Table of Content

    15 December 1998, Volume 53 Issue s1 Previous Issue    Next Issue
    Yao Shimou, Chen Shuang
    1998, 53 (s1):  1-10.  doi: 10.11821/xb1998s1001
    Abstract ( )   PDF (695KB) ( )   Save
    Following the reformation and open-door policy, the Changjiang River delta, one of the e-conomy developed coastal areas in China, shows that the city is being industrialized, the region is being urbanized, and the city and countryside are merging into an organic whole. In the recent twenty years, the economy of this delta has developed rapidly. At the same time, the regional infrastructure has been improved day by day; the social, economical, cultural and technological relations among cities have been reinforced; the urban district has spread from a point to a area by the way of agglomeration and axis-pattern extension; and the level of industrialization and modernization of the city has been heightened continually. Therefore, in the economy developed areas, the main features and the radical trend of the urban spatial evolution appear in the form that the city and the countryside merge into an organic whole owing to agglomeration, reciprocal attraction and reciprocal dispersion of the cities. This paper mainly studies the fundamental characteristics, dynamic mechanism, function variations and the trend of the urban spatial ex-pansion in developed areas, together with a lot of typical cases of cities in the Changjiang River delta.
    Related Articles | Metrics
    Yu Kongjian
    1998, 53 (s1):  11-20.  doi: 10.11821/xb1998s1002
    Abstract ( )   PDF (1635KB) ( )   Save
    Various processes occur across a landscape, including ecological processes such as the movement of species, the flow of nutrients, the spread of fire and other disturbances, and the diffusion of pollutants; economic processes such as land conversion for agricultural production, marketing of new product, transportation and immigration; political and diplomatic processes such as the construction of political influence sphere at local, national and global scale. At the fact of limited space and resources on the surface of the earth, a generic issue regarding these processes across the landscapes is : how to control (promote or retard) the processes efficiently, namely using less energy and space for a bigger influence sphere.The overall assumption for this issue is that, there are some positions and portion in a land-scape that may have critical influence on a certain process across the landscape. These critical positions in a landscape are called strategic points. Occupancy of these strategic points may give a process the momentum of controlling and covering the landscape more effectively, due to their quality of:Initiative, occupancy of these points may give the process the advantage of leading the game;Co-ordination, occupancy of these points may give the process the advantage of forming an overall influence sphere;Efficiency, occupancy of these points may give the process the advantage of having a bigger coverage of the landscape while costing less energy.By identifying and using these critical positions and portions in the landscape, therefore, may unproportionately increase the efficiency of controlling this process.It is further assumed that, in order to take control of the landscape, the process has to overcome a certain resistance. A resistance surface can therefore visualize the dynamics of the process itself. The resistance surface resembles a topographic surface, indicating where the pro-cess (flow) diverges or converges. It is. therefore, possible to identify strategically important positions or portions in a landscape that may have important influence on the dynamics of the process.Assuming species movement across a landscape is a competitive gaming process of control and coverage against some resistance, this paper discusses a methodology of identifying strategic points according to the properties of resistance surfaces which resembles a gaming board as well as a topographic surface. Three types of resistance surfaces are discussed:The archipelago type: where lower resistance islands are surrounded by higher resistance matrix, representing such landscapes as agricultural fields dotted with native forest patches.The network type; where the lower resistance portions form a linear network surrounded by higher resistance matrix.The plateau type: where, areas with higher resistance are surrounded by lower resistance matrix.Accordingly, five types of strategic points are identified in terms of their locations. They are strategic points at saddle points , at intersections, at the center, at an edge and at a corner. Strategic points for biodiversity conservation are minimax points in a given resistance surface as-sociated with the dispersibility of a certain species. A case study is used to illustrate the method-ology. The rules leading to the strategic points are largely hypothetical, though supported by a limited number of observations. This approach may provide a framework and a new model of thinking for field observations of landscape ecology as well as landscape change.
    Related Articles | Metrics
    Wang Yanglin, Chen Chuankang
    1998, 53 (s1):  21-27.  doi: 10.11821/xb1998s1003
    Abstract ( )   PDF (315KB) ( )   Save
    Landscape ecology is a new discipline between geography and ecology. Its theoretical focus-es are spatial heterogeneity and ecological holism. The ultimate aim of planning and design of tourism agricultural landscape is the harmonious relation between human and its environment, that is. the human ecological holism. The study on tourism agriculture deals usually with an ex-tensive area, and the realization of results of its planning and design must depend on a spatial approach. Therefore, landscape ecology could be taken as the theoretical foundation of tourism agricultural planning and design. Landscape ecology belongs to the macro-scale ecological study. It is different from the ecosystem ecology with spatial and temporal scales. To Landscape ecologists, the landscape refers to a cluster of ecosystems with a repeating pattern in a heteroge-neous area. Its spatial scale is significantly larger than that of ecosystem ecology and similar to that of the regional planning practice. The primary scope of landscape ecology are similar to that of the regional planning practice. Although the primary scope of landscape ecology is the land-scape, the discipline also considers other systems with larger or smaller scales. It is a universal means for describing the landscape mosaic that classified landscape spatial units into patch, cor-ridor and matrix, and it facilitates the landscape studies by other disciplines (mathematics, in-formation theory, etc. ). The matrix presents a landscape spatial element with a extensive space, and plays the main role in determining landscape function. The corridor is a linear spatial element of landscape, its function is effects on various landscape ecological processes. The patch is a non-linear spatial element of landscape, and its function presents providing habitat islands for species. This spatial classification facilitates to describe landscape spatial structure, analysis the relation between landscape pattern and process, and the utilization of GIS(Geographical In-formation System).In the planning and design of tourism agriculture, effects of landscape ecol-ogy are follows :1. Landscape ecology provides the planners and designers with a conceptual framework, and with a lot of landscape ecological principals, especially the spatial and temporal scale, hier-archy, and interactions between landscape patterns and processes.2. Landscape ecology provides a set of tools, methods, data and experiences to the planners and designers. For example, factual geometry can be applied to landscape boundaries, the inter-actions between shape and size, etc.The planning and design of tourism agrolandscapes is a comprehensive methodology. Its content includes four interrelated parts, studies on patterns and processes of tourism agroland-scape. a ecological assessment of tourism agrolandscape units, a reasonable arrangement of tourism agrolandscape patterns and managing proposals for a sustainable tourism agrolandscape. These are related to all aspects of theoretical and applied and applied landscape ecology. Finally, Shuanglong National Scenic Region is taken as a case study.
    Related Articles | Metrics
    Luo Jinfa, Xia Zenglu, Meng Weiqi
    1998, 53 (s1):  28-35.  doi: 10.11821/xb1998s1004
    Abstract ( )   PDF (477KB) ( )   Save
    The form of element in soil is determined not only by the characteristics of elements, but also by the condition of regional physical geographical, especially the type and the characteristics of soil. The characteristics of Pb form in 10 main soil types in China show that the relative con-tents of each form of Pb in various soil types is mostly oxide iron-manganese form Pb>carbon-ate or weak conbination form Pb^organic-sulfur compound form Pb>exchange form Pb>solu-tion in water form of Pb. This shows, to a most degree, that the disposition of composition each other form of Pb in various soil type is determined by the chemical properties of Pb element. The relative contents of solution in water form of Pb and exchange form of Pb trend toward de-creases from south to north and from east to west with the order of distribution of soil geograph-ic zone. This shows their characteristics of regional differentiation with the distribution of soil geographic zone. The carbonat form of Pb increases form of Pb that are comparatively difficult to migration in north soil, and the weak combination form of Pb increases form of Pb that are comparatively easy to migration in south soil and east soil. Both of them increase the extent of regional differentiation Pb form or activity of Pb between south and north.The oxide iron-manganese form of Pb also trands toward regional differentiation from south to noth and from east to west, else than laterite that is special cause, only that it don’t increase, but it decreases. The organic-sulfur form of Pb trend toward decreasing from east to west, but it trend toward decreasing only from central setion to north. This is caused by differentiation oforganic contents in various type soils.In all soil, the largest coefficient of differentiation of Pb form is the solution in water formof Pb. exchange form of Pb. and solution in water-I-exchange-j-weak conbination form of Pb. Their coefficient of differentiation change among 1~ 1 places, but the oxide of iron-manganese form of Pb and organic-sulfur form of Pb change only among in unit’s place. Therefore. 3 in front form of Pb is main form of Pb to evaluate regional differentiation of form of Pb in soil.
    Related Articles | Metrics
    Gao Zhiqiang, Liu Jiyuan, Zhuang Dafang
    1998, 53 (s1):  36-43.  doi: 10.11821/xb1998s1005
    Abstract ( )   PDF (1561KB) ( )   Save
    On the basis of land classified information and ecological background information in the Chinese resources & environment database, the ecological environmental background index (QIN-DEX) and the used degree index of land resources (UINDEX) were used, the formulas of QIN-DEX and UINDEX are following ,Where :Q is degree of ecological background ;A, is area of farm land ; S, is area of adminis-tration.Based on QINDEX and UINDEX , the relational coefficient formulas are following :then, the relational method, the sample strip analyses method and the trend-face anal-yses method were adopted, the trend-face analyses formula is following: where; zis trend value; a0a1a2,......,an are coefficients.
    Related Articles | Metrics
    Gao Quanzhou, Tao Zhen, Dong Guangrong, Li Baosheng, Zou Xueyong, Sun Zhong, Jia Huilan, Yan Mancun
    1998, 53 (s1):  44-51.  doi: 10.11821/xb1998s1006
    Abstract ( )   PDF (464KB) ( )   Save
    The Chagelebulu section lies in the southern fringe of Badain Jaran Desert, Inner Mongolia , China. In this paper, the compositions of bulk chemical element of fifty-seven sediments in the section were analyzed with the method of fluorescence X-ray, which reflect the climatic evolu-tion in this area in response to global change since the last interglacial period. The periodic swing of the East Asia summer monsoon rain fringe in this area is the main reason to explain the complex facies changes of the section since 128 ka BP, i.e. , lacustrine deposit, the layer of peb-ble with sand, loess, paleosoil and eolian sand interlaced with each other frequently from the bottom to the top of the section. The weathering degrees of those deposits are different from each other. We arranged those deposits according to their silica-alumina ratios that were thought to be the reflection of their weathering from low value to high value degrees as follow-ing:Eolian sand (Ⅰ)→Aeolian sand (Ⅱ )eolian sand(Ⅲ)→the layers of pebble with sand→Q32 lacustrine deposits→Q31 lacustrine deposits→loess→paleosoil.With the fluctuation of the Quaternary glacial climate, the East Asia summer monsoon rain fringe could reach and even exceed this area during interglacial periods or stages and post-glacial period when the desert environment was transformed into a kind of steppe one, and the dunes were fixed completely or partly. Lacustrine deposit, loess and paleosol were formed in those pe-riods in the section which silica-alumina ratio is 9-33, 7.58 and 7.51, respectively. Former fixed dunes activated again during glacial period or stages when the dry and cold winter monsoon dominated the area. and eolian sand spread extensively in this area. Eolian sand was formed in those periods in the section which could be divided into 3 kinds according to their activation de-grees, i. e. eolian sand (Ⅰ), eolian sand (Ⅱ) and eolian sand (Ⅲ) mentioned in this paper, which silica-alumina ratio is 15. 42, 15. 40 and 10. 32, respectively, reflecting the interim fromfluent dune sand to half fixed one.In fact, the geochemical characteristics of clay part is different to that of whole rock. The geochemical information store in whole rock is diluted by its coarse part which is the product of physical weathering.
    Related Articles | Metrics
    Buheaosier, Liu Jiyuan, C. N.Ng
    1998, 53 (s1):  52-60.  doi: 10.11821/xb1998s1007
    Abstract ( )   PDF (579KB) ( )   Save
    In this study, three test sites with the same longitude, have been selected form south to north in wetland area of East China. Five test sites with the same latitude have been selected in arid or semi-arid area of north China, (the former three test sites located in Eastern Asian Mon-soon Area and the latter five test sites located in transition area or Non-Monsoon Area). Pro-duction of 24-month time series of one month maximum NDVI composites have been accom-plished based on NOAA AVHRR and Landsat-TM Data. Average temperature, precipitation and wind-speed data in each average of the month to be synchronous have also been put into computer for analyzing the dynamically correlated model of driving forces of land-cover changes. Conclusion have been made that land-cover change in China has distinct seasonal fragileness in each test site and their relationship has been found.In the study, we draw the following conclusion:(1)Vegetation is the connection of soil, atmosphere and precipitation.When using vegeta-tion as an indicator of land cover change, not only seasonal but also spatial change have been found in the land cover change. In addition, some unstable phase have also been identified.We conclude that the unstable phase in land cover was related to the seasonal and longitudinal change.(2)The zone and coastal plain of east of China belong to East Asian monsoon. The climateis rather wet. The correlation between NDVI and temperature is obvious. But the correlation between NDVI and precipitation is not so good. Therefore, we conclude that in a region of high precipitation, temperature is the key affecting factor for growth of vegetation.(3) In northern China, the Daxinganling forest area, the typical grassland area and arid desert area almost lie on the same latitude. From east to west, the land cover types are forest, forest-grassland, typical grassland, desert-grassland and arid desert. In the line, as the distance from coastal line increase. the monthly average NDVI value depend more on precipitation. Thus, compared with temperature, precipitation is the key affecting factor for vegetation growth arid area.( 4) From south to north, under the limitation of temperature. the deviation of average NDVI is not obvious. However, the seasonal deviation is high. From east to west, under the limitation of precipitation, the regional deviation of NDVI coincide with the productivity of veg-etation. It implies that temperature affect the budding, flowering, fruiting of vegetation. On the other hand, precipitation affect the productivity of vegetation.(5)Wind is one of the driving force causing desertification in dry and semi-dry region. The period of lasting of strong wind seems to be coincident with the degradation of vegetation for each test sites. In contrast, when the cover of vegetation was at maximum, wind speed was found to be minimum, because of the inverse relationship between wind speed and NDVI, de-sertifiction and land degradation happen in the grassland and cultivation land in northern China. Some research show that desertification and land degradation happened on winter and spring which coincide with the unstable stage found in our study.(6)Our study shows further that desertification and land degradation in northern China is caused by natural factor, it also relates to the seasonal degradation of vegetation. The most suitable method to prevent land degradation is to build cultivates land or grassland.
    Related Articles | Metrics
    Dang Among
    1998, 53 (s1):  61-66.  doi: 10.11821/xb1998s1008
    Abstract ( )   PDF (383KB) ( )   Save
    A series of classification quantitative standard have been worked out since the research of G. F. Jecks and M. R. C. Coulson (1963). However, the characteristics of statistical data has been considered so much that the mapping effect of classification scheme was hardly cared. In 1980s, mapping information content based on the entropy function was used to evaluate classifi-cation scheme which took the statistical precision and mapping effect into account at the same time. This article uses mapping classification information content to determine the visualization effect of GIS. A new formula of calculating classification information content is worked out based on the general mapping information concept.Using one of the general formulas of numerical sequence and progression, lots of classifi-cation schemes can be acquired with many sets of parameters (x,d,rBk) values within their do-main. This is the basic condition for classification optimization. However, the class intervals or class breaks of classification scheme changing in a single regularity from the minimum value to the maximum value of mapping element. And the change regularity of mapping element data it-self are not always so simple. The real situations are different from one to another and as com-plex as several types of changing rules composed together. Author proposes a new idea of "par-tial numerical sequence and progression classification method". The idea of this new method is that dividing mapping elements data series into several subseries at first; and then, using differ-ent classification method to acquire classification scheme for each subseries; finally, generalizing all of the subseries classification schemes to determine the final optimal classification scheme.
    Related Articles | Metrics
    Ma Weichun, Zhang Chao, Liu Qingsi
    1998, 53 (s1):  67-75.  doi: 10.11821/xb1998s1009
    Abstract ( )   PDF (570KB) ( )   Save
    The mathematical models and Geographical Information System (GIS) are the powerful ap-proaches and technical supports for the researches on urban water pollution. This paper pointed out that CD the regional environmental elements are of great importance when a water quality model is applied to a specific water body, therefore, the spatial analysis for the elements of the water environment, including the pollution source analysis, is of great significance, and GIS can be used as a pre-processor for solving this problem with its powerful function of spatial analysis; (2) the results from the water quality model can be visualized and showed in GIS, which become a postprocessor of the model. Regarding Suzhou Creek, which has been being seriously polluted in Shanghai City, as an example and based on a large amount of data and materials from pollu-tion source survey, this paper first developed the Water Environment Information System for Suzhou Creek based on ArcView, which formed the basis of the analysis of pollution sources and water quality simulation, and then simulated the characteristics of water quality variation of Suzhou Creek with the method of the integration of water quality model (WASP4) and GIS (Ar-cView). The results of the simulation are visualized in the ArcView windows through a data transformation program.At last. we discussed the characteristics of time and spatial variation of water quality for Suzhou Creek, and verified that there is a "Pollution Belt" in the course. The reciprocation characteristics of this "Pollution Belt" is also discussed.Based on the research work above, we believe that the integration of the environmental mathematical model and GIS is of great significance and will have bright future.
    Related Articles | Metrics
    1998, 53 (s1):  76-82.  doi: 10.11821/xb1998s1010
    Abstract ( )   PDF (321KB) ( )   Save
    The article studied the process of environmental evolution and characters of each stages for the past 600 years in Daihai District, through the clay minerals analysis, microelements analy-sis, organic matter content analysis, sporepollen analysis and ostracoda compound analysis of the sediment in the drills of central Daihai Lake and its historical data.Sediment in the 120 cm~80 cm part of drilling hole (600 a BP~400 a BP) contains high contents of organism and humid climate elements as Si, Al, Fe, Mn, and Ni, while the contents of ostracoda are low, with only less-salt-water limnocythere and fresh-water Candona existing in the middle of the this part of drill, reflecting a fresh-water environment of that period. The sporepollen contents are mainly Artemisia-, Chenopodiaceae, Pinus and Betula. Near the end of that period, the contents of Betula pollen increased a lot, and the average content of arbor sporepollen is over 27. 5%. Such data illustrate a temperate-cold and semihumid environmental of that period.Sediment in the 80 cm~40 cm part of drilling hole (400 a BP~200 a BP) contains more Os-tracoda than its former period does. Between 72 cm and 48 cm, a gram of sediment contains 1309~2383 Ostracodas, reflecting the more salty lake water. During this period, Illite and Boron contents are higher, while the warm-humid elements content become low. The content of Arbor sporepollen mainly Pinus and Betula, decreases a lot, while bush and grass sporepollen contents reach 75%~95%. The deeper part of this stage contains more Betula pollen, while the upper part contains more of Chenopodiaceae. These data represent a temperate-cold and semi-arid environmental character.The mumber of Ostracoda. mainly Limnocythere duhiosa and Leucocytherella trinoda, in-creases greatly in the sediment 40 cm to up (200 a BP~now). reflecting a more-salty-water en-vironment. Sporepollen are dominately bush and grass, with little content of Arbor, and the hu-mid climate elements decrease a lot, showing the temperate-cool and semi-arid environment and the developing tendency of arid climate.Form the division of sporepollen zone and environmental evolution periods . and also from the changing of environment data cycle. it can be concluded that there exists a quasi-cycle of cli-mate during the past 600 years’ evolution which changes every 200 years.
    Related Articles | Metrics
    Yuan Guoying, Yuan Lei
    1998, 53 (s1):  83-89.  doi: 10.11821/xb1998s1011
    Abstract ( )   PDF (475KB) ( )   Save
    In 1972. It was discovered by earth resources satellite of USA that Lop-Nur. which is known as a big ear shaped of in west China had dried up. Anyhow in the geological peroid. Lop-Nur was a big lake of 2×1042, even before the 1958. It covered an area of 2 919 km2. In or-der to set up the Lop-Nur Nature Reserve. We went to Lop nor area for five times from 1995 to 1997. In the spring of 1996, we reached Loulan Ancient city from the center of Lop-Nur and carried out the researches on the Lop-Nur and its environment.It was found that in historical period. Lop-Nur has become rich in water, and then with-ered, even dried up for many times. But In modern times, it was not a wandering lake but the salt converging depression of Tarim Basin. As for this point a large area of deep salt rock precip-itated at the center of former Lop-Nur. Tarim River has Changed its route for many times, but it only resulted in the changes in shape of water-surface at the mouth of Tarim River.The area of Lop-Nur has withered for many times, which was related to the development of agriculture in history. About 1400 a BP. and evident withering took place, which was resulted from the route change of Tarim River and cause the ruin of Loulan Ancient city. The drying-up of Lop-Nur in mordern times is the outcome of human influence.In satellite image, there are six evident traces in ancient Lop-Nur and four traces after 1921 can be seen.In consideration of arid climate and human economic development in Tarim Basin the situa-tion of drying-up and desertification can not be changed.
    Related Articles | Metrics
    Deng Hui
    1998, 53 (s1):  90-97.  doi: 10.11821/xb1998s1012
    Abstract ( )   PDF (428KB) ( )   Save
    The North Yanshan Mountains Region lies on the eastern part of the Inner Mongolia Au-tonomous Region, which adjacent to the furthest northern part of Hebei Province. This area be-longs to the semi-arid temperate zone, the climate of it is dry and windy, and the local eco-envi-ronment is vulnerable and sensitive.The North Yanshan Mountains region consists of three distinctive natural geographic dis-tricts. To the east is the Horqin Sandland, to the west is the mountainous region of Da Xing An Ling-Ji Bei Shan Di, and the loess hilly area locates in the middle. The problems of desertifi-cation and soil erosion are very serious, specially in the eastern and middle districts of the re-search region.Some scholars insisted that the current environmental problems mainly caused by people’s unreasonable land utilization, such as cutting down trees, over grazed and over cultivated, etc. They thought in the past this region was covered by luxuriate forests, which was called Ping Di Song Lin (the needleleaf forests growing on ground) or Qian Li Song Lin (the needleleaf forests stretching out one thousand li). The regional environment during that time was excellent and no desert or sandland existed at all.Based on analysis the data of history books, travels, local history, and the surveys of mod-ern biology and ecology, the author reconstructed this region’s nature landscape in the Liao Dy-nasty, it existed from the tenth century to eleventh century. The research suggested that the natural landscape of that time is similar to present.According to the research. Ping Di Song Lin was completely different from Qian Li Song Lin. Ping Di Song Lin consisted of two patches of needleleaf forests, one located on the upper reaches of the Xar Moron River and the other distributed on the eastern side of Da Xing An Ling Mountains. Qian Li Song Ling was much bigger than Ping Di Song Lin, which not only included PDSL but also contained the forests growing in Da Xing An Ling ?Ji Bei Shan Di Mountains. PDSL and QLSL were completely different geographical concepts.Both PDSL and QLSL mainly distributed in the western mountain area of the research re-gion. In the Liao Dynasty the nature landscape of Horqin sandland was almost as the same as present, which was shaped mainly by natural forces. The people’s activities only had a little im-pact on the regional geographic characteristics.
    Related Articles | Metrics
    Zhang Xiaohong
    1998, 53 (s1):  98-106.  doi: 10.11821/xb1998s1013
    Abstract ( )   PDF (635KB) ( )   Save
    The procession of the seasons and folk customs is one of the major contents of cultural geo-graphical sutdy. There were some different contents about the procession of the seasons and folk customs in different areas in shaanxi province during Qing Dynasty, and there also existed some discrepancies in the aspect of the date of festival. Therefore, Shaanxi province can be divd-ed into three regions of the procession of the seasons and folk customs, namely. Northern, Cen-tral , and Southern during Qing Dynasty.The region of Northern Shaanxi, including Yan’an, Yulin, Suide, and Luochuan states and Fu county which located in northern Fu state, had the obvious features that Jizao (offering a sacrifice to kitchen god) was held at night on December, 23 (lunar calendar), and Huotata (a tower-like shaped with coal) was burned to fete the Festival on the 15th day of the first lunar month. While in Central Shaanxi, inculding Xi’an, Tongzhou, Fengxiang, Bin, Qian states, and south Fu State, the local people not only generally lit the special lamps which were made of wheat flour everywhere in their houses, but also celebrated Butian Festival (mending heaven festival) on the 20 th day of the first lunar month. especially in northern parts of this area at the same time. In Southern Shaanxi, Jizao was on the 24 th day of the first lunar month, and there existed another custom, dragon-boat race (the 5th day of the 5th lunar month) along Han River, which became a different feature compared with Northern and Central Shaanxi regions.The formation of regional discrrpancy of the procession of the seasons and folk customs in Shaanxi had close relations with local natural conditions, migration, and cultural tradition, it was also important factor that had cause regional discrepancy of cultural landscape in Shaanxi.
    Related Articles | Metrics
    Jing Ke, Li Juzhang, Li Fengxing
    1998, 53 (s1):  107-115.  doi: 10.11821/xb1998s1014
    Abstract ( )   PDF (331KB) ( )   Save
    The principle and indexes for dividing zones of rosional landform type are discussed in the paper. Based on the principle and indexes, the whole middle Yellow River Basin is divided into 4 zones of I class, 20 class n zones, and 556 type patches. Using data of 155 sediment detentionbarriers which check all oncoming sediment and water flow, a erosion model with different weight is constructed. The model relates the amount of sediment deposited in the barriers with 5 factors influencing erosion in the basins upstream of the barriers.The yield of sediment erosion of every type patches was calculated by the model, and a map of erosional module contour was edited. It is found that most of the error between the calculated and measured sediment yield in various space scales are about ±10%. The total sediment yield of the patches is 14.655×108t/a in the period of 1970~1989.The spatial distribution of erosion intensity is revealed by the map clearly. It is lower than 5 000 t/km2 ?a to the west of Liupan Mt. , and to the east of Luliang Mt. In the area between Liupan and Luliang Mts, the erosion intensity declines southward from over 18 000 t/km2?a at Jungar and Fugu, 15 000 t/km2 ?a at Suide and Mizhi. 6500 t/km2?a at Yan’an, to lower than 1 OOOt/km2 ?a.The landform and ground surface material are defined as static factors, vegtation, precipi-tation and human impact as dynamic ones in the paper. Under the prerequisite of self-sufficiency in grain in the area, the values of dynamic factors in the middle of the next century are predicted for every patches. The sediment yield from these patches are reckoned by using the same model, and the total yield is 12.28×10sup>8t/a in the middle of the next century.
    Related Articles | Metrics
    Yin Guokang
    1998, 53 (s1):  116-123.  doi: 10.11821/xb1998s1015
    Abstract ( )   PDF (354KB) ( )   Save
    Located in loess plateau of China, the study area belongs to dry and semi-arid region with 12. 95 X 104knV of area. Here erosion is very heavy. It is the main source area causing channel deposition in the lower Yellow River. By a detailed analysis on characteristics of precipitation-runoff-sediment yield of various land surfaces of the area, the main points of the paper are as follows :1. Annual precipitation in the area is generally 450 mm or so. of which rainfall from June to Sept.amounts to 73 per cent of the total.Here not only is storm intensity very heavy as that a heavy storm on Aug. 1,1997. in which the maximum point rainfall of the storm centre amounted to 1 400 mm with 10 hours duration, but the storms are frequent in summer and varied in time and space.2. Surface material compositions of the area are mainly loess (62%). sand blown by the wind (24%) and bed rock (14%).Various surfaces make a notable impact on runoff and sedi-ment runoff processes.Of mean annual runoff, only 18.7 per cent is in the form of baseflow for the rock outcrop area.50~60 per cent for the area covered with loess, and more than 90 per cent for the area covered with sand blown by the wind. Of mean annual runoff, about 85 per cent occurs from June to Sept. for the rock area, about 65 per cent for the loess area; and 35 per cent for the area covered with sand. As to mean annual sediment yield, of which over 97 per cent falls in flood period for the rock area, about 85~97 per cent for the loess area and only 30~55 per cent for the area covered with sand.3. Both material composition and form structure of land surface have a great influence on erosion intensity. In sandstone area with very weak resistance to erosion the breaching extents (Av/A) of the surface, the quotient of the gully or valley cumulative area (Av) and the total drainage area (A), typically lie in the range 0.4 to 0.7 and the sediment yield module highly reach the range between 20 000 t/km2 ?a and 21 000 t/knv ?a.The module generally lie in the range 10 000 t/km ?a to 18 000 t/km2 ?a for loess mantle area with the values of Av/A lying between 0. 25 and 0. 48.The module often lie between 200 t/km2 ?a and 400t/km2?a for the sand mantle area with the values of Av/A lying between 0. 03 to 0. 05. As to within the loess mantle area the values of erosion modulus may be from 3 to 4 times variation between various sections due to difference in morphology.
    Related Articles | Metrics
    Wen Anbang, Zhang Xinbao, D.E.Walling
    1998, 53 (s1):  124-133.  doi: 10.11821/xb1998s1016
    Abstract ( )   PDF (607KB) ( )   Save
    The paper reports the results using Caesium-137 technique to investigate soil erosion rates and sediment sources and its changing of Zhaojia gully catchment in the rolling Loess Plateau re-gion of Zhichang County, Shaanxi province, China, where absence of direct measurements of the soils erosion rates and sediment source observation, the results of the paper derived from reservoir deposited and from Caesium-137 measurement.Soil samples were mainly collected from the cultivated slope land in the loess hills, steep gully area and the sediment deposited in sediment trap reservoirs, and the Caesium-137 refer-ence samples collected from a plain grassland, where no disturbance sine 1953,and same altitude as the study cultivated slope land.The references inventory of Caesium-137 in study region was 2 504 Bq/m2, and the average Caesium-137 content of the rolling cultivated slope land and the steep cultivated slope land were 1 248- 2 Bq/m2 and 443. 1 Bq/m2 respectively. Based on measurement of the Caesium-137 con-tent of these soil samples, the estimated net erosion rates on cultivated land occupying the gen-tle crest slopes and steeper lower slopes of the rolling plateau and the steep gully slopes were 4 158 t/km2?a, 8 584 t/km2?a and 15 851 t/km2 ?a, respectively, and the rolling cultivated slope land and steep gully slope land were 6 580 t/km2 ?a and 21 118 t/km2 ?a respectivelyThe average content of surface samples collected from the rolling cultivated slope land, and the steep gully area were 3. 88 Bq/kq and 0. 02 Bq/kg respectively. The average content of thesediments deposited in dam 3 was 0. 91 Bq/kg. According to analysis of the Caesium-137 content of surface soil samples from the rolling cultivated slope land and gully slope land and the sedi-ment deposited in sediment trap reservoirs, the relative contribution of sediment from the rolling Plateau and gully area were estimated to be 24% and 76% respectively. Analysis of the sedi-ment deposited dating from 1973~977 in another sediment trap reservoir enable individual flood event couplets to be identified and indicated that the sediment associated with the first one or two floods in a season, when the soils of the plateau area were relatively dry, the sediment of the reservoir was derived primary from the gully areas, the cultivated soils of the rolling plateau contributed an increased proportion of the total sediment yield during the latter stages of the flood season when the soils were wetter and surface runoff and erosion were more widespread.
    Related Articles | Metrics
    Zhang Xinbao, An Zhisheng, Cheng Yude
    1998, 53 (s1):  134-140.  doi: 10.11821/xb1998s1017
    Abstract ( )   PDF (330KB) ( )   Save
    The influence of lithological composition on soil mositure and vegetation in semiarid regions are briefly analyzed. The relationships between lithological composition and vegetation in the Loess Plateau, Northwest China, and in the Yuanmao dry and hot valley, Yunnou, Southwest China, are described in this paper.The loess plateau, where most of land is covered with thick loess deposits up to 300 m, ex-periences temperate semiarid climate with an average anaual temperature, precipitation and e-vaporation of 7. 5C~12. 5C, 400 mm~600 mm, and 1000 mm~l400 mm respectively. There is a good relationship between loess thickness and vegetation in the plateau. Precipitation losses by ground evaporation on loess deposits is considerably high because of its fine texture and high porosity. Steppes are distributed in the thick loess region with deep ground water while forests are distributed in the thin loess region with shallow ground water. Forests are also dis-tributed in the rocky hill region where precipitation infiltrates deeply into the ground because weathering fragmental rocks usually have coarse texture and low porosity. In the northern part of the plateau, the loess hill slope covered with sand deposits are prone to shrubs. The de-scribed relationships between vegetation and ground materials may explain why forestation has succeeded in the rock-thin loess hilly regions failed in the thick loess plateau regions in the loess Plateau.The Yuanmou dry and hot valley experiences subtropical semiarid climate with an average annual temperature, precipitation and evaporation of 21. 9 C , 613. 8 mm and 3 911. 2 mm, re-spectively. Different plants were selected for vegetation rehabilitation experiments on hill slopes underlain by different rocks during the period of 1991~1993. The experiments have successfully demonstrated that the hill slopes underlain by terrace gravel deposits suit dense forests while the slopes underlain by schist shrubs and grasses with a few trees, and the slopes underlain by mud-stone suit shrubs and grasses.
    Related Articles | Metrics
    Sun Guangyou
    1998, 53 (s1):  141-148.  doi: 10.11821/xb1998s1018
    Abstract ( )   PDF (501KB) ( )   Save
    The comprehensive classification system of mire (CCSM) is based on the single element classification of mire, therefore it is a more complex and higher classification of mire. It is possi-ble to generalize the formation environment and growing process, ecosystem structure and land-scap feature. But for a past long time, a estabilished CCSM has not been found in the world yet. There is not any comprehensive classification system of China which is accepted widely.The principle and mark of CCSM was researched in the paper and found a new CCSM suit-ing the world mire with four grades : the first system is divided into fresh water mire and salt-al-kali mire, the dividing marks are volume of salt of soil, if 0.1 or pH>7.5, the mire belongs to salt-alkaline mire. The sec-ond type is divided into peat mire and gleization mire. The third class is divided into woody mire, grass mire, moss and algae. The fourth bodies is divided into little plant landscap of mire, The mark is superiority plant of mire.Based on the CCSM, we found a classification system of mire of China, including two sys-tems of mire, four types of mire, thirteen classes of mire and 98 bodies of mire.
    Related Articles | Metrics
    Tang Chuan, JorgGrunert
    1998, 53 (s1):  149-157.  doi: 10.11821/xb1998s1019
    Abstract ( )   PDF (589KB) ( )   Save
    To satisfy the increasingly urgent demand for prediction of natural disasters, risk assess-ment is one of the fundamental tools for helping the decision-making process. Even though indi-vidual components of landslide hazard can be difficult of access, the availability of geographic in-formation systems helps in proposing pertinent methods for the mapping of such risk. This pa-per describes principles and systematic methodology used to established a GIS capable of identi-fying and quantitatively rating areas of landsliding risk and hazard.The frame for assessment of landslide hazards includes four levels; (1) basic information analysis; (2) assessment of landslide danger; (3) assessment of landslide hazard; (4) assess-ment of landslide risk. The study area is located in the southern urban area of Bonn, Germany. Digital factor maps (compiled from a DEMO, landslide distribution, hydrology and infrastruc-ture (e. g. buildings, roads) were stored in GIS. They are many parameters that are considered to be important to landsliding for the study area. In this study we listed 10 causal factors from the initial set for susceptibility analysis of landslides. The factors were measured at both the landslide sites and the grid intersections, and each was divided into between four and eight class-es to produce a total of 67 attributes. The FS analysis method developed by Masamn Aaniya in 1986 was employed to determine landslide susceptibility. This analysis involves computation of the relative frequency of each attribute in the landslide and grid data, and division of each rela-tive frequency for the landslide data by that for the grid data. The analysis results create seven important factors for hazard-risk assessment. They are slope angle, rock type, distance to fault zone, groundwater table, slope profile form, slope aspect, elevation. Different weights have been assigned to the factors depending on susceptibility analysis. By overlaying land-use infor-mation of the study area to hazard map. landslide risk map was created, which depicts relative risk susceptibility of areas to landslides under existing natural condition and human activities. The results of the case study has also demonstrated how large amounts of disparate information can be effectively integrated and analyzed by GIS to provide an output which delineate landslide risk and hazard classes and produce zonation maps.
    Related Articles | Metrics
    Yu Zhiying, Fan Shejun, Jin Liao
    1998, 53 (s1):  158-166.  doi: 10.11821/xb1998s1020
    Abstract ( )   PDF (386KB) ( )   Save
    The old Yellow River Delta in Jiangsu province has been an abandoned delta since 1855 when the Yellow River changed its course to Shangdong province. With the exhaustion of sedi-ment supply from river,the subaqueous and land part of abandoned Yellow River Delta has being eroded by wave and tidal current. The large scale erosion at submarine delta and the trans-portation of eroded sediment reflects the erosion process. As a result, the coast along this area become the only one part of ?10m isobath near shore most closely in Jiangsu province. In the mean while, under the erosion and sedimentation adjustion in one and a half centuries, the un-ceasing erosion at the area that is deeper than ?10m and ?15m has been restrained effectively and its topography tends to stable. At the region of subaqueous slope that lies between isobath of ?5 m and ?10 m, as the trend of isobath tends gadually parallel to the longitudinal axis direction of tidal current, the profile of subaqueous slope has being adjusted gradually, side-ero-sion on the slope caused by tidal current has being weakened. At the shoal area that is shallower than ?5m, because of the establishment of defense buildings, the severe recess of coastline caused by wave is checked. As a result, the wave-induced erosion on sea bed is confined within the limited area that lies between the stable coastline and subaqueous slope where erosion is de-cline. The adjusting of tidal flat profile can be detected from the recess of curvature on the pro-file and the "down cutting" on the shoal.However, according to macroscopic natural environment, the present evolution of subaque-ous topography is still in the adjusting stage,which is made up with "weakening" and "down cut-ting" of erosion process. Under the action of powerful wave and tidal current, erosion on the shoal that is composed of silt sediment which is widely distributed in local area and subaqueous topography still is the main characteristics of topography evolution. Therefore , the severe move-ment of suspended material and abundant supply of sediment that is generated by erosion will become main impeding factors for local harbor constuction in the future. And then, we must at-tach importance to study engineering measures when making plan for harbor construction, so that can guarantee the progress of harbor engineering construction.
    Related Articles | Metrics
    Wu Jianfeng, Zhu Xueyu, Chen Yudao, Liu Jianli
    1998, 53 (s1):  167-174.  doi: 10.11821/xb1998s1021
    Abstract ( )   PDF (474KB) ( )   Save
    On the basis of qualitatively analyzing the recharge, run-off and discharge conditions of ground water in Gaoqing Plain, authors propose that it should be regarded as a principle of ground water resource evaluation to transform useless evaporation of phreatic water into avail-able water resource. Then the mathematical model describing two-dimensional unsteady subsur-face flow in the heterogeneous aquifer was established in accordance with the hydrogeological conditions. Also rational parameters were selected in the light of a vast amount of actual materi-als. Meanwhile finite element method was employed to quantitatively predict the water table and buried depth after different exploitation schemes.On the premise of guaranteeing the water quantity balance and by comparing the different water table depths after all plans, the conclusions how to rather rationally extract water re-sources were reached based on the two different hypothetic precipitation series: (1) the precipi-tation series from 1975 to 1989; and (2) the average precipitation series coming from several decades.Subject to the hypothesis (1), the allowable exploitation in the phreatic aquifer is about 142. 5 millions cubic meters per year in case that the Yellow River keep flowing and can be chan-neled from it for irrigation, while 128. 0 millions cubic meters per year in case that the Yellow River dry up. Similarly, subject to the hypothesis (2), the allowable exploitation is about 168- 4 millions cubic meters per year in case the Yellow River keeps flowing, while 140. 0 millions cubic meters in case the Yellow River dries up.The research results manifest that the ground water is rather abundant and the extraction in current situation accounts for about one forth of the allowable exploitation of the phreatic water. As a result the phreatic aquifer has great potentialities for exploitation. At the same time, the water table would become lower and the evaporation discharge become smaller with the exploitation of ground water, which would be bound to produce positive environmental effects.
    Related Articles | Metrics
    Wang Xingzhong
    1998, 53 (s1):  175-185.  doi: 10.11821/xb1998s1022
    Abstract ( )   PDF (708KB) ( )   Save
    This paper researched the functional relationship between the land use change and the factors of internalty society power in human geographical methodology based on a case of Xi’an. It makes the conclusions of interrelation patterns of them:1)The society factors of the land use change processes.2)The spatial discriminatory pattern of financial institutions lending.3)The spatial structure of the real estate-lend.4)The government agencies act on the pattern of the land use.5)The recognition pattern of urban land use in the real estate companies, etc.These patterns expresses that the government agencies are made of the key factors in the spatial change factors of the internal society power.The government agencies and combining with other internal society powers make up urban spatial function of the "governing coalition", it likes East country.This paper researched that relation between the powers of urban land use and the spatial change in China and the special affect of the behavioral power.
    Related Articles | Metrics
    Mu Congru, Yang Qinye, Liu Xuehua
    1998, 53 (s1):  186-192.  doi: 10.11821/xb1998s1023
    Abstract ( )   PDF (1000KB) ( )   Save
    Environmental conflict consists of the conflicts, between human activities and geographical environment in different areas, with different extent and form. It takes place more frequently with the development of economy, improper and excess exploitation of natural resources, and the out-of-order competition among departments and regions. This thesis introduces the devel-opment of the research overseas. Due to its obvious regionalism and inter-conditioning and inter-dependence with elements of physical and human geography, Environmental conflict has pro-found geographical signification handling environmental conflict by the same principle of justice in dealing with inter-regional, inter-department, and inter-generation conflicts, reliably regional sustainable development is essential. Then, the application of environmental conflict analysis in geographical research is tentatively discussed.
    Related Articles | Metrics
    Dong Hanfei
    1998, 53 (s1):  193-197.  doi: 10.11821/xb1998s1024
    Abstract ( )   PDF (347KB) ( )   Save
    Sustainable Development" is a comprehensive strategical target and recent major tasks. It can greatly enhence the development of modern geography. Modern geography can only reach the level of modern basic subjects when theoretical construction and methodology system are improved.
    Related Articles | Metrics
    Lu Yunting, Xiao Cheng
    1998, 53 (s1):  198-203.  doi: 10.11821/xb1998s1025
    Abstract ( )   PDF (422KB) ( )   Save
    The Swallon Cavern in Jianshui County, Yunnan Province is an underground current cavern which accommodating both the visiting tourists and the habitating swallows. The two creatures’ existing in one cavern inevitably influences the sofisticated changes of the ecological environment in the cavern. The thesis based on this point, through the observation and analysis of the key factors of the cavern’s ecological environment, elucidates both the environmental qualities (such as the microclimate, quality of air and water body, quantity of natural areation and noises) and the accompanying but antirelationship between tourists and swallows. According to these stud-ies it also provides several meaningful ways of protecting the ecological environment of this cavern.
    Related Articles | Metrics
    Liang Jinshe
    1998, 53 (s1):  204-211.  doi: 10.11821/xb1998s1026
    Abstract ( )   PDF (380KB) ( )   Save
    Based on the resident’s welfare, the author creates a system which can be used to measure the optimum of each central place system and to analyze the total gain and loss when its subsys-tem changes from one form into another. In the welfare system,k=3 system means less average transport distance and time, therefore higher welfare level; k=4 and k=7 system improve resident’s welfare level by deducing transport cost rate and administration cost, respectively.Through the system created, the relationship between central-place system and economic-development is observed. The results demonstrate that from autarky to developed economy, the central-place system will evolve successively as follows; k=7; complex systems of k=7 and k=4; k= 4; complex systems of k= 4 and k= 3; k= 3.At the end, with the central place theory and the system above, the author manages to give the point-axle system a perspective. The conclusion is that the point-axle system is suitable for the developing economy, and market principle (or k= 3 system) is more suitable in relatively de-veloped regions.
    Related Articles | Metrics
    Dou Qun, Cui Fengjun
    1998, 53 (s1):  212-217.  doi: 10.11821/xb1998s1027
    Abstract ( )   PDF (444KB) ( )   Save
    Traveling is closely connected with geography. For a long time, geographic experts have taken part in much research and practice to promote the tourism development, and have done a good deal in this field, yield much economic and society effect. Geography still has much poten-tial work that can be done in promoting the tourism development. To turn this objection into re-alization . the most important task is not the other one, but the theory construction of geography itself. Through reviving the traditional basic geographic ideas and methods , such as comprehen-sive, regional and consulting system selection, especially from the point of macroeconomics, this paper studies the great contribution of geography in promoting the tourism development, and concludes that, during the course of applying in tourism applying research, the geographic theory system, its train of thought and applying scope can be enriched and developed much also.
    Related Articles | Metrics
    Ren Wangbing
    1998, 53 (s1):  218-224.  doi: 10.11821/xb1998s1028
    Abstract ( )   PDF (502KB) ( )   Save
    The three factors caused inefficient economic sytem in oasis : inferior quality of people, in-accessible transportation condition, arid and lacking water. For this reason, modern economic system of oasis is an effective model which can promote sustained development of regional eco-nomic. The construction of modern economic system of oasis must be fit for its characteristics of natural environment and economic development. Five principles defined to construct it: (a) principle of water benefit; (b) principle of ecological benefit; (c) principle of opening to the out-side world; (d) Principle of comparative superiority and (e) principle of self-containment. In the light of these principles, the author studied the model and direction of agriculture and indus-try development, rational utilization of water resource, formation and development of city and town, development of energy resource and allocation of transportation and communication in Xinjiang.
    Related Articles | Metrics
    Zhang Bai
    1998, 53 (s1):  225-232.  doi: 10.11821/xb1998s1029
    Abstract ( )   PDF (371KB) ( )   Save
    The Songliao Plain in Northeast China is one of the nation’s most important bases of grain production. Its corn production accounts for one third of the national total production. More than half of the nation’s corn export comes from the region. The natural conditions of the region are similar to those in other corn producing areas of the world. To provide a realistic basis for the allocation of farmland for using 40 years of data, this paper examines the structure and char-acteristics of farmland in the Songliao Plain, focusing on the changing ratio and diversity index of farmland use. In the paper, first, the farmland landscape structure and feature of the Songliao Plain "corn belt" are analsysed from the three aspects梒rop habitats, crop ecotypes and crop species. Then, according to the statistics data computting the rate and diversity index of the farmland landscape factors and drawing out the diversity index curve of the dynamic changes,From these the 40 years’ dynamic changes of the farmland landscape in the area are showed. It is hoped only that the result can provide some reference materials for the reasonal match and steady development of the farmland landscape ecosystem.The main points are as follows :The farmland is the major landscape in Songliao Plain "corn belt", so the reasonal match of the farmland structure are important to assure the stable development of the landscape ecosys-tem and steady grain productive process.Because the farmland is a landscape category which was formed by human agro-action, there the feature of the artifical landscape is quite clear, There are limited species of crops in which the corn is absolute predominance and becomes more and more,so that the structure of landscape becomes simple day by day. In order to keep the production of grain the material-e-merge flow throuagh the farmland are artifical increased, so the self-regulate ability of the land-scape become to decrease. The farmland landscape system is more unstable and changeable.The landscape diversity is the expression of the complex and disparty of the landscape structure,The change of the landscape diversity shows the change trend of the ladnscape. In the area, qn the one hand, since 1949 the change of the farmland structure is showed the increaseing trend on the aspect of the crop habitats’ diversity, and on the other hand the changes of farm-land structure are showed the decreasing trend of the crop ecotypes and crop species dicersity af-ter mid of 70’s when the "corn belt" was fromed.
    Related Articles | Metrics