spatial pattern of climatic change on Antarctic ice sheet for the past 200 years. This study re-confirms the importance of continental to regional scaled circulation to annual-decadal scaled climatic change in Antarctica.

  • LI Lin, WANG Qingchun, ZHANG Guosheng, FU Yang, YAN Liangdong
    2004, 59(5): 716-722.
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    Based on the hydrological data of Tangnag hydrometric station in the upper Yellow (Huanghe) River and meteorological data of this river basin in the same period, this paper studied the influence of climate change on surface water resource in the upper Yellow River. The results show that the annual flow in the upper Yellow River has been decreasing, it is especially more significant since the 1990s; while the climate change in the upper Yellow River tends toward desiccation with the increase of air temperature, decrease of precipitation and increment of evaporation, which is extremely significant in the 1990s. The increase of air temperature, decrease of precipitation and increment of evaporation resulted in the decrease of flow in the upper Yellow River, and among them, precipitation amount is the main climate factor to impact flow. The decrease of precipitation amount, especially its decrease in summer, is the direct cause to make the flow decrease in the upper Yellow River.

  • HUANG Haijun, FAN Hui
    2004, 59(5): 723-730.
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    We have interpreted tidal flats and tidal creeks in 5 typical tidal basins around the Yellow River Delta using Landsat TM/ETM+ images acquired in June 1986 and August 2001. The drainage density and fractal dimension of tidal creeks of each tidal basin were calculated. The results show that a lot of changes have taken place during the past 15 years in tidal zones of the Yellow River Delta. The average change rate of tidal creeks' length in 5 typical tidal basins is -14.9 km/yr, -8.4 km/yr, 2.5 km/yr, 4.7 km/yr and -4.9 km/yr respectively (1986-2001). In the Taoer River Estuary, artificial coastline has advanced rapidly towards the sea (0.8 km/yr) due to the development of oil fields, fishponds and salt ponds. Box-counting dimensions of tidal creeks and coastlines have decreased, which showed that the tidal flats and tidal creeks systems in the study areas are retrogressive except the tidal basins from south of the Yellow River mouth to the Tianshuigou River Estuary and from Tiaohe River Estuary to 106 Station.

  • LI Anlong, LI Guangxue, CAO Lihua, ZHANG Qingde, DENG Shenggui
    2004, 59(5): 731-737.
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    The statistical results of predicting coast change of the Yellow River abandoned delta lobe formed from 1964 to 1976 are put forward using Landsat TM imagery. The velocity of coast erosion or accumulation obtained from four different classic profiles selected were calculated and its change curves with time were plotted. The curves suggested that the regularity of the evolution of coastline after the delta lobe was abandoned is very obvious. It can be divided into three different phases: erosion phase, transition phase and cyclical change phase. The coastline change cycle located in between the two dams is 4 years and that located to west of the dams is 5 years. The analysis shows that the quasi-equilibrium line of coast is located near the coastline of 1996. The coast in the dam areas will recede 1.79 km to reach to equilibrium line. Therefore, effective measures must be taken to protect the dam. But the magnitude of evolution velocity will decrease with the elapse of time and at the same time it proved that the evolution of silty coast actually was a cyclical change process too.

  • DAI Zhijun, LI Chunchu
    2004, 59(5): 738-744.
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    Coastline configuration indexes of 34 arc-shaped coasts in South China were investigated by the method of principal component analysis, and meanwhile deposition and geomorphology features of arc-shaped coast were also analyzed. The results show: (1) Configuration of arc-shaped coast in South China is of the characteristic of variability and complexity. (2) Its decisive factors for the openings of the bay and wave power result in the changes of the configuration of the arc-shaped coast in South China, however, incidence direction for the wave has no effect on configuration development of the coast. (3) Geomorphologic modes of the arc-shaped coast system in South China consist of barrier, lagoon and tidal-inlet. The types for arc-shaped are classified into four kinds as follows: the openings of the bay leaned to east, the openings of the bay leaned to south, the openings of the bay leaned to west and the openings of the bay leaned to north.

  • Xia LI, Anthony Gar-On YEH
    2004, 59(5): 745-753.
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    This study demonstrates that genetic algorithms are capable of producing satisfying results for optimal spatial search under complex situations. We successfully solve a spatial search problem using the proposed method to allocate the facility according to the population constraint from GIS. The search algorithm is very simple using the mechanics of natural selection in biology. The proposed method can be used as a planning tool that can help urban planners to improve development efficiency in site selection. The method is developed by a common computer language which can directly use the full functions of a commercial GA package through the DLL and can import the spatial data from GIS. This integration is useful for solving realistic problems by using large spatial data sets. The programming can be easily adapted to other applications by just modifying the fitness functions instead of changing the model itself. The proposed method has been tested in the city of Hong Kong, a densely populated region. The population data are obtained from the census department and the population density is prepared in GIS as the main inputs to the GA programming.

  • LIN Geng, XU Xueqiang
    2004, 59(5): 754-762.
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    Focused on the influencing factors, such as industry, land use, behavior, traffic, history, and culture, the dissertation explores the formed mechanism of commercial types in Guangzhou and evaluates the benefits of its spatial structure under multi factors. The paper defines the study concepts. Based on the quantity, structure and distribution of land supply in Guangzhou, the paper analyzes the relationship between urban land expansion and spatial structure of commercial types. It is concluded that there is spatial accrete characteristic between commerce and real estate, and the degree of integration affects the developmental level of spatial structure of retail. The paper explores the effect of traffic network on spatial structure of commercial types. Urban external traffic arteries mostly affect the spatial structure of wholesale business, and the internal traffic lines combined with real estate generally lead to the expansion of spatial structure of retail. The authors consider that the demand and tendency of consumers cause the differentiation of function about spatial structure of retail. The paper probes into the relationship of history, culture and spatial structure of commercial types in Guangzhou. It is concluded that the core-fringe structure of traditional business streets, modern shopping centers and storage marketplaces in built-up area of Guangzhou is gradually appearing. Finally, the authors summarize the forming mechanism of spatial structure of commercial types by all factors, and evaluate its benefit.

  • ZHANG Jinhe, ZHANG Jie
    2004, 59(5): 763-771.
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    Based on the theory and method of ecological footprint, combined with the ecological consumption and its structural character of tourist, the paper, taking the Huangshan City as an example, calculates and analyses the touristic ecological footprint and its efficiency of Huangshan City in 2002. Six characteristics have been summarized: (1) The touristic ecological footprint of Huangshan City is 0.106 hm2 per capita in 2002. In comparison, the fossil energy land is about 88.23% of this footprint, tourist transportation and food are the main constitutes of the total footprint, about 55.67% and 33.90%. (2) The ecological deficit of Huangshan City is 0.219 hm2 per capita in 2002. About 48.40% of the ecological deficit is a result of touristic ecological footprint. (3) Extrapolating the footprint of a tourist to Huangshan City (3.13 days) to 1 year, results in an area of 12.36 hm2 per capita in 2002, almost 9 times that of the average footprints of citizens of Huangshan City. (4) In Huangshan City, the average tourist output of 1 hm2 ecological footprint is US$684, 1.17 times the average output of the Huangshan City' citizens ecological footprint, 61.84% that of the world. (5) Dimensions of tourist flows, tourist consumption level and model, tourist spatial behavior, the policy and stratagem of the tourist destination are the key factors to affect the size of touristic ecological footprint. (6) The shift of TEF among regions will result in shift and diffusibility of tourist ecological responsibility, ecological influence and ecological stress among regions in the world, and tourism development may have profound impacts on global environments.

  • XIONG Ying, WANG Ke-lin, LAN Wang-lian, QI Heng
    2004, 59(5): 772-780.
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    Eco-compensation is an environmental economics instrument for internalization of external cost. Lake recovery is one of the important parts of restoring ecological function of the Yangtze River. Whether the project could be successful depends on the compensation to the farmers, who have lost their original benefits and contributed to the ecosystem recovery. The availability of reasonable approaches to settle down the relocated population is a significant premises for the implement of the programs to restore the ecological environment in the middle reaches of the Yangtze River. It refers not only to the provision of basic living space for the relocated population, but also to the creation of opportunities of employment and development for the population. Dongting lake area is an important national commercial agricultural base with high population density. The practical implementation of programs of lake recovery and flood control in this area has been challenged by the heavy task of population relocation, so it is an ideal area to do a case study to reach the academic objectives proposed above. The wetland in Dongting Lake region is the largest lacustrine wetland in China, covering an area of 8.07×105 hm2. This article takes Dongting Lake area as a case to study and explore the basic issues of the eco-compensation, that is who should pay, who should be paid, how much is the payment and payment vehicle. Based on the analysis, the cost of eco-compensation in Dongting Lake area is 6084.6 yuan. In order to realize the eco-compensation, we must improve the compensation of social environment, local policies, compensational measures, and mental situation, so it can provide advantageous conditions to eco-compensation.

  • FANG Chuanglin, BAO Chao
    2004, 59(5): 781-790.
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    Based on System Dynamic Model and the interaction of ecology-production-living system, the coupling formula of water-ecology-economy coordinated development is put forward. Then the coupling model of water-ecology-economy coordinated development is set up. With dynamic simulation and synthetical adjustment, three available precepts are chosen from lots of experimental precepts, such as water-ecology protecting precept (WEP), water-high economic benefits precept (WEH), water-ecology-economy coordinated development precept (WEE). The gross of water demand in WEE is between that of WEP and WEH. And it takes both economic development and eco-environment protection into account, so economic and ecological benefits are both obvious. It is not the best project according to economic development or ecological protection respectively, but it is the best choice to the sustainable development and the construction of eco-economic zone in Heihe River Basin. So the conclusion is that WEE is the optimal one. It can satisfy the requirement of the water-distributed plan for Heihe River Basin which is decided by China's State Council, and improve the benefits of water utilization at the same time.

  • OUXiangjun,GUChaolin
    2004, 59(5): 791-799.
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    This paper employs a number of recently developed economic polarization measures, on the basis of the analysis of the studies on regional economic polarization at home and abroad, and uses consistent data of gross domestic production per capita to quantitatively evaluate the variety characteristics of regional economic inequality and polarization in Jiangsu province since the economic reforms and opening up of 1978 in China for the first time. It shows that regional economic polarization increases with the widening of the regional economic difference. Using a polarization index based on inequality decompositions, we make a qualitative and quantitative analysis of the influences of the regional economic polarization in regional development policy and strategy, township industrialization and foreign direct investment from top-down, bottom-up and exterior of regional development. This paper discusses the factors that account for the changing regional inequalities and polarization in Jiangsu province and argues that the top-town driving factors are likely the most important aspects affecting regional economic polarization in Jiangsu province. Spatially, regional economic polarization in Jiangsu province shows obviously two aspects of dividing from north to south and from urban to rural.