Using the data of global COVID-19 vaccine development, ordering, donation and vaccination, and through GIS and other technical methods, this paper depicts the development, circulation pattern and their dynamics of global COVID-19 vaccine. In order to provide a cognitive basis, this paper further discusses the spatial and temporal differentiation of global COVID-19 vaccination. The conclusions are as follows: (1) The global development pattern of COVID-19 vaccine is not balanced, with three cores in Western Europe, North America and Asia as a whole. Among them, the United States, China and the UK are the representative countries for the development of COVID-19 vaccine. (2) In the early stage, the global COVID-19 vaccine ordering was mainly distributed among developed countries in Western Europe and North America. Nevertheless, with the continuous expansion of the global ordering network, the ordering of COVID-19 vaccine has gradually expanded to Asian, African and Latin American countries. On the whole, the global COVID-19 vaccine ordering has formed two expansion modes, including directed expansion and non-directed expansion. (3) China and the United States are the two core countries of the global COVID-19 vaccine donation network. The United States mainly donates vaccines to Southeast Asia, South Asia, Latin America and other countries that have close relationship with the United States. China mainly donates vaccines to South Asia, Southeast Asia, West Asia and Africa. The donation of COVID-19 vaccine is mainly affected by the contact and relationship between countries, the national strategies and the need to fulfill international obligations of donor countries, but their focuses are different. (4) The development, ordering and donation pattern of global COVID-19 vaccine determines the evolution of global vaccination pattern. The vaccination process in developed countries in Western Europe and North America is ahead of most Asian, African and Latin American countries, but the gap is gradually narrowing. China's vaccination rate has jumped from a higher to the highest level, making China a representative of developing countries.