• 1994 Volume 49 Issue 3
    Published: 15 May 1994

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  • Liang Shan
    1994, 49(3): 198-202.
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    The paper gives an overview of the principles of editing and social benefits of the《Acta Geographica Sinica》 for the last fifteen years. It points out that the Journal has gained the ″Dragon Head″and ″dragon Tail″ effects in Geographic research and practice and played the part in stimulating the development of geographic science. The essential factors attributed to the dual effects are also analysed.
  • Fan Jie, Li Wenyan, Wu Wei
    1994, 49(3): 203-213.
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    The Bohai Sea Rimland (BSR) includes Beijing and Tianjin Municipalities and Hebei. Liaoning and Shandong Provinces. Compared with other regions of China, this region’s comparative advantages are mainly: (1) the national political and scientific and technological center and the most important hub of information, finance and transportation and communication: (2) the superior combination of mineral resources and sound foundation of iron and steel industry, petro-chemical and saltbased chemical industry, heavy-duty machinery industry and textile industry. However, the current regional industrial structure is still in the lower stage of economic development and the industrial allocation needs to be improved by making full use of the locational advantage of coastal belt.Through a comparative analysis between Central Liaoning and East Shandong, it can be seen that the latter as the most vigorous developing area in BSR has exceeded the former in terms of total industrial output value. The main reason is that the big difference between these two region’s industrial systems has led to a different intensity of opening to the outside world and different features of external input/output linkages.The coastal belt, occupying 32% of BSR’s population, contributed 38. 6% of BSR’s GNP and 41. 2 % of the industrial output value in 1990.It is a fundamental and strategic measure to make the coastal belt of BSR an agglomerated zone with a strong economic power and a forward position in the north part of China in enhancing economic and technological exchange and cooperation with foreign countries. In the authors’ opinion.the implication of its sustainable development are: (1)to intensify the role of various levels of central cities. particularly Tianjin, Dalian and Qingdao as the most important regional economic centers with international significance, (2) to develop the economy of low-valley areas in coastal belt. mainly the Liaohe River Delta. West Coast of Bohai Sea and Yellow River delta. (3) to plan and implement the allocation of Sea-oriented industries and (4) to form a Bohai-Sea coastal industrial zone by rational use of coastal line according to marine-economic regionalization.The key points of the industrial development strategy of the BSR include: a) to Learn from the good experience of south coastal China, to increase the dynamics of the opening door policy of the coastal areas of the BSR, to develop new patterns of opening door to the outside world. b) to eastblish water-saving industrial zonesl; c) to speed up the development of marine resources and marine industrial group; d) to speed up the development of the tertiary industry. new and high-tech industries. engineering and electronics industries marinly automobiles, integrity of mechanical, electronics, and instrument-making industries including numerical controlled machine tool, precision machine tool, and automatic. intelligent apparatus and instruments. large complete sets of equipments and heavy machine making industries Concerning metallurgy. mine engineering, and petrochemical.investment-concentrated electronics industry including integrated circuit, computer, and so on.
  • Fei Hongping
    1994, 49(3): 214-225.
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    Although the researches into the industrial belt which was regarded as a complete regional system at macro-level have been attractive to many geographers, yet the microlevel studies on the industrial belt have so far been completely neglected. The purpose of this paper is to transfer the insights and findings of micro-level analysis of enterprise to the more aggregate macro-level situation ,and to extend this enterprise approach to the aggregate micro-level changes of the Industrial Belt.The paper attempts to combine the enterprise approach with a regional approach by examining the spatial delimitation of an industrial belt. This paper in this issue is arranged around three main sections. We attempt to explore the concept of the industrial belt and the theoretical foundation of its spatial delimitation. The author suggests that an industrial belt is composed of heterogeneous unit,but these spatial units are closely interrelated with each other. The functional interconnections are most clearly visible. Enterprise linkages, long distinguished as important location determinants, are suggested to be used for defining the spatial boundaries of an industrial belt. This is followed by an examination of the problems of the procedure measuring the different division,a set of criteria,and a method for evaluating alternative aggregations with an emphasis on the significance for the industrial belt with the material, service and contact linkages of industrial enterprises or enterprise groups. The spatial delimitation of an industrial belt can be viewed as the problem of how to a aggregate sub-areas into regions. The enterprise and enterprise group were incorporated as the key unit of investigation at the micro-level and a significant dimension in industrial and regional economic analysis. Using the data derived primarily from questionnaire and interview surveys conducted in a representative sample of 490 large and mediumsize industrial enterprises and 30 enterprise groups throughout the Region in 1991, We determined the spatial delimitation of the Industrial Belt along the Qingdao-Jinan Railway. Multivariate ordination techniques are employed to assess the combined influence of various linkages on this Industrial Belt.According to the spatial differentitation of the degrees of linkages of materials,information,services,personnels,transportation and commercials between these spatial units, the Industrial Belt along the Qingdao-Jinan Railway is divided into the three different spatial types as follows:(1)very closely linked region,(2)closely linked region,and (3) semi-Closely linked region.On the basis of these findings,it is suggested that this study should attempt not only to provide a new approach to economic regionalization, but also to provide more evidence for allocation and planning of the Industrial Belt along the Qingdao-Jinan Railway.
  • Cheng Chuankang
    1994, 49(3): 226-235.
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    Modern geography mainly researches the chronicle and spatial development order of regional characters and differentiation about “earth’s substance” and “earth’s phenomena” on epigeosphere.Starting with foods and dishes as earth’s substance; while dietary culture as earth’s phenomena,this paper expounds the chronicle and spatial development order of the regional characters and differentiation about Chinese dietary culture after studying the territorial differentiation of dietary culture,formation of cuisine systems (diet set) and comparative researches on Chinese four main diet sets.All of this will promote and guide the dissemination and management for chinese dietary business.Different regional diet customs and cuisine skills, which forms their own corresponding diet set. banquet style and mass collation, together with the local habits to various tastes, contribute the culture of chinese diet.Diet set refers to those local diet in restaurants (even for banquet), selected from rural diet and common daily diet with local unusual tastes, Local diet, while it is cooked other than where it is from. could be innovated somehow, e. g. Shandong cuisine in Beijing style, Guangdong cuisine in Hongkong style. Chaozhou cuisine in Thailand style. in the development of diet set. super executive chief explores new diets. Meanwhile, traditional rural diet and common dialy diet (esp. mass collation on the street. with specific cooking process and tastes) gets popular, as a result, some rural diet joins in local diet set, In general, diet set contains various styles of rural diet, local diet, external taste diet, newly innovated diet.Taste of diet set is the essential for the diet culture. The four most popular chinese diet set,generaly divied into seasoned taste cuisine and original taste cuisine, tastes strongly and clearly salted and fresh, generaly dressed with paste, fermented soya beans, green chinese onion and garlic.Sichuan cuisine. also as seasoned taste cuisine. emphasizing on piquant and funny tastes . bears heavy subsidiary soup. the outer and inner of the main ingredient both get seasoned, and different cuisine tastes quite different. Yue cuisine, as the main branch of Guangdong cuisine, cares native taste. light and live, and the subsidiary soup seasons in a way of cooking and baking. Chaozhou cuisine. as subbranch of Guangdong cuisine. cares more light and native tastes. using brine instead of paste, as well as subsidiary soup, each dish has its condiment companied. so that attends could take as much they prefer. Weiyang cuisine emphasizes on native tastes and well-done. Yue cuisine prefers sweet. it cooks sweet cuisine and salt cuisine seperately. With regard to Weiyang cuisine (esp. its branch of Wuxi cuisine). seasoning always be sugar. so its salt cuisine also has sweet taste.As a result of historical communication, diet set is mixed up gradually. e. g. Qing & Han royal dynasty feast, which is the luxurious banquet for emperor. high officiais and noble lords, mixed up the flavour of the Man (Manzhou) nationality. Beijing cuisine. Shandong cuisine and Weiyang cuisine. Nowaday, the menus in the People’s Hall carry on this mixed style of diet to fit various attends.In fact. people prefer more pure flavour of local diet set. Since the open policy in the mainland of China, Sichuan cuisine once extends all over China and dominates in low and middle level restaruant. Yue cuisine extends northward and becomes popular all around. dominating middle and hight level market. and Chaozhou cuisine, as a new force suddenly coming to the fore. becomes the most popular high level diet. dominating the high level market in Beijing and Shanghai. Shandong cuisine retreats in defeat again and again and falls into middle and low level diet. Menwhile, Weiyang cuisine takes no action. still distributes within the Provinces of Jiangsu, Shanghai and Anhui. If Weiyang cuisine innovates something like the morning tea candy of Yue cuisine, and explores medical diet and delicacies from land and sea, it is possible that Weiyang cuisine join into h
  • Lu Lin
    1994, 49(3): 236-246.
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    Some famous mountains have become important resorts in our country. With the dozen years development, the tourist flows in them are considerable. The importance of the study on the tourist flows is remarkable.The author has made much on-the-spot investigation on the tourist flow in the Huangshan Mountain and obtained abundant the first- hand information He has made deep and detailed researches and brought forward some points: the tourist flows in mountain resorts increase rapidly.but accidental factors can interfere with them more easily. The flows have a obvious seasonal difference. Every year the peaks of the flows are very distinct. In the typical sightseeing mountain resorts, the peaks of the flows are genenally on lst May and ist Octorber, but in the religious mountain resorts, the peaks are always on religious festivals. The rate and hour distribution of the flows on the sight spots are determined by their value, function and location on the sightseeing routes.The space moving models of the flows are mainly restricted by the sightseeing routes, the value of sight spots and the cableways.At present. more and more tourists come to the famous mountains. but the tourist results are not very good. The tourist pollution appears at different degrees. among all the pollution, the tour rubbish is the most dangerous.It can be predicted that the tourist flows in mountain resorts will grow, but the spaces of the mountains are limited. So, it is very important to deal with the between the development of the flows and the mountain limit spaces. The author has following conflict suggestions to exploit new sight spots, to improve the sightseeing routes to decrease the flows seasonal difference. to make the flows move quickly and meanwhile to strengthen the cleaning of the tour rubbish. Finally, considering the limitation of the mountain tour environment, the system for the evaluation of the tour environment quality and the actual quantitative targets shall be established so as to supervise and protect the environment more effectively.
  • Zhu Xueyu, Zhu Guorong, Wu Chunyin, Wang Heping, Gao Ming
    1994, 49(3): 247-257.
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    A coupled model of finite element method with linear programming was used for the management of karst-fracture water resource in Linzi District of Zibo Municipality, Shandong Province.
  • Hou Jianjun, Han Mukang
    1994, 49(3): 258-265.
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    In order to identify the Holocene activity of the buried tectonic structures in the down-faulted Weihe basin. Northwest China (Fig. 1) , the authors conducted a semi-quantitative morphotectonic study by using a special method of morphometric analysis of the drainage density on topographic maps (1: 50000) of the whole basin, created by themselves, in combination with interpretation of satellite imagery and field investigation.This method of morphometric analysis involves 1. By using the grid network on the large-scale topographic map to measure the value of drainage (rivulet. stream and river) length in per unit area such as 9 ((from 3 ? 3) . 25 (from 5 ?5) or 100 (from 10 ? 10) sq. km, which is the drainage length density. and the value of drainage area (length ? width of rivulet, stream and river) in per unit area , which is the drainage area density. 2. To use these values as two kinds of point values, to plot them respectively on two small-scale topographic maps (1 : 50000) . then to link them by isolines respectively on these two maps, and eventually to obtain two kinds of specific maps. One of them is called the map of drainage length density (Fig. 2) and the other is called the map of drainage area density (Fig. 3) 3. To analysis the geomorphic expressions of the Holocene activity of buried tectonic structures in the form of uplifting, subsiding, block-faulting, tilting etc. , according to the figuration and patterns of those two kinds of isolines. 4. To identify the activation mode. pattern and intensity of the buried tectonic structures in the recent Holocen time by the combination of analysing the geophysical. geological and geodatic data, interpreting satellite imagery and aerophotograph, and field checking.The method of morphometric analysis of drainage density is based on the following principle: In the subsiding region, especially during its early stage of subsidence while the intensity of subsidence being equal to or less than that of deposition. water currents will flow slowly. causing the growth of tributories and the formation of well developed drainage network. That will result in the increase of total length of drainage in per unit of area, which is the value of drainage length density. In the subsiding region during its middle or late stage while the intensity of subsidence is large than that of deposition, river courses will become much wider and will develop meandring. That will lead to an increase of the total drainage area in per unit area, namely the value of drainage area density. but the drainage length density may be somewhat reduced.In the uplifting region, especially during tis early stage while the intensity of uplift is larger than that of river downcutting. the stream and river will rapidly deepen and narrow their courses.some of them will decline and even disappear. That will result in formation of a scattered drainage network. Therefore. in this case the drainage length density will significantly decline. However, in the region with uplifting during its middle or late stage while the intensity of uplift is equal to or less than that of river downcutting, a new gully and rivulet network will develop on the margin around an uplifting block due to their backward recessive erosion. That will lead to the formation of some radial and more densely drainage pattern with many narrow and downcutting rivulets. In such cases, the drainage length density may become much higher. producing a false image of tectonic subsiding. But such an image can be precluded by analysing the map of drainage area density (Fig. 3) . because in this region all the river courses in the uplifting area are very narrow, taking up only a rather smaller area and hence the value of drainage area density dn the map is small. Thus, in order to clarify the true status of tectonic activity in such a region. it is very important to compare the above -mentioned two kinds of maps.The results obtained by this study are well supported by the data of drilling holes and repeated geodatic surveying as well as the isopath amp of Quate
  • Qian Yongfu, Huang Yuanyuan
    1994, 49(3): 266-274.
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    A modified version of the sellers energy balance model is used in this paper to simulate the effects of ozone. clouds and aerosols on the zonal mean sea-level temperatures. Some interesting conclusions are obtained according to the analyses of the simulated results.The main points are as follows:The sea-level mean temperatures will decrease when the concentration of ozone in the stratosphere increases. However, it is not the case that the more the ozane concentration, the larger the decrease of temperature is. The amplitudes of the tamperature decreases will become smaller when the ozone concentration increases by two times or more. This is because that the absorption of soalr radiation by ozone will be saturated, while the green house effect of ozone will be continuously increasing. Temperatures will rise up when the concentration of ozone is reduced by half. Temperature changes are all less than of equal to 0. 8℃.Temperatures will also decreass when the cloudiness increases. the high clouds induce the largest temperature drop. and the middle clouds the second and the low clouds have smallest The temperature changes are within the range of 1. 8 ℃ to 4. 2 ℃. Therefore, the albedo effect of clouds is stronger than the green house effect. Because of the large optical thickness of clouds, the direct light of solar radiation can not bedistinguished, therefore, the results with the direct light and without it are basically the same.When aerosols increase in the atmosphere, the mean sea-level temperatures decrease, too. The stratospheric aerosols have less effect on the temperature drops. and the values of drops are within 0. 5 ℃ . The values of temperature decreases induced by the land aerosols are between 0. 8 ℃ and 2.0℃ . The temperature drops will be one order larger if the direct and the indirect lights are not distinquished.Whether temperatures increase or decrease. the temperature change in the equatorial area is always smaller than that in the polar areas, and change in the south pole is larger than that in the north pole. Because of the above situation, when the temperatures decrease. thetemperature difference between the equator and the poles will increase. hence the meridional components of velocity,the pole-ward transfer of the sensible heat in the atmospnere and oceans will all increase. However.the poleward transfer of the latent heat will decrease. The case will be totelly opposite when temperatures increase.