Table of Content

    15 December 1994, Volume 49 Issue s1 Previous Issue    Next Issue
    Zhang She
    1994, 49 (s1):  577-588.  doi: 10.11821/xb1994S1001
    Abstract ( )   PDF (833KB) ( )   Save
    The present article tries to identify and evaluate the major academic contributions to chemical grography in recent years. This paper is outlined in four parts:1. A brief history of chemical geography: (1) During 30-50s’, it was the period for the birth of chemical geography, initiation of the theory of landscape geochemistry, and data accumulation. (2) During 50-60s’, chemical geography was developed and was enlarged, and the theory system was formed and established. (3) After 60s’, chemical geography in our country has entered upon the rapid development periold.2. Research works in chemical geography have made progress in medicine (endemic diseases) in China as follows: the correlative law of elemental composition of organism with elemental composition of grochemical environment; the geochemicl-ecological classification of chemical elements; the type of formative cause of biogeochemical provinces in China; the parabolic correlation between contents of iodine in drinking water and prevalence rate of endemic goiter; succesive exposition and proof of low selenium zone of Keshan and Kaschin-Beck in China; the compilation of the Atlas of Endemic Diseases and Their Environments in the People’s Republic of China.3. Research works on chemical geography have made advances in environmental protection.The main areas of the research were the following: investigation of environmental pollution in some large rivers, lakes, and large cities area (including surounding area), their environmental quality assessment, and comprehensive control; study on the behavior and state of toxic and hazadous substances in the pollutants in air, water, soil and biological materials;study on invironmental background values and environmental capacities of soil and water bodies in China; research on trace elements including REE pollution in agricultural area.4. Prospects for chemical geography in China are briefly discussed.
    Related Articles | Metrics
    Cheng Guodong
    1994, 49 (s1):  589-600.  doi: 10.11821/xb1994S1002
    Abstract ( )   PDF (836KB) ( )   Save
    The progress in general glaciology, hydrology of Glaciers, hazards of snow and ice in Glaciology, and of General Geocryology, Physics of Frozen Soils, and Cold Regions Engineering in Geocryology in the last 10 years has been reviewed. Study tasks for the near future in Glaciology. Geocryology are recommendated. Priority should be given to studying the relationship between cryosphere evalution and climate change, and Assessment of the impacts of climatewarming on water resources and cold regions engineering
    Related Articles | Metrics
    Liu Changmin
    1994, 49 (s1):  601-608.  doi: 10.11821/xb1994S1003
    Abstract ( )   PDF (551KB) ( )   Save
    The author would like to present this paper for celebrating the 85th anniversary of the establishment of Geographical Society of China in 1909. The present article mainly deals with contemporary progress in geographical hydrology study made in recent time period and looking at the prospective future of next century. Dividing into four parts, the author describes:1 the significance and conltext of geographical hydrology, which slightly differs from hydrography and hydro-geography; 2. the achievments of research work on hydrology which have been achieved in recent years since 1908’s mainly include water cycle and water balance, regional hydrology and water resources. hydrological studies on glaciers, lakes and wetlands/swamps, hydrological processes (modeling and transformation of the hydrological states) and environmenta hydrology (environmental impact on water regime and modling). as well as hydrological experitnentation (laboratory and field observation); 3. future prospect for 21th century. Carefully reviewing development trend of research within international extent and according to China’s status, the author suggests some of major research focuses on future hydrology as follows: (1). hydrology will provide a scientific base for future development of water resource management concerned with rapid growth of China’s economy and population;(2). more attention to be paid to global change impacts on hydrology. carrying out research on regional hydrological respones to climatic/global warming in different geographical zones;(3) continuing study on heat and water balance to be cooperated with Global Enery and Water Cycle Experiment (GEWEX), which is a major project of World Climate Progra m (WCP); (4). creating a new field of ecological study on hydrology to be linked with Biospheric Aspect of Hydrological Cycle (BAHC); (5), creating observation and research on Ecotones for interaction between surface water and groundwater to deepening understanding of enviroomental hydrology; (6) enhancing the studies on rainwater utilization to be cooperated with International Rainwater Catchment Systems Association (IRWCSA) to create new findings;(7). finally, a very brief remark regarding the challenges and opportunities in future for geographical hydrologists.
    Related Articles | Metrics
    Guo Laixi
    1994, 49 (s1):  609-615.  doi: 10.11821/xb1994S1004
    Abstract ( )   PDF (457KB) ( )   Save
    This article reviews the resurgent process of human geography in China since the 1980’s.It evaluates the achievements of Chinese human grographycal studies from many aspects, such as the normalization of. the discipline, academic orgnisation building, theoretical studies and publications. The establishment of theoretical system of chinese human grography, dominant disciplines serving for the national economy, development of weak branches of human grography, publication of high leval scientific achievements and training of forward talents leaping over centuries of the discipline are also discussed in this article.
    Related Articles | Metrics
    Tong Qingxi
    1994, 49 (s1):  616-624.  doi: 10.11821/xb1994S1005
    Abstract ( )   PDF (476KB) ( )   Save
    Virtually, remote sensing is the physical measurement of geo process and geo-features on the earth surface without direct contacting with it. In this paper the relationship between geography and remote sensing is described. Remote sensing is an independent science and technology and also is a support technique for geographical studies on other hand. By using of remote sensing the procedure of geographical studies has been essentially changed.During the last decade remote sensing has developed from its experimental stage to the operational stage. As the representative of remote sensing system, Landsat and SPOT satellites have found its wide application in geography, geology, engineering urban planing, surveying and mapping, meteorological, hydrology, oceanography, environmental monitoring, agriculture, forestry and other disciplines. In addition, the meteorological satellites such as NOAA series satellite also have its great potential by its high frequency of repeated coverage of earth surtace.Three important frontiers of remote sensing are described in this paper. Microwave remote sensing and high spectral resolution remote sensing are the most important new fields.Great attention has been paid in development of such new remote sensing fields in the last decade. Microwave remote sensing has its all weather, all time and proper penetration capabilities while the high spectral resolution remote sensing has fairly high spectral resolution with nano-meter (nm) level. Both of them has provided a great potentials for the study of earth surface phenomena. The information about the structure. the soil moisture, the penetration infromation under dry sand and the information about the flooding provided by microwave remote sensing has greatly enriched the knowledge of earth sciences for buman being.With increasing the spectral bands and spectral resolution the abilities of identification of surface materials and components such as minerals and mineral alterations, vegetation and vegetation under the environmental stress have been greatly enhanced. the spectral diagnostic features of the earth objects extrated from the hyperspectral imagery can be used for identification and classification with high accuracy.The study of earth simultaneously and in real tinle base at global scale has become possible only with remote sensing. The dynamic change of drainage. migration of coast lines and water bodies, landuse change, land degradation, desertification, deforestation and biomass distribution. can be analysed and mapped by using of remote sensing. Remote sensing is also in developing with integration and support of Geographic information System (GIS) . Global Positioning System (GPS), Expert System (ES) and other science and technologies. Remote sensinghas shown its broad prospects in the coming decade.
    Related Articles | Metrics
    Liao Ke
    1994, 49 (s1):  625-632.  doi: 10.11821/xb1994S1006
    Abstract ( )   PDF (574KB) ( )   Save
    This paper systematically discusses the developing trend of the international cartography,the newest progress of cartography in Cina and the prospects for the future. The developing trend mainly includes: Thematic mapping is further developing, computer mapping is already widely used in the map production and electronic maps are quickly popularized. Cartography,remote sensing and GIS are combined together to form an integrated scientific and technological system. The integration of computer mapping and the electronic publishing production system changes the traditional procedure of map design and map production. After analyzing the progress and achievement of cartography of China, the prospects for the future are proposed as follows: Thematic mapping develops futher more. Cartography, remote sensing and GIS combine bine togather. Further widen the application area of map products, increase new kinds of maps, and enhance the research of basic theory and application principles of cartography,remote sensing and GIS.
    Related Articles | Metrics
    Wu Bingfeng, Zhang Mingjin, Li Xingong
    1994, 49 (s1):  633-640.  doi: 10.11821/xb1994S1007
    Abstract ( )   PDF (559KB) ( )   Save
    The applications have driven GIS, which is constrained by technical copabilities of current technology in computer and related fields. The applications are driving the operational progress of GIS. This paper reviews the topics which might be studied on components and special funtions of operational GIS. Then it looks to the fundamental issues for longterm survival and acceptance in society.The paper discusses the impacts of the different components of a GIS. The rapid development of hardware/software and increase of user requirement are driving GIS technology to operationalization with following features:(1) independent on platform; (2) interoperability in the network; (3)integration of different data sources; (4 )easy-going in terface; ( 5 ) powerful applied models; and (5) sucessor of data/users.The paper also discusses the impacts of special functions of a GIS. There are many problems that might be solved for leading to operational GIS. They are (1) the methodologies of data updating and fusion; (2) spatial description and simulation; (3) spatial query language.The fundamental issues cover the geo-informaties, incorporation of geo-statistics, standard data modelling, error progration analysis, and temporary dimension.
    Related Articles | Metrics
    Li Jijun, Zhang Qingsong, Li Bingyuan
    1994, 49 (s1):  641-649.  doi: 10.11821/xb1994S1008
    Abstract ( )   PDF (600KB) ( )   Save
    This paper has introduced significant progress of geomorphology in theoretical and practical as well as technical aspects in China in the past fifteen years. As the rapid development of analytic and modelling technique in laboratories and stationary observations, geomorphology in China becomes a real experimental science which deffers from traditional one. Some new method of mathematics and physics are used in to the research work of geomorphology to solve the problems. Chinese geomorphologists have paid more attention to the landslide, mud-flow,water erosion and desertification etc. which closely linked with human activities. Glacier, permafrost,sea level changes and the uplift of Tibetan Plateau, which linked with global changes are all put onto the main focus. Some new branch, such as Tourism Geomorphology and Urban Geomorphology were borne to meet requirement of economic and social development.Main advances in some basic branches, such as Tectonic Geomorphology, Fluvial Geomorphology,karst Geomorphology, Glacial Geomorphology, Loess Geomorphology, Desert Geomorphology, Coastal Geomorphology, Geomorphological mapping are briefly described.As geomorphologists are going to have more and more tasks in the future, to pay more attention to the following aspects may be necessary:1) Training of high quality youth specialists for the 21th century.2) Strengthen of theoretic research work.3) Strengthen of Capability of laboratores.4) Establishing of more observationary and experimental stations.5) Expending of research fields and looking for new focus.6) Public use and advancing of Geographical information system.7) Strengthen and developing of international Cooperation and scientific exchange.
    Related Articles | Metrics
    Zhu Zhenda
    1994, 49 (s1):  650-659.  doi: 10.11821/xb1994S1009
    Abstract ( )   PDF (618KB) ( )   Save
    Desertification is an important envirenmental problem in the world today. According to China’ situation , desertification is land degradation , which means reduction and loss of the biological or economic productivity and complexity of rainfed croplandirrigated cropland, pasture and woodlands by one process or a combination of processes and land use system, including those arising from human activities, such as 1. Wind and Water erosion 2. Deterioration of soil physical, chemical and biological propertics.From this viewpoint, the advance of desertification research can be summarized into three areas.1. Desertification and environmental changes during the historical times. The relics of sand-burried ancient towns and the occurrence of the landscape of undulation sand dunes on the former famous pastures in Northern China are the evidence of the desertification in historical time. It is practical and significant to study the characteristics of the generation and development of the desertification process in history, and to assimilate the lessons from the failure.It is acceptable and valuable to the development and utilization of resources in arid and semiarid zones with a fragile ecosystem.2. The formation, development trend and combatting sandy desertification in Northern China. In Northern China, the area of land desertification is 33 400km2, of which 27% of desertified land is distributed in the east part of inner Mongolia and north part of Hebei Province, and manifested by its quick growth at the marginal of dry farming and steppe and by the harms of sand sheets around dry farming system. 44% of the total desertified land is distributed in the central part of Inner Mongolia and north part of Shaaxi and Shanxi Province,and manifested by rangeland desertification and its acceleration of the spread of desertification at the marginal area. 27% of the total desertified land is distributed in the west part of Inner Mongolia, Gansu, Qinghai and Xinjang, and characterised by dune encroachment at oasis periphery and by the harms caused from reactivation of semi-fixed and fixed dunes.It is observed that 25. 4% of total desertified land is caused by over-cultivation, 28. 3% of total desertified land is caused by over-grazing, 31. 8% of total desertified land is caused by undue collection of fuelwood, only 5. 5% of total desertified land is caused by dune invasion ,and the rest is caused by misuse of water resources and by destruction of vegatation.In consideration of the intenstity of desertification, it can be devided into four catigories:the very severe desertified land covers 10. 2%, the severe desentified land cover 18. 3 %, the moderate cover 30. 5%, the slighly and latently desertified land covers 41. 0% .From the and of 1950’s to the middle of 1970’s, the desertified land had expanded 1 560km2 per year on average, and during the last decade, it has gone up to 2 100km2 per year on average.3. Desertification caused by water erosion. This topic has drawn more and more attention today. Due to human activities such as cultivation on steep slopes, deforestation and so on, desertification caused by water erosion is mainly distributed in such wathering crust area as Gramite, Quaternary red clay, limestone and sandstone. In recent decedes, the area of desertification has inereased. For example, the area prone to desertification increased from 12. 9%of the total territorial area of Jiangxi province in 1970’s to 26. 7% of the total territorial area in 1980’s.
    Related Articles | Metrics
    Wu Jishan
    1994, 49 (s1):  660-668.  doi: 10.11821/xb1994S1010
    Abstract ( )   PDF (448KB) ( )   Save
    Montology is an integrated Subject Which researches on interrelation among the nature,economy and Society of the mountains. Since the beginning of history, human has had the record of mountain research. Nevertheless, montology, as an independent subject, can get rapid advance in the last 20 years. Therefore, it is a very ancient and fairly young subject.During the last 50 years, specially last 20 years, the economy has developed fast and the mountain resources have been exploited in a large amount, as well as the population in many mountain areas increased, with ecology degenerated and natural disasters aggravated. Hence,the researches on the formation and evalution of the mountains, the differentiation and structure of the mountain vertical zone, utiliztion of mountain resources and the patterns of economic development, etc, have been made new advances, as wel as researches on the ecologic crisis and its reasons on mountain, the mountain hazards and its control and the interrelation between the highland and lowland, etc. have obtained new results.According to the needs of the scientific developmentand economic increase. The orientation of mountain research are verifying and research on the relationship between the human activity and mountain ecology and environment are putting out the effective ways to coordinate and develop the economy, society and environment in the mountainous region. Based on the orientation, 7 research tasks are put forward. As a consequence, the mountains that bring up human will bring benefit to human forever.
    Related Articles | Metrics
    Wang Ying
    1994, 49 (s1):  669-676.  doi: 10.11821/xb1994S1011
    Abstract ( )   PDF (409KB) ( )   Save
    As a new interdisciplinary science of oceanography and geography, the marine Geography studies include: the exploitation and protection of ocean environment and resources; marine economy; ocean policy; marine regulation and ocean management; the application and resources of marine sciences and new technology; etc. The third UN Conference on the Law of the Sea (1982) started the processes of revolutionary changes in the role of national jurisdictional zones in ocean management, creating two entirely new zones: the exclusive economic zone (EEZ), archipelagic states and waters, and introducing significant changes to the regimes of the continental shelf and of passage through straits. The coastal countries are thus confronted with greatly expanded ocean space. As a result, marine geography has been grown rapidly since 1980’s. The state of the art concerning the global change is assessed from the dominant development perspective which is party cyclical in the nature, with assessment of the significance of the traditional society, and the concepts of interrelated environment and human global change mechanism. Practical aspects emphasise the primacy of interaction between man and the sea which is the basis upon the technical management system.
    Related Articles | Metrics
    Li Chunfen, Zen Zungu, Tang Jianzhong
    1994, 49 (s1):  677-683.  doi: 10.11821/xb1994S1012
    Abstract ( )   PDF (471KB) ( )   Save
    Works of world regional studies accomplished in China during the past fifteen years since the Reform and Opening to the Outside World are reviewed in retrospect. Advances have been made in breaking through some of the old geographical traditions, exploring new sub fields, expounding fresh ideas and viewpoints, etc. These achievements have paved the way for further sustained development of research orientation. In our regional studies, emphasis will be shifted from vertical intergration to horizontal inter-regional connections with a view to contribution our share in theoretical development and operational application to the betterment of spatial organization of regions. Other aspects such as physical structure of geographical environment, comparative study of Chinese regions with those of foreign identical ones, geography of international trade and that of investment environments abroad, need to be continued.
    Related Articles | Metrics
    Chen Cuankang, Zheng Du, Shan Yuancun, Yang Qinye
    1994, 49 (s1):  684-690.  doi: 10.11821/xb1994S1013
    Abstract ( )   PDF (508KB) ( )   Save
    Concluding the results of physical geography in the aspects of physic-geographycal regionalization,regional physical geography, landytpes and physical geographical process before 1980’ s, the artical emphatically states the achievements in the ressearchs on physical geographical regionalization and regional Science since 1980, sammarizes the charactoristics of each proposal on physic-geographical regionlization and progress on regional integrated researches,and shows the achivements on landtypes dividing and mapping, the progresses in the research of estimating land resources on the basis of landtypes, land potential productivity and population capacity and new expieriences in land exploitation. This article also analyzes the present theories about land and resources structure and introduces the experiences in applied researches of regional production planning, departmental production distribution, land management and regional development.
    Related Articles | Metrics
    Li Xiaofang, Huang Runhua, Cui Haiting
    1994, 49 (s1):  691-700.  doi: 10.11821/xb1994S1014
    Abstract ( )   PDF (658KB) ( )   Save
    This paper reviews the studies on Soil Geography and Biogeography in China and abroad during recent years and looks into the future trends in these areas. Soil geography includes the following aspects: (1) Soil Taxonomy. This paper reviews the worldwide spreading and application of U. S. Soil Taxonomy, the changing viewpoint on soil classification in the former Soviet Union, the revised legend in FAO-UNESCO Soil map of the World in 1988, the contribution of the International Reference Base (IRB) and the World Reference Base for Soil Resources (WRB) , and the greaat effort of establishing the system of Chinese Soil Taxonomy.(2) Soil survey and mapping. This paper introduces the advance in new techniques for soil survey and mapping, the changing mapping units and the progress in soil mapping in the U. S. ,Russia, Canada, and China. The progress in the World Soil and Terrain Digital Database (Soter) is also introduced. (3) Soil resource and its evaluation. This paper points out the current situation of the decrease and degradation of soil resource, the progress and prospects of the study on soil resource in China, and the evaluation and mapping of soil/land resources. Biogeography includes: (1) The progress in Geography of Plant Communities in Britain, U. S.,Erope, Soviet Union-Russia, and China. (2) The achievements of the studies on certain types of vegetation by Chinese scholars. (3) The progress in Floristic Geography in China. (4) The advancements of vegetation mapping and the application of new techniques, such as remote sensing and GIS, in this area. (5) The application of Phytogeography, including the progress in Conservation Ecology and Restoration Ecology. (6) The basic study on Zoogeography in China.
    Related Articles | Metrics
    Chen Qiaoyi, Zou Yiling, Zhang Xiugui, Ge Jiangxiong
    1994, 49 (s1):  701-709.  doi: 10.11821/xb1994S1015
    Abstract ( )   PDF (502KB) ( )   Save
    As a summary of the latest development of Chinese historical geography in the past ten years, the authors narrate and sum up the achievements, shortcomings and trends in the fields of theory for this school, synthetic research, physical geography, human geography, regional geography, compilation and research of historical maps and research of maps and records in ancient time.
    Related Articles | Metrics
    HEALTH,ENVIRONMENT AND DEVELOPMENT ──The Theme of Contemporary Medical Geography
    Tan Jianan
    1994, 49 (s1):  710-718.  doi: 10.11821/xb1994S1016
    Abstract ( )   PDF (635KB) ( )   Save
    The paper states the opinion that“health, environment and development” is the theme of contemporary medical geography based on the view of the historic development and the research situation of medical geography and its tendence in home and abroad. However, the development is imbued with the timely significance and feature for the theme. Then the authorpresents the basic problems in the research situation of the current medical geography i. e.health (disease) spatial defferentiation, health and environment, health and development,health and geo-ecosystem, health and globle change, health and nutrition/food chain and health and work/live environment. The research task and direction of the medical geography in China has been prospected, too, after the evaluation of the research situation and the intention of medical geography.
    Related Articles | Metrics
    Zhang Peiyuan
    1994, 49 (s1):  719-722.  doi: 10.11821/xb1994S1017
    Abstract ( )   PDF (251KB) ( )   Save
    The author suggests that the studies on climate change and its coordinating relationships,between ecological sphere and agricultural activities as the priority objectives of geography. So the archivements and shortages of these studies for the last two or three years were discussed and a brief prospects for the further studies were suggested.
    Related Articles | Metrics
    Liu Daidao
    1994, 49 (s1):  723-728.  doi: 10.11821/xb1994S1018
    Abstract ( )   PDF (421KB) ( )   Save
    In this paper the author puts forward that the development of geography is stepping into a new stage. The study on regional sustainable development has become a active field and the frontier of geographical research. Geographical researchers, especially economic geographers should take the subjects about how to coordinate socioe-eonomic development and ecological environmental protection as a major research orientation, to take revealing the interaction machanism between two groups of factors of development and environment as important research contents, and thus to study and give answers to the strategic issues concerning China’s middleterm and long-term development. In addition, the characteristics of human and natural regional system and some research methodologies about regional sustainable development have been elucidated in the paper.
    Related Articles | Metrics
    She Zhixiang
    1994, 49 (s1):  729-736.  doi: 10.11821/xb1994S1019
    Abstract ( )   PDF (540KB) ( )   Save
    The Changjiang River, attaining a whole length of more than 6 300km, is the first largest river in this country and the third one in the World. Its basin covers an area of 1 800 000 sq.km,accounting for one-fifth of the total area and one-third of the total population of the whole nation respectively. Both its total industrial and agricultural output of those value and the output avlue from staple farm produce occupy roughly 40% of the whole nation. The Changjiang River’s discharge to be annually emptied into the sea attains 960 billion cubic meters on the average, a figure that is 39% of the total volume of surface water resources in this country. In this river basin, there are varied land resources, rich kinds of mineral resources and wellreputed scenic spots and tourism resources, all giving expression to its tremendous potentialities in exploitaion.This river basin has consistently played a weight-carrying role in the development of socioeconomy in this country and is pushing forward from its delta toward the middle and upper reaches in the wake of the open-door policy along the coastal area. In the entire Chngjiang River basin, exploitation and opening to the outside world has begun to gain momentum and has truned into a powerful motive force in the future econmic development.So far as known, the Asia-Pacific area has now become the key point in the economic growth of the world. Since this river basin enjoys the superiorities of both various natural resources and socio-economy, it will be the most important region for our country to join in the world’s economic development. It is Due to the vast extent in scope of the river basin that in terms of economic development and industrial distribution, we should select an economic zone along the Changjiang River’s mainstream, capable of achieving beneficial result and bringing along the whole basin so as to form a major component part in China’s transcentury economydevelopment strategy.In China’s geographical circles, studies in the fields of natural sciences and humanitiesalong the Changjiang River basin have been made earlier in records and in many respects, witha sizable amount of contributions being published. In the coming studies, stress should be placed systematically and emphatically on such aspects as locational conditions, investment environment as well as those basic facilities and infrastructures like resources, ecology and environment, productive arrangement, traffic, communications in the Changjiang River’s economic zone and its basin respectively in the process of exploitation and opening to the outside world.
    Related Articles | Metrics
    Xu Zice
    1994, 49 (s1):  737-741.  doi: 10.11821/xb1994S1020
    Abstract ( )   PDF (339KB) ( )   Save
    In this paper, the present situation of the geographic studies in the coastal open areas is discussed, during the period of 15 years in which the opening policy has been adopted. The following tasks have been proposed in the paper for the future studies:(1) The research works should be carried out according to the needs of constructions in these areas.(2) Attentions should be paid to theoretic studies.(3) New problems which occur during the opening process should be studied
    Related Articles | Metrics