Table of Content

    20 April 2014, Volume 69 Issue 4 Previous Issue    Next Issue
    Changes of cultivated land function in China since 1949
    SONG Xiaoqing, WU Zhifeng, OUYANG Zhu
    2014, 69 (4):  435-447.  doi: 10.11821/dlxb201404001
    Abstract ( )   PDF (2033KB) ( )   Save
    With obvious phase characteristics, cultivated land function changes in Japan, South Korea, USA, and European developed countries share a common experience of transition. Agricultural development and land use demand change in China are similar to the situation in the above countries. Clarifying whether cultivated land function transition are occurring in China is of significance to cultivated land management. This paper aims at depicting the evolving cultivated land function in China since 1949. First, the research framework of cultivated land function change coupled by policy development analysis and quantitative assessment is established. Then, methods of measurement of cultivated land functions are proposed. Results show that cultivated land function transition was found in 2006. It is worthwhile that co-ordination and malposition of supply and demand of cultivated land functions coexisted with supply lag and function morphology distortion. Considering the experiences in the above developed countries and cultivated land function change in China, this paper proposes suggestions on multifunctional management of cultivated land. In addition, route of land use transition research is discussed based on the research framework of cultivated land function change.
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    Reconstruction of cropland over Heilongjiang Province in the late 19th century
    ZHANG Lijuan, JIANG Lanqi, ZHANG Xuezhen, ZHANG Ankang, JIANG Chunyan
    2014, 69 (4):  448-458.  doi: 10.11821/dlxb201404002
    Abstract ( )   PDF (3493KB) ( )   Save
    To understand human effects on climate and environment in the historical times, it is primary to reconstruct land use/cover changes over the past centuries. In this study, based on the previous studies, we collected county level-based cropland area from the multiple historical documents. The original records from different historical documents were calibrated with each other. The area units were also converted to present square kilometers. As a consequence, we obtained one integrated dataset which is one county level-based cropland area dataset. Next, we defined an agricultural suitability index (ASI) calculated by using distance from settlements, slope and complex of topography, and distance from rivers. The documental county level-based cropland area was spatially distributed into 1 km by 1 km size of pixels in the order of high ASI to low ASI. Then, we retrieved cropland of 2009 at a resolution of 1 km by 1 km using Landsat ETM+ imageries. We found that total cropland area in the late 19th century was 25397.0 km2. The cropland was mainly found in centralsouthern part of Heilongjiang Province, especially in the counties of Hailun, Bayan, Wuchang, Hulan, Shuangcheng and Wangkui. In 2009, the total cropland area increased to 163808.7 km2, which spread over the southwestern to the central and northeastern parts of Heilongjiang. In the 20th century, cropland increased by 138411.7 km2. The cropland area fraction increased from 5.6% in the late 19th century to 36.2% in 2009. This implicates that 30.6% of natural land surface of Heilongjiang was replaced by anthropogenic cropland. Some 60962 km2 (accounting for 44%) of increased cropland was derived from deforestation, which was mainly distributed in the western edge and northeastern part of the present agricultural area. The reconstructed cropland in the late 19th century supplies a basic dataset for studies on effects of agricultural development on climate and environment in the future.
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    Comprehensive assessment and spatial heterogeneity of the construction of innovative cities in China
    FANG Chuanglin, MA Haitao, WANG Zhenbo, LI Guangdong
    2014, 69 (4):  459-473.  doi: 10.11821/dlxb201404003
    Abstract ( )   PDF (6731KB) ( )   Save
    Innovative cities are not only important basis for innovation activities, but also play a strategically critical role in constructing an innovative country. Meanwhile, the development of innovative cities can meet the urgent requirements of setting new forms of urban development and fostering the urban sustainable development. Currently, China is marching toward the goal of establishing an innovative country by 2020, but the start-up phase of innovative cities construction cannot realize the fundamental transition from factor driven development to innovation driven development, which means that there is a wide gap between China's innovative cities and the advanced innovative cites. Constructing innovative cities confronts with some bottlenecks like investments, income, techniques, contributions and talents. This article takes 287 prefecture-level cities as the object of comprehensive assessment. With the method of comprehensive assessment system of innovative cities and innovative monitoring system software, this article evaluates the current situation of innovative city construction from four aspects, namely independent innovation, industrial innovation, living environmental innovation and institutional innovation, and analyzed the characteristics of spatial heterogeneity of innovative cities construction. The results are as follows. The level of innovation of Chinese cities is low, and building an innovation-oriented country is difficult. Some 87.8% of cities are lower than the national average of comprehensive level of innovation. The level of city's comprehensive innovation has close and positive correlation with economic development. The level of the eastern region of China is significantly higher than that of the central and western regions. The levels of urban independent innovation, industrial innovation, habitat of environmental innovation and institutional mechanisms innovation show consistent spatial heterogeneity law with the city's comprehensive level of innovation. In the future, China should speed up the construction process in accordance with the basic principles of "independent innovation, breakthroughs in key areas, market-driver, regional linkage, personnel support". The purpose is to build Beijing, Shenzhen, Shanghai, Guangzhou into global innovation centers, to build Nanjing, Suzhou, Xiamen, Hangzhou, Wuxi, Xi'an, Wuhan, Shenyang, Dalian, Tianjin, Changsha, Qingdao, Chengdu, Changchun, Hefei, Chongqing into national innovation centers by 2020, through which China will finally build a national urban innovation network that includes 4 global innovative cities, 16 national innovative cities, 30 regional innovative cities, 55 local innovative cities, and 182 innovation-driven development cities and contributes to the establishment of an innovative country by 2020.
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    Characteristics of clustering and economic performance of urban agglomerations in China
    LI Jiaming, ZHANG Wenzhong, SUN Tieshan, ZHANG Aiping
    2014, 69 (4):  474-484.  doi: 10.11821/dlxb201404004
    Abstract ( )   PDF (2284KB) ( )   Save
    The 11th Five-Year Plan (2006-2010) states that city agglomerations should be regarded as the main form of urbanization, and the 12th Five-Year Plan (2011-2015) puts more emphasis on improving the structure of city agglomerations to promote urbanization in China. It means that city agglomerations have been and will still be the major region into which the population and other economic elements concentrate in China. More importantly, the spatial structure of city agglomerations would have an important influence on the quality and level of urbanization through affecting economic performance. This article aims to examine the clustering of China's urban agglomerations and find out the relationship between economic clustering and growth rate of urban agglomerations. Our data are obtained from Gross Domestic Production (GDP) and population statistics of 20 urban agglomerations of China from 1995 to 2010. The conclusions can be obtained as follows. (1) Generally speaking, it is evident that the degree of clustering of urban agglomeration has been ever increasing in the past several years. Although there is a relatively large gap in the degree of concentration between population and economy, the data shows a strong positive linear correlation between them. (2) The 20 city agglomerations can be classified into four groups according to their clustering characteristics. Gini indices and the proportion of GDP of primary city are employed to detect the clustering characteristics of city agglomerations. As a result of investigation, four groups include strong singe-center clustering; multi-centers clustering; weak singe-center clustering and weak centers clustering. (3) As the relationship between clustering of population and growth rate is still unclear, there exists an obvious inverted-U-shaped relationship between economic clustering and growth rate of urban agglomerations. The result further indicates that when Gini indices of GDP in large and medium-sized urban agglomerations are about 0.2 and the primary city's proportion of GDP in small urban agglomerations is about 65%, the fastest growth rate can be achieved in China.
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    Ecological resistance surface model and its application in urban expansion simulations
    YE Yuyao, SU Yongxian, ZHANG Hong'ou, WU Qitao, LIU Kai
    2014, 69 (4):  485-496.  doi: 10.11821/dlxb201404005
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    Urban expansion models are a useful tool for understanding urbanization process and have been given much attention. However, urban expansion is a complicated socioeconomic phenomenon that is affected by complex and volatile factors involving in great uncertainties. Most dynamic models focus on the interaction between the urban expansion and various influencing factors, and have continuously evolved for greater nuance and precision. However, accurately simulating the urban expansion process remains ambiguous. In this paper, we try to solve such uncertainties through a reversal process and view the urban expansion as a process in which the urban landscape competes with other landscapes for control by overcoming ecological resistance. We apply an innovative method based on the minimum cumulative resistance (MCR) model to construct an urban expansion ecological resistance (UEER) model and then to apply it to the urban expansion in Guangzhou. The results indicate that the ecological resistance surface generated by the UEER model reflects comprehensively the ecological resistance for the urban expansion and indicates spatial trends in the urban expansion. Thus it can be used as an effective model for the urban expansion and compensates for the inadequacies in most dynamic models that ignore ecological constraints to a certain extent. Compared with simulation results to the conventional MCRbased model, the simulation results from the UEER-based model are more realistic and accurately reflect ecological protection requirements. Based on the scale control of the urban expansion, simulation results better accord with the actual demand and reflect the land development policy. Considering the urban form and its relationship with ecological factors, all of the important ecological elements are preserved in the process of simulation. The ecological barriers act as ecological isolations, prevent the urban sprawl and result in the group urban form.
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    Evolution of spatio-temporal association structure of urban potential at county level in the Pearl River Delta
    MEI Zhixiong, XU Songjun, OUYANG Jun
    2014, 69 (4):  497-509.  doi: 10.11821/dlxb201404006
    Abstract ( )   PDF (2718KB) ( )   Save
    Based on the road network data of 1990, 1994, 2000, 2005 and 2009 and urban integrated power index measured by factor analysis in the Pearl River Delta, this paper estimates county potential index using expanded potential model, and explores the spatio-temporal association structure and evolution of county potential using spatio-temporal autocorrelation techniques, and the validity of spatio-temporal association structure is verified in comparison of spatial association pattern and cross correlation function. The main results are obtained as follows: (1) The global spatio-temporal association of county potential showed a positive effect. But this positive effect was not strong, and it increased slowly from 1994 to 2005 and presented a decreasing trend from 2005 to 2009. The local spatio-temporal association characteristics of most counties' potential kept relatively stable and focused on a positive autocorrelation, however, there were obvious transformations in some counties among four types of local spatio-temporal association which are HH, LL, HL and LH. (2) The distribution difference and its change of local spatio-temporal association types of county potential were obvious. Spatio-temporal HH type units were located in the central zone and Shenzhen-Dongguan region of the eastern zone, but the coverage of the spatio-temporal HH area of the central zone shrunk to the Guangzhou-Foshan core metropolitan region only after 2000; the spatio-temporal LL area in the western zone kept relatively stable with a surface-shaped continuous distribution pattern, new LL type units began to emerge in the central and southern zones in 2005, the LL area in the eastern zone expanded from 1994 to 2000, and then gradually shrunk and scattered at the eastern edge in 2009; the spatiotemporal heterogeneity (HL and LH) area changed significantly. (3) The diversity of local spatiotemporal association of county potential among the three zones showed significant imbalance. The difference between the eastern and central zones tended to decrease, whereas that between the western zone and the central and eastern zones further expanded. (4) Spatio-temporal autocorrelation methods can efficiently mine the spatio-temporal association patterns of county potential, and can better reveal the complicated spatio-temporal interaction between counties than ESDA methods.
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    Network structure of ‘space of flows’ in Jilin Province based on telecommunication flows
    DONG Chao, XIU Chunliang, WEI Ye
    2014, 69 (4):  510-519.  doi: 10.11821/dlxb201404007
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    Information communication is an important expression of interaction between two cities, and it is also a key element to build the city network. This study proposes to map the network structure of ‘space of flows’ based on the actual observed telecommunication flows, with Jilin Province as the case area. Specifically, the call durations via fixed-line telephone are employed to measure the information flows occurred between cities. The cities at the county level or above are treated as research units. To be reliable, a synthetic method composed of principal component analysis, C-Value and D-Value hierarchy analysis, dominant flow analysis, the minimum spanning tree method is utilized to map out the structure. The research reveals the following aspects. (1) The ‘space of flows’ in Jilin Province is a hierarchical network, which centers on Changchun. In this network, Changchun, Yanji, Tonghua and Gongzhuling are the 1st-level leading cities; Jilin, Baicheng, Baishan, Liaoyuan, Songyuan and Siping are 2nd-level leading cities, and the other cities in Jilin are subordinate cities. (2) Administrative division plays a fundamental role in the formation of the current pattern. (3) Changchun is a unique center, but on the contrary to our previous understanding, Jilin is not that ‘centric’, and the interaction between Changchun and Jilin is not that strong either. (4) Surprisingly, the two cities of Gongzhuling and Dunhua at the county level, play important roles in the network of ‘space of flows’. Gongzhuling tends to be blended in the Changchun metropolitan area, and Dunhua becomes a key node in the eastern Jilin. The regional connectivity functions of the two cities need to be improved. (5) Siping and Lishu, have strong interaction with each other, and are supporting a further integration strategy of the two neighboring cities.
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    Spatial patterns and coupling relations between energy efficiency and industrial structure in Liaoning Province
    GUAN Wei, XU Shuting
    2014, 69 (4):  520-530.  doi: 10.11821/dlxb201404008
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    Taking 14 prefecture-level cities in Liaoning Province as the source of samples in the study area, this paper first explored the spatial hierarchy and structural characteristics of energy efficiency from the following three aspects: comprehensive energy efficiency by means of DEA, energy consumption per unit of GDP, and the energy efficiency in combination of the former two indexes. After measuring and analyzing the degrees of advancement, rationality and concentration of industrial structure in each city, we generalized the coupling features between energy efficiency and industrial structure in Liaoning by using the coupling degree rating model. Some conclusions can be drawn as follows. (1) The 14 cities differ significantly in their energy efficiency, among which, four cities (Shenyang, Dalian, Anshan and Jinzhou) enjoy the highest energy efficiency, but the northwestern part and other heavy industry cities such as Fushun and Benxi belong to low efficiency and high consumption area. (2) In areas with higher efficiency, the spatial patterns of the comprehensive energy efficiency, the energy consumption for GDP per unit, and the energy utilization efficiency present patterns of ‘π’, ‘II’, and ‘H’, respectively. Geographically, from east to west and from north to south, the energy utilization efficiency shows different trend; the binuclear structure of economic development and other factors have a major effect on the formation of this kind of spatial pattern of energy efficiency. (3) The southeastern part of Liaoning enjoys higher degree of advancement of industrial structure. With Shenyang and Dalian holding two ends, the areas with higher degree of rationality of industrial structure presents an‘H’-shaped pattern. The urban agglomerations in the central and southern Liaoning enjoy higher degree of concentration of industrial structure. (4) The overall coupling degree between energy efficiency and industrial structure is low in the province, but at both ends of Shenyang and Dalian, the coupling degree between the advancement of industrial structure and energy efficiency is relatively high than that of other cities.
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    Spatial morphology evolution of rural settlements induced by tourism:A comparative study of three villages in Yesanpo tourism area, China
    XI Jianchao, WANG Xinge, KONG Qinqin, ZHANG Nan
    2014, 69 (4):  531-540.  doi: 10.11821/dlxb201404009
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    As the main reception base and important tourism attraction, tourism village is the core element of the tourism destination system, and has also become one of the most important forms of rural urbanization in China. Integrating the method of PRA (participatory rural assessment), GIS technology and HD remote sensing images, this study aims to analyze the spatial morphology evolution of rural settlements induced by tourism through a comparative study of three tourism villages in Yesanpo tourism destination. The results suggest that there exists a "core-periphery" pattern of the spatial evolution of rural settlements. The closer to the core scenic spot, the higher degree of land-use intensity the village shows, as well as the more mature tourism function and greater change in landscape pattern. In the research, Gougezhuang shows an increase of the floor area ratio from 0.17 to 0.44, with the most mature tourism function and destroyed landscape authenticity as well and it has the lowest authenticity index of 0.448. Liujiahe has gone through a largest increase of 96.54% in construction land area, with moderately mature tourism function and relatively stable authenticity of 0.566. Shangzhuang, in contrast, has the lowest construction land scale and intensity, with the poorest tourism function and most well-preserved landscape authenticity of 0.942. Overall, in term of the spatial morphology, the three villages are characterized by "modern town", "semi-urbanization" and "traditional village", respectively, in corresponding to three land development types: "intensive reconstruction type", "enclave extension type" and "in situ using type". Tourism village is the basic spatial unit of rural tourism. The spatial evolution patterns of these three villages present the spatial characteristics of the touristization of traditional villages in different stages, and also has great representative value for the management of rural settlements in tourism destinations of China.
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    Spatial distribution characteristics and hot zone patterns of entertainment industry in Xi’an
    XUE Dongqian, HUANG Jing, MA Beibei, KANG Yali
    2014, 69 (4):  541-552.  doi: 10.11821/dlxb201404010
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    Adopting three spatial analysis methods, including vector data symbolization, exploratory spatial data analysis (ESDA) and Kriging spatial interpolations, this paper researches on spatial distribution characteristics of entertainment industry of Xi'an city in 2011, respectively from aspects of scale grades, degree of concentration, hot zones and their spatial patterns. The results show that: (1) the overall characteristic of entertainment industry is that the south, the west, and the inner of Xi'an are high-density areas, and the north, the east, and the outer parts are low-density areas. The entertainment venues are mainly concentrated in the circle which is centered on Bell Tower and taking the straight-line distance between Bell Tower and Qujiang New District (about 7 km) as the radius. The spatial distribution of sub-categories of entertainment venues are broadly in line with the overall spatial characteristics, but show some specificity. (2) High-high areas are mainly continuously located in the traditional habitations and urban-industry flourishing areas in the south of Xi'an, while the low-low areas are mainly dispersed in urban fringe areas, or in some special areas within the city. (3) Four spatial aggregated hot zones of entertainment industry can be built by spatial interpolation analysis. Based on comprehensive analysis of regional hardware and software conditions, these hot zones can be identified into four patterns: business and tourism hot zone in traditional urban center, educational and recreation hot zone based on aggregated cultural industry, technology and high-end business hot zone based on aggregated new technological industry, and new urban district hot zone pushed by multiple resources. Conclusions of this study will be beneficial to explore location laws and preferences of emerging industries from spatial perspective, and could provide references for rational distribution and planning of entertainment industries in practice.
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    Influence of Lingnan traditional folk festival reconstruction on residents’ place attachment:A case study on Qiqiao Festival in Guangzhou Zhucun
    TAO Wei, CHEN Huiling, CAI Shuiqing
    2014, 69 (4):  553-565.  doi: 10.11821/dlxb201404011
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    Folk festival provides residents' place attachment research with a new perspective for a better understanding of the relationship between the residents and place. Domestic research about place attachment is still at the embryonic stage, and most application research objects are tourists and tourism destinations. Qiqiao Festival is a very important part of Lingnan traditional folk custom. It has revived after a half century's decline. As a result, the function, form and content of the festival have been reconstructed. From the perspective of new cultural geography, this paper takes residents in Zhucun as the research object and adopts methods including questionnaire survey, in-depth interview and factor analysis to explore the relationship between folk festival's reconstruction and residents' place attachment. The main conclusion can be obtained as follows: (1) Qiqiao Festival is vital for emotion, cognition and intention of the psychological formation process of original inhabitants, new settlers and foreign tenants. And it makes residents integrated into Zhucun community better. (2) Reconstructed Qiqiao Festival exerts an important impact on improving original inhabitants' spiritual life, optimizing the village style, enhancing ethnic group cohesion, strengthening cultural pride, protecting the Qiqiao culture and promoting the development of Zhucun. (3) Reconstructed traditional folk festival produces new cultural memory. The way that it could be integrated into the original Qiqiao culture and absorbed by the residents has yet to be explored. This research has significance for enriching theoretical and empirical study on place attachment at the microcosmic space level.
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    GIScience international journal ranking by Chinese researchers:A questionnaire survey and result
    QIN Chengzhi, CHEN Min
    2014, 69 (4):  566-572.  doi: 10.11821/dlxb201404012
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    In this paper, we make a report on the design and conduct of a questionnaire survey (during July and August, 2013) for the first time on GIScience international journal ranking by researchers in China (including Hong Kong, Macau, and Taiwan regions). A total of 37 questionnaires were analyzed, thus a ranking list of 55 GIScience international journals was produced. We compared this ranking list with the result from an international questionnaire survey on GIScience journal ranking, which is for the only time to our knowledge and without Chinese researchers involved. The main difference is reported. We also analyzed the ranking list from this survey based on the widely-used impact factor of journals. The results show that in general the current SCI/SSCI journal list released by the Institute of Science Index can cover the GIScience international journals well. However, the impact factor of SCI/SSCI journal cannot appropriately reflect the ranking of GIScience international journals. We believe that the release of the result from this survey can help the young researchers and graduate students of GIScience domain in China to know GIScience international journals from different aspects. In such a way the shortcomings due to the abuse of impact factor might be relieved.
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