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Table of Content

    25 February 2009, Volume 64 Issue 2 Previous Issue    Next Issue
    Coupling Industrial Location with Urban System Distribution:A Case Study of China's Luoyang Municipality
    FAN Jie, WANG Hong-yuan, TAO An-jun, XU Jian-hong
    2009, 64 (2):  131-141.  doi: 10.11821/xb200902001
    Abstract ( 660 )   PDF (1787KB) ( 822 )   Save

    The coupling of industrial location and urban system distribution is beneficial both to industrial growth and urban development. This paper is a case study discussing the importance and process of coupling industrial location with urban system distribution. Our study indicates that location choices of industrial enterprises have been influencing the evolvement of Luoyang's urban system since 1953 and location orientations of large industrial firms would be the key determinants of urban distribution in the future. We therefore investigate location orientations of different divisions of large industrial firms, mainly by interviews with their executives and questionnaire survey. The result of investigation shows that the intending location choices of industrial firms are mostly short-term benefits oriented and would not couple with the anticipant pattern of urban distribution, which might sabotage the long-term development of both industrial firms and urban system. Therefore, we propose that suppliers of large industrial firms should be located in county towns about 30 km away from Luoyang City, which are the anticipant locations of urban development. In that case, industrial location would be coupled with the ideal pattern of urban distribution, which would maximize the service function of urban system and facilitate long-term urban and industrial development. Our study also shows that it is possible to change the location orientations of supplier of large industrial firms to county towns 30 km away from Luoyang City, if necessary measures were taken by local government, such as building expressways connecting Luoyang City and county towns, reducing the land price of county towns by government subsidies and reinforcing county towns' strengths on service ability and infrastructure conditions.

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    Manufacturing Industry Enterprises Location Choice and the Urban Spatial Restructuring in Nanjing
    LU Weiguo, CHEN Wen
    2009, 64 (2):  142-152.  doi: 10.11821/xb200902002
    Abstract ( 864 )   PDF (1799KB) ( 843 )   Save

    The intra-urban location behavior of mamufacturing industry is one of the key driving forces for urban restructuring. Most of the studies have focused on the factors affecting the enterprises location choice. Unlike the existing literature, this study highlights the spatial effect of enterprises location choice on the urban restructuring. Based on the establishment of an analytic framework, this paper discusses the relationship between manufacturing industry enterprises location choice and the urban spatial restructuring in Nanjing. Firstly, this paper analyses a kind of factors impacting on manufacturing industry spatial diffusion and re-agglomeration in Nanjing with the Poisson and negative binomial models. Then, from the perspective of elements spatial distribution and agglomeration economies, the mechanism that the mamufacturing industry enterprises location choice impacts on the urban restructuring is investigated. It is found that factors such as compensation for the use of land, improvement of traffic outside the city, government planning and management aiming at optimizing urban spatial structure, and development zones are the key ones for manufacturing industry spatial diffusing and re-agglomeration, which may make the Nanjing city suburbanization and polycentricity. This paper also finds the pollution intensive manufacturing industry enterprises exhibit more intensive suburbanization, which is significant to the improvement of environment and function of the city.

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    Regulation Model and Mechanism of Urbanization Response to the Industrial Structure Evolvement in Northeast China
    LIU Yan-jun, LI Cheng-gu
    2009, 64 (2):  153-166.  doi: 10.11821/xb200902003
    Abstract ( 649 )   PDF (2213KB) ( 659 )   Save

    This article proposed the concept of urbanization response to the industrial structure evolvement firstly, through analyzing the process and the deviation of urbanization response to the industrial structure evolvement in Northeast China during 1953-2005, established the intensity coefficient model and mechanism model of urbanization response to the industrial structure evolvement, studied the spatial effect and the form of urbanization response to the industrial structure evolvement, and also divided the regional types of urbanization response to the industrial structure evolvement. The results show that urbanization level and industrial structure evolvement present fluctuating changes from 1953 to 2005 as a whole. There are certain deviations between urbanization and non-agricultural industrial development. The fact that the coefficient of urbanization response to the industrial structure evolvement in Northeast China increases constantly indicated that the urbanization response intensity which led to the industrial structure evolvement is increasing unceasingly, the intensity of urbanization response to the industrial structure evolvement has spatial difference; the improvement of urban economic density, the enlargement of urban population density and scale as well as quantitative growth of regional population are prime dynamic factors of industrial structure transformation in Northeast China; the form of urbanization response to the industrial structure evolvement in Northeast China includes all kinds of development areas, urban economic region, traffic economic belt, resource-based city and port city and so on, each kind of form's growth has exerted the important spatial effect to the industrial structure evolvement; the Northeast area can be divided into metropolitan region, resource processing urban region, traditional urban agricultural region, frontier urban port region, fragile urban ecological environment region, industrial optimization and urban space's conformity and harmony are the main regulation models of each regional type.

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    Temporal-spatial Impacts of the Shanghai South Railway Station on Housing Prices
    SHI Yi-shao, GUO Hui-ning
    2009, 64 (2):  167-176.  doi: 10.11821/xb200902004
    Abstract ( 827 )   PDF (1525KB) ( 820 )   Save

    The impact of large transport infrastructure on real estate prices has become an interesting theme. But the impact of a large-scale comprehensive transportation system on real estate prices has seldom been studied, and the empirical study of integrating temporal effects with spatial effects is rare too. In the present study, exemplified by the Shanghai South Railway Station, a large-scale comprehensive transportation system, the authors analyze its temporal and spatial impacts on housing prices at different stages and in various directions by means of modified hedonic price models and multi-regression method based on the nine-year long housing transaction data. The results show: (1) the construction of the Shanghai South Railway Station has highly stimulated economic growth in this area, and also leads to the appreciation of residential property values; (2) effects on peripheral housing prices seldom occurrs before its construction; a little reaction on peripheral housing prices during its construction; after its opening, the housing prices obviously fall as the distance increases away from the Shanghai South Railway Station; and (3) the average impact range of the Shanghai South Railway Station on housing prices is within 1.85 km. However, its effects differentiate in different directions. Along the Humin Road, its impact range is within 2.2 km; around the Shanghai Arboretum, its impact range is within 1.45 km, and along the Middle Ring Line, its impact is not marked.

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    Delimiting the Stages of Urbanization Growth Process: A Method Based on Northam's Theory and Logistic Growth Model
    WANG Jian-jun, WU Zhi-qiang
    2009, 64 (2):  177-188.  doi: 10.11821/xb200902005
    Abstract ( 2331 )   PDF (1596KB) ( 1229 )   Save

    Northam conceptualizes the urbanization course with an S-shaped curve, which was divided into three stages. Although this theory has been widely validated and referred to by various researchers, the dividing points between each stage are not explicitly defined in mathematical method. This essay is to deduce the equation of the Logistic model of urbanization level according to the variable t (time series) by mathematical methods. Through qualitative and quantitative studies, it proves that the Northam curve has three characteristic points which are the inflexion point and two biggest curvature points. It is validated that the urbanization growth rate attains the maximum while the acceleration is down to zero at the inflexion point, as the urbanization growth is accelerated before reaching the point and decelerated afterwards. Developed further from the Northam's theory of three phases of urbanization, the two biggest curvature points are identified to divide the urbanization growth course into three stages. This essay also presents the mathematical formula of the three characteristic points and the duration and the mean growth rate at the second stage. By modeling the urbanization processes of Japan and other 22 countries with historical data, it is proved that the result tallies with other relevant studies and the world urbanization development trends. It further indicates that the China's urbanization reached its inflexion point in 2004. Finally, it discusses the applicability and the limitation of this method.

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    Spatial Variation and Its Mechanism of Lanzhou's Capital Density from 1949 to 2005
    YANG Yong-chun, WU Jun-hui, YANG Xiao-juan,HOU Li, LI Zhi-yong, XIANG Fa-min
    2009, 64 (2):  189-201.  doi: 10.11821/xb200902006
    Abstract ( 577 )   PDF (2091KB) ( 595 )   Save

    We obtained data by using high-accuracy images and doing large-scale field surveys, and then analyzed indexes of building height by using GIS and mathematical methods to research into the variation of capital densities by districts and by callings in the city of Lanzhou. Moreover, we measured degree of city compactness by the ratio of increment of capital stock to increment of built-up area in the perspective of capital, and then research into the changing process of compact trend in Lanzhou. Results are drawn as follows: (1) Capital densities in cities decline notably from center to periphery under market economic system, however, those in Chinese cities decline slowly or are distributed evenly under planned economic system, even there are increasing trends. What's more, the mode of spatial distribution of capital density in Chinese cities during the transitional period is between these two foregoing modes and it is closer and closer to the mode in market economy. (2) Under planned economic system, land use in Chinese cities show a mode of commerce, residence, industry and agriculture from center to periphery, which is different from the mode of commerce, industry, residence, agriculture from center to periphery under market economic system. (3) It is hackneyed that high or low buildings are distributed in zones where most buildings are low or high, and this phenomenon is related to different development modes among units since the implementation of the reform and opening up started in 1978 and the factors such as market economic system cannot exert great impact on land exchange and land use transform. (4) Heights of residential, commercial and office buildings during transitional period are notably higher than those during planned economic period and the mode of spatial distribution is closer to the mode under market economic system, which is notably related to high degree of marketization. (5) In view of capital, if the phenomena of land use deflation and severe authorization policy do not change substantively, Chinese cities will be more and more compact. Moreover, as time passes by, spatial change curve of capital densities in Chinese cities shows a notable regulation of undulation raise like flying-geese, moreover, the increasing rate of building height is also in the speedup way.

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    Population Distribution of China Based on GIS: Classification of Population Densities and Curve of Population Gravity Centers
    GE Mei-ling, FENG Zhi-ming
    2009, 64 (2):  202-210.  doi: 10.11821/xb200902007
    Abstract ( 1310 )   PDF (1749KB) ( 1119 )   Save

    In this paper, with the spatial analysis functions in ArcGIS and the county-level census data of 2000 in China, the population density map was divided and shown by classes, meanwhile, the map system of population distribution and a curve of population gravity centers were formed; in accordance with the geographical proximity principle, the classes of population densities were reclassified to obtain a population density map which had the spatial clustering characteristic. The multi-layer superposition based on the population density classification shows that with the increasing of population densities, the population gravity centers of different layers move from the Northwest to the Southeast and have a tendency of becoming dense; the multi-layer clustering phenomenon of the Chinese population distribution is obvious, the populations have a water-based characteristic gathering towards the rivers and coastlines. The curve of population gravity centers shows the population distribution transits from the high density region to the low one on the whole, however, there are high density region in the low density area and vice versa. The reclassification research on the population density map based on the curve of population gravity centers shows that the Chinese population densities can be divided into nine classes, hereby, the Chinese population geographical distribution can be divided into nine type regions: the concentration core zone, high concentration zone, moderate concentration zone, low concentration zone, general transition zone, relatively sparse area, sparse area, extreme sparse area, and basic no-man's land. More than 3/4 of the Chinese population is concentrated in less than 1/5 of the land area, and more than half of the land area is inhabited by less than 2% of the population, the result reveals a better space law of China's population distribution.

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    Study on the Expanded Scope of the Yangtze Delta Region Based on the Function of Economic Polarized Area
    DUAN Xue-jun, YU Xiao-gan Josef Nipper
    2009, 64 (2):  211-220.  doi: 10.11821/xb200902008
    Abstract ( 636 )   PDF (1848KB) ( 564 )   Save

    In the era of economic globalization, the concept of Economic Polarized Area comes into being as an effective vehicle to agglomerate the economic elements and sustain the economic lifeline of the region. Based on the region's specific development mode and construction form the concept is working in such a way that it will contribute to guide the economic development of the country and will play an important role in competing with other regions or countries in the world. Due to the high speed development of the last 30 years, the Yangtze Delta Region starts to show the features of Economic Polarized Area. But, compared with other world-class Economic Polarized Area, the economic strength and the ability of the Yangtze Delta Region to drive the country's economic development is still very low and the competitive power is still very limited. Expanding the scope of the Economic Polarized Area of the Yangtze Delta may extend the economic hinterland of the core area of the Yangtze Delta Region, and will lighten the pressures from the limited resource and the burden of environmental pollution. With regard to the reasonable scope of the Yangtze Delta Region, there are different opinions and controversial arguments in political and academic circles. Starting from the idea of increasing the competitive power and improving the economic strength of the Yangtze Delta Region, the paper firstly discusses the requirements to become a world-class Economic Polarized Area. In a second step an analysis of functional complementation and economic collaboration between the cities of an "extended" Yangtze Delta Region has been carried out by in particular considering the feasibility of integrating these "newly included" cities. The final result of the study is, that the Region should be expanded from the number of 16 cities to 37 cities, and the appended cities should be divided into two categories: Wenzhou, Jinhua, Yancheng, Huaian, Ma'anshan, Wuhu, Tongling, Chaohu, Hefei, Chuzhou, and Xuancheng should be taken as Preferred Extending Area, and Suqian, Xuzhou, Lianyungang, Lishui, Quzhou, Chizhou, Anqing, Bengbu, Huangshan, and Suzhou should be taken as Retained Qualification Area.

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    Livelihood Diversification of Peasants and Nomads of Eastern Transect in Tibetan Plateau
    YAN Jian-zhong, WU Ying-ying, ZHANG Yili, ZHOU Shao-bin, SHI Yulin
    2009, 64 (2):  221-233.  doi: 10.11821/xb200902009
    Abstract ( 664 )   PDF (2003KB) ( 843 )   Save

    Livelihoods of residents on the Tibetan Plateau are severely affected by grassland and herbal resources degeneration. How to use assets to diversify livelihoods is a key sustainable development issue of this region. Applying PRA, new indexes of livelihood assets and livelihood diversification level being constructed and adjusted by household interview, this paper examines livelihood assets, livelihood diversification level and future livelihood strategies of peasants and nomads in three regions of eastern transect of Tibetan Plateau-high mountain gorge region, mountain plateau region and plateau region. The results show that livelihood diversification is a popular strategy of this area. From high mountain gorge region to mountain plateau region and plateau region, livelihood diversification level is reduced and livelihood activities and the proportion of development oriented livelihood also decrease. Livelihood assets value and livelihood diversification level decreased with the increase of elevation, mainly shown in manpower assets and natural assets. It is highly positively correlative between livelihood assets value and livelihood diversification level. Nowadays, livelihood strategies of local residents still rely on assets they own. Nomads in plateau region should learn much from experiences of development oriented livelihoods of people in high mountain gorge region and mountain plateau region. Therefore, aids of governments should focus on relieving restricted factors of livelihood diversification of nomads and help improve their abilities to build up development oriented livelihoods.

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    Carbon Dioxide Emissions Embodied in China's Foreign Trade
    ZHANG Xiao-ping
    2009, 64 (2):  234-242.  doi: 10.11821/xb200902010
    Abstract ( 717 )   PDF (1220KB) ( 824 )   Save

    Efforts such as the Kyoto Protocol to reduce greenhouse gas emissions that may be linked to climate change account carbon dioxide emission mostly referred to the country-level territories. However, inter-country flows of goods by international trade may cause emissions from local consumption suffered in an exporting county. Therefore, the estimation of carbon dioxide emissions associated with international trade (by excluding the emissions associated with exports and including the emissions associated with imports) will give a more complete picture of responsibilities of various countries for the emissions that cause the climate change. The aim of this study is to explore carbon dioxide emissions associated with international trade of China and their sources regarding the emissions of imports and exports on the results of its total emissions. China is now being regarded as the leading country of carbon dioxide emissions in the world, but how much of its emission reflects the production of goods for export to foreign economies need to be studied seriously. For this study, China's foreign trade data of exports and imports from U.S., EU and Japan by HS from 2000 to 2006 provided by Department of Trade and External Economic Relations Statistics of China were used, and the 98 divisions of HS goods was aggregated into 17 branch divisions according to industrial sector divisions used in China's Statistical Yearbook and China's input-output table. By employing input-output table, embodied energy consumption (energy consumption directly and indirectly caused by intermediary products) and associated carbon dioxide emissions of goods exported from China were calculated. The results show that carbon dioxide emissions embodied in exported goods from China has increased from 0.96 Gt in 2000 to 1.91 Gt in 2006, representing 30-35% of China's total emissions over the period. Based on CO2 emissions of fuel combustion in different countries, emissions embodied in imported goods to China from different trade partners were also estimated. It points out net carbon dioxide emissions embodied has increased from 0.13 Gt to 0.32 Gt in China-US trade, and 0.056 Gt to 0.227 Gt in China-EU trade, respectively, from 2000 to 2006. Since the Kyoto Protocol restricts emissions only in Annex I countries, there is a scope for Annex I countries to reduce domestic emissions without adjusting final consumption because they can import more goods from non-Annex I countries, for example, China. Finally, it argues improved international accounting methodologies for assigning responsibility for CO2 emissions must be designed to account for the dynamic nature of integrated international economy.

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    Analysis of SSCI Human Geography Journals
    WANG Xian-wen, LIU Ze-yuan, LUAN Chun-juan, LIANG Yong-xia
    2009, 64 (2):  243-252.  doi: 10.11821/xb200902011
    Abstract ( 1034 )   PDF (1370KB) ( 691 )   Save

    The authors analyze the relationship of 44 human geography journals indexed in JCR-SSCI (2008). Firstly, we search the matrix of co-citation amounts among journals in Web of Science using Cited Reference Search, which could get the complete co-citation matrix, and calculate the co-citation ratio of the matrix and make clustering analysis. Then the authors make CONCOR cluster analysis and co-citation network analysis with the co-citation ratio matrix of 44 journals. We compartmentalize four main sub-clusters of human geography journals, multidisciplinary journals, economic/industrial geography journals, environment geography journals, culture geography journals and geographic information systems journals. Then the authors study the influence of China's geography on the international academic arena. Among 73012 articles in 52 geography journals retrieved in SSCI published from 1975 to 2007, the authors from Mainland China only participated in 319 articles, accounting for 0.44% of the total. For the 426 highly cited papers (cited more than 50 times) in 73012 articles, China has two highly cited papers (cited more than 50 times), when the overall number is 426 among all the 73012 articles. With regard to the international influence of Chinese geography journals, the authors select 11 geography journals published in Mainland China, then search the citation situation in Web of Science. The results show that 11 Chinese journals have been cited 1565 times from 1975 to 2007, of which Acta Geographica Sinica has been cited 792 times, indicating that China's development of Geography still lags behind the developed countries, such as United States, England, Canada, etc.

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