• 1998 Volume 53 Issue 3
    Published: 15 May 1998

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  • Ren Mei-e, Yang Baoguo
    1998, 53(3): 193-201.
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    This paper discusses factors affecting current and future port development in China under Chinese market economy and increasingly larger size of ocean freighters and containerization of cargo. These factors are: (1) physical conditions. It is still the most important factor to affect the port development. Water depth, wave condition and land space adjacent to the port are some of the key factors to determine the port development. Along with the process of containerization, the water depth of the navigation channel will be at least 15 m. (2) hinterland. A port should have an extensive hinterland. With the rapid development of economy and transportation in China, the scope of hinterland has changed greatly. (3) containerization. Containerization is one of the most remarkable characteristics of the current ocean transportation; throughput of containers is the most important factor in the ranking of world’s ports. A container ship of the fifth generation which has been put into use in China can load more than 5 000 TEU . Meanwhile, containerization has also changed the distributing way of port cargo, express way instead of traditional shipment will be the main means for distribution. Container shipping lines and frequency of departure of container ships are also two of the important factors to determine the distributing conditions. Because of limited ocean container ship routes and frequency of departure of container ships, Shanghai will be only a regional container shipping center during a given time. (4) fresh water resources. Fresh water resources often determine the port scale. (5) support of great cities and large enterprises. Great cities and large enterprises will supply plenty of cargoes and excellent distributing conditions, their strong support will fasten the port development. (6) port service system. Port service system will ensure the efficient work of the port. Except Hongkong, efficiency of container transport in China is still low and has a long way to go to improve her position in international container shipping market. A preliminary conclusion is : socio economic factors and human actions are exerting greater influence on development of Chinese ports, while the traditional notion “port as the base of city development” is no longer totally true. The construction of shanghai International Shipping Center has great significance in port development of the whole country. It will be a port group, consisting of a center port——Shanghai, two sub center ports Beilun on the south and Taicang on the north, and a number of major tributary and feeder ports. A rational division of port functions is of utmost importance so that favorable conditions fo one port could be used to help less favored ports and duplication in berth construction and irrational competition among ports could be avoided. Shanghai as a center port of Changjiang delta must also be a container hub port. For improving the transportation efficiency and economic benefit, container shipping should be concentrated in Shanghai, for it has several advantages except the limitation of water depth. Beilun should fully take advantage of her deepwater and develop inter continental container traffic, however, its development is limited by the small hinterland, poor port service system, fewer ocean container ship routes, so it needs to be greatly innovated to meet the demand of sub center port of Shanghai international shipping center. Taicang has the best conprehensive conditions. It will be constructed jointly by Jiangsu province, Suzhou city and COSCO. Taicang has the Suzhou city and Wuxi city as its direct hinterland, these two cities will supply plenty of containers, and good distributing conditions. As one of the investors, the construction of International COSCO city in Taicang will be speed up to catch the development of Shanghai International Shipping Center, COSCO is the fourth largest ocean container carrier in the world, with her support, it can be foreseen that new ocean container ship routes will be opened from Taicang to all over the world.
  • Du Peng, Li Shikui
    1998, 53(3): 202-208.
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    Assessing agro meteorological hazards from risk viewpoint is actually a new approach to assess agro climate resources. Risk degree, a kind of relative index, can not only reflect the influence of agro meteorological hazards on economic benefits, but also provide an effective index for the comparison of different kinds of agro meteorological hazards. In this article, agro meteorological hazard risk is defined as the integration of many negative variations between prospective object and practical outcome under certain agricultural environment and present market conditions. In order to calculate risk degree for a special crop, first of all, its risk system must be established. The risk system includes ordinary events and risk events lined together in time sequence. Each risk event can be developed into a risk chain; then a pragmatic analysis model must be established, based on a crop development model; at last, by the statistical analysis of practical time series of benefit, the risk degrees of each risk chain and the whole risk system can be calculated. The construction of risk assessment model is critical for risk analysis. The author divides the whole process of constructing a risk assessment model into three steps: 1) Constructing Concept Model, it is a framework including value model, hazard model and resisting hazard model; 2) Expansion of Value Model, one crop growing model can be used to describe the change of crop value; 3) Hazard Functions, the impact of hazards is described by using these functions. Meanwhile, some characteristics of agro meteorological hazard risk and basic methods about the agro meteorological hazard risk decision and risk management are discussed, and as an example, the risk degrees of agro meteorological hazards for mango in Zhujiang Delta are also showed in the thesis.
  • Ke Changqing, Li Peiji
    1998, 53(3): 209-215.
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    In this paper three complete Qinghai Xizang Plateau snow cover data sets consisting of SMMR microwave pentad snow depth maps covering the period 1978~1987, operational NOAA weekly snow cover extent charts during the period between 1966~1989, and daily snow depth data at 60 primary weather stations cover the 36 year period 1957~1992, were used to investigate the spatial and temporal characteristics of snow cover over the Qinghai Xizang Plateau by using EOF method, spectral analysis as well as trend estimate analysis, and so on. The results showed that the spatial distribution of snow cover over the Qinghai Xizang Plateau is very inhomogeneous. The heavy snow cover in periphery, especially in western and eastern parts of the Qinghai Xizang Plateau evidently compares with the light snow cover in the vast interior of the Qinghai Xizang Plateau. The heavy snow cover region in the east of the Qinghai Xizang Plateau is the most significant region of the interannual variation of snow cover on the Qinghai Xizang Plateau, and dominates the interannual variation of snow cover in the whole Plateau. There is an opposite phase relation between the western parts and the eastern parts of the Qinghai Xizang Plateau in the interannual fluctuation of snow cover. The interannual fluctuation of snow cover over the Qinghai Xizang Plateau is at a quasi periodicity of about three years. This indicates that the interannual fluctuation of snow cover over the Qinghai Xizang Plateau possibly is resulted from sea atmosphere circulation anomolies in equatorial pacific. There is an augmentative trend of inter annual fluctuation amplitude of snow cover over the Qinghai Xizang Plateau from 1960s to 1980s. The results of trend estimmate by using ARMA imply that the increasing trends of snow volume are almost omnipresent over the entire Qinghai Xizang Plateau, whereas the decreasing trends of snow volume principally limit to local areas. Therefore, snow cover on the Qinghai Xizang Plateau will increase with global warming.
  • Huang Guangqing
    1998, 53(3): 216-227.
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    Hong Kong, located on the north coast of the South China Sea, is under the influence of tropical storms. In order to examine storm signatures in the Holocene sediments of Hong Kong, offshore cores made for engineering site investigation and sand search were selected for the present study. Instrumental records of storm events since 1884 were also studied to provide an explanation of forcing mechanism for storm sedimentation. Detailed sedimentological study of four offshore cores, VB1,PV3,PV18 and PEW42, located in eastern, central and western waters of Hong Kong, revealed five types of sedimentary beds: ① structureless silty clay bed; ② graded sand bed; ③ horizontal or wavy laminated bed; ④ shell rich bed which can be subdivided into graded shell bed and ungraded shell bed, and ⑤ structureless shelly silt bed. The graded sand beds, laminated beds and shell rich beds are indicative of the dynamic sedimentary environment during storms. Their sedimentological characteristics are similar to modern storm sequences found in other inner shelves. Under normal conditions, the moderate tidal currents are incapable of transporting and enriching coares grained materials such as sand and shells. However, during extreme storms, both currents and waves were greatly enhanced by strong winds with bottom current velocity reaching over several times above normal. It is only under such conditions that coarse sediment can be mobilized. The foraminiferal content in sediments is found to be particularly useful in indicating the presence of storm deposits through a greater abundance of exotic species in comparison to native species. Because of the low specific gravity of the foraminiferal tests, they are significantly exchanged between different sedimentary facies during extreme storms. At least four storm beds have been identified in the upper 7 m of core VB1 based on the increase in diversity of exotic foraminifera species. However, in the eastern waters of Hong Kong which is located in the open shelf foraminifera are not useful for recognition of an individual storm bed. This is because low sedimentation rate and high post depositional reworking in this area makes the storm deposits totally mixed with the normal, leading to a homogenous foraminiferal distribution like in core DEW42. Magnetic susceptibility is also used to assist the identification of sediment mixing caused by storms. Contaminated and uncontaminated sediments are found to have a high and a low magnetic susceptibility respectively. The high content of contaminated sediment down to a depth of about 2 m confirms that mixing through storm is an important process. Because of this, the dating of surficial sea floor sediment down to a depth of about 2 m is problematical. The well preservation of storm beds in the western waters of Hong Kong is explained by the low rates of bioturbation and the high rate of sedimentation due to the influence of the Zhujiang River. In the eastern waters, the poor preservation of storm beds in core DEW42 is explained by low rate of sedimentation and high rate of bioturbation.
  • Zhang Xiugui
    1998, 53(3): 228-237.
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    Many researchers studied about the process of land formation of Pudong Area in Shanghai in the last 50 years. Tan Qixiang published 4 papers on this topic from 1966 to 1982. Those papers set a well knit background for further examination on this topic. Meanwhile, other researchers from different disciplines also worked on it, and got a great progress. Up to now, many conclusions are kept under difference. This paper, based on the relationship of coastline and sea walls, tries to discuss the process of land formation of Pudong Area in Shanghai, and aims at some new ideas on this topic. The main conculsions are as follows: (1) At 1700 aBP, Pudong coastline was near the Xiasha sand belt. In Pudong Area, there is an intermittent and NNW direction sand belt along Beicai, Zhoupu, Xiasha and Hangtou. This sand belt connects its northern part (Shengqiao to Yuepu sand belt), and forms a historical coastline which is parallel to Gangshen sand belt. In 1975, an ancient settlement site Yanqiao formed at the beginning of Tang Dynasty to Song Dynasty was discovered, which just located at the west side of the Xiasha sand belt. This site shows a reproachless evidence that the Xiasha sand belt and the land on its west were formed before the beginning of Tang Dynasty. For considering the unearthed cultural relics from the land west of Xiasha sand belt, especially the ancient map of Wujun Kangcheng Diyutu which was painted in AC 322, the coastline along Xiasha sand belt should naturally extend to Island Tanhushan and then to Island Wangpanshan. It was recorded that Wangpanshan was an site for army garrison in the early days of East Jin Dynasty (the early period of the 4th century). So, based on such evidences, it can be considered that the coastline along Xiasha sand belt was formed before the 4th century with a 1700 year history. The former standpoints, that the coastline in the 4th century was near the eastern part of Gangshen sand belt and the Jiu sea wall and Xiasha sea wall were along Xiasha sand belt, are not correct. (2) At 1000 aBP, the coastline was advanced eastward to the line along today’s Lihu sea wall. Many ancient sites and cultural relics belonging to Song Dynasty were unearthed in the land west of Lihu sea wall. And based on the records described in Jiadan’s Shuilishu (Irrigation Book) , it can be considered that the coastline in the middle of the 11th century was near the line along Lihu sea wall. The sea level relatively rose in the Northern Song Dynasty, and it impacted on Shanghai area. Western low land of Shanghai sank to be lakes and marshes, and southern coastline countermarched extensively and northern coastline moved southward. The coastline in the eastern part of Pudong Area kept relatively in stabilization when it supported by the sediment of Changjiang River. Under the threat of sea level rise and tide damage, the head of Huating county Wuji led a project for constructing a sea wall along coastline. The northeast part of this sea wall is today’s Lihu sea wall. The Jiu sea wall recorded in Yunjianzhi (county annals written in Southern Song Dynasty) and the Xiasha sea wall recorded in Shanghaizhi (county annals written in Ming Dynasty) were alias of Wuji’s sea wall or the reconstructed part of it. So, it is not correct in the former viewpoints that the Lihu sea wall was constructed in the early days of Tang Dynasty, or the middle of Tang Dynasty, or the end of Tang Dynasty, or the middle of Southern Song Dynasty. (3) At 600 aBP, the coastline in Pudong Area was moved to the linenear the East west sand belt. The coastal area at Nanhui Mouth southeast of the East west sand belt was formed in the last 600 years, and this conclusion was based on the data of the 14 C dating from the East west sand belt. The process of land formation in the last 600 years is much lower than before. One of the main reasons is that the sediment from Changjiang River made contribution to enlarging the Island Chongming and forming the islands of Changxing and Hengsha and other sand beaches.
  • Li Fan, Zhang Xiurong, Li Yongzhi, Li Benzhao
    1998, 53(3): 238-244.
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    During 1983~1993, sub bottom stratigraphic sequences were measured by high resolusion geophysical instrument and sedimentary body characterized by large scale, low angle and progradational reflection configuration with the feature of delta structure was found in the central deep water area of the south Yellow sea (123°40′~124°06′E, 34°02′~35°N). The extent of the sedimentary body is 50 km~60 km in the surveying line direction with the thickness of 15 m~20m. In the area near the No.56 station, two reflection surfaces (T1,T2) and three strata (A,B,C) are distingushed below seabottom within 30 m, according to the feature of acoustical reflection configuration. The stratum above T1 represents Holocene series marine sediment and that between T1 and T2 (B) represents late pleistocene series, the interbed of land and marine facies sediment and the stratum (C) below T2 represents middle pleistocene series. The interface between A and B is unconformable. Above mentioned sedimentary body is located up in B stratum, and below it there is a buried paleo river dated 14C 26 820±2 380 aBP. It is inferred that the buried paleo delta is constructional formed during regressive period of late pleistocene. In addition, Close to the No.59 station, there are 3~4 channels with dissected filling reflection configuration, which are branches of a large buried paleo river with progradational bedding and sedimentary and geomorphological features in river mouth delta. Analysing of core 92 1 near the No.59 station shows that foraminifera assemblage and Sr/Ba are possessed with the feature of depositional environment from river mouth to nearshore. This proves further that the sedimentary body with progradational reflectional configuration is a river mouth delta. Result of mineral analysing shows that mineral assemble in the delta sediment consists mainly of Amphibole, Epidote, Timenit, Biotite and Carnet. The content of Carnet is higher than that of the sediment from Changjiang River, and most of Amphibole crystals have no inclusion. Above feature can be distinguished not only from that of the sediment from Changjiang River but also from that of Yalujiang. It is thus clear that mineral association feature in the delta sediment is similar to that from the Huanghe River. Obviously, the delta represents buried paleo Huanghe River delta formed during regressive period of late pleistocene. Finding of Buried paleo Huanghe River delat shows that paleo Huanghe River flowed on the south Yellow Sea shelf during late pleislocene.
  • Wang Zhaoyin
    1998, 53(3): 245-255.
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    Mechanics of sediment transport is a branch of basic technical science in which the process of erosion, transportation and deposition of sediment take place under action of gravity, flowing water, wave and wind. The theory of mechanics of sediment transport was developed and the main frame of the science was constructed in 1940s and 1950s. Thence less great breakthroughs were made. Now development of technology and accumulation of knowledge have pushed the science branch at a scratch line for a great leap. Four main directions of the sediment research are: (1) Sediment transport in unsteady flows. The main theories and formulas of sediment dynamics were established based on steady and uniform flows. Nevertheless, the theories and formulas often fail to apply in engineering projects because sediment in nature is transported by unsteady and non uniform flows. It is more often so following development of the application scope and requirement of high accuracy estimation of rate of sediment transport. There is an urgent need for knowledge of sediment transport and river deformation in unsteady flows. (2) Development of boundary sciences. Boundary sciences develop from combination of sediment transport with other sciences, such as a combination with geomorphology created dynamic geomorphology and a combination with environmental science initiated environmental sedimentology. The wet land science is a combination of hydrology, sediment transport and biology. (3) Macroscopic studies. Microscopic studies have revealed the mechanism of grain motion. Macoroscopic studies, on the other hand, can provide a different approach to the dynamics of sediment motion and its result geomorphological evolution. Remote sensing and Geographical Information System will promote macroscopic studies. (4) Computer modelling. Computer modelling have been widely used to solve engineering problems. Two and three dimensional models will be widely used in a seeable future. About 20 new problems, which will possibly become the main growing points of the science, are listed in the paper, for instances, defining the speed of the river motion as the volume swept by the river in unit time. The “force” inducing the river motion is instability of the sediment carrying capacity and oncoming load. An equation of motion is yet to be found and the law of the river motion to be studied. Sediment researchers and engineers have proposed many formulas for bed load transport rate and suspended sediment carrying capacity of flow. Nevertheless, there is no formulas to calculate rate of sediment scour. Studies on this problem is urgently needed for designers of oil pipeline beneath a river bed. Other problems include dynamics of debris flow, dynamics of river mouth shrinkage, sediment transport capacity of sea currents, land creation and delta dynamics, sediment budget, role of sediment in pollutants migration, river decontamination, modelling of wetland development, artificial hyperconcentrated flow, effect of variation in land use on sediment yield and motion, effect of river training and renaturalization, et al.
  • Zhang Jintun
    1998, 53(3): 256-263.
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    Ordination is a group technique of multivariate analysis and becomes more and more important in vegetation studies. Many ordination methods are available in modern ecology, however most of them analyse vegetation composition data only. A new technique combining vegetation data and its environmental data is presented in this paper. Based on Principal Component Analysis (PCA), this method is named Canonical Principal Component Analysis (CPCA). It combines vegetation data and environmental data by the way of multi regression, similar to that of Canonical Correspondence Analysis (CCA): yj=b0+b1z1j +b2z2j +…+b qz qj where yj is the ordination score of the jth entity (sample); b0, b1, …,bq are constants calculated by linear regression; zij is the value of the ith environmental variable in the jth entity ( i=1,2,…,q,q= the number of environmental variables). CPCA is applied to the study of vegetation climate relationships in Shanxi Province. The outcome illustrates that CPCA describes the relationships between vegetation and climate clearly and is an effective and time saving methodology. The function of PCA is extended in combination with regression. CPCA has advantages in analysis of vegetation environmental relationships compared with PCA, and will be widely used in the future. The results of ordination indicate that the geographical distribution of vegetation in Shanxi province is closely related to ecological gradients, i.e. to climatic variations. Among ecological variables, heat and water conditions are the most important to vegetation distribution, particularly in latitudinal distribution in Shanxi. Climatic factors, such as annual temperature, monthly temperature in January, accumulated temperature, annual precipitation, annual sunshine hours, relative humidity etc. play singificant roles in the formation, development and distribution of vegetation in Shanxi Plateau. This relationship is extremely clear in latitudinal variation in Shanxi Plateau. This relationship is extremely clear in latitudinal variation in Shanxi due to its long distance from the north to the south. However, it is not very obvious in longitudinal direction because of its shorter distance from the east to the west and because of its special topographical conditions.
  • Gao Jin
    1998, 53(3): 264-269.
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    The key problem in discussing evolutional rule of Changjiang river mouth is to study the developing rule of river mouth sandbars in each period. In the past, scholars studied the problem by geomophology and sedimetology method, while the author inquires into the problem with hydrodynamics method. Developing length and the arranged direction of sandbars can be calculated. In the paper, two questions are disscussed. 1. The theoretical analysis of the developing length of sandbars The theoretical formula of developing length Chongming island is as follows: l=S/Q2Q14b1b2 10-1 Due to the irregular shape of Chongming island and the unsymmetrical character of the water flow on both sides of the island, in order to simplify the calculation, we consider the south branch as one side of a right triangle and straighten the north branch as the hypotenuse of the right triangle, the length of another side is S . Q2/Q1 is ratio of flow for north branch to the total in ebb tide. b1b2 is the ratio of width between main channel and north branch. The cross section of river channel is supposed to be arc. When S =39 7 km, Q2/Q1 =12 4100 and b1b2 =5 962 53, we can getl=80 3 km. The theoretical value conforms to the practical length. 2. The evolutional rule of Changjiang River mouth and its environment significance An outstanding evolutional rule of the present Changjiang River mouth is that the main channel is gradully deflected towards south and the river mouth sandbars in different periods were arranged like wild geese flying from northwest to southeast. The effect of Coriolis force lies in that it controlls the difference of initial conditions for the channels of division flows, and this creates that the channels of division flows evolute towards different direction. The north branch is easily silted up and the south branch is developing further. In the near future, Chongming island will be connected with the land on the north bank and the second Chongming island will be formed, which is composesed of Changxin and Hengshan Island. The channel on its south side, South Harbour will be more narrow in width. These islands and the sea banks of Pudong in shanghai will be eroded. This is a potential environmental problem.
  • Miao Changhong
    1998, 53(3): 270-278.
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    The rural industry has become increasingly important in regional economic development of China. However, there is a great geographic diversity in the performance and the development patterns of this sector. According to the theory of interaction of system and its environment, the patterns of rural industrial development could be classified by the dominant exogenous conditions and the internal structures of rural industry and rural elites. So in the light of initial dominant environmental conditions, this paper divided the patterns into the following six fundamental types: Agricultural products processing, Mine resources expolitation and processing, Urban radiation, Human capital, Foreign trade and capital and Market processing. Although the environmental conditions are important for the initial development of rural industry, because the structures of rural industry in an area are the results of selection by local rural elites under the given environment, there are different behavior characteristics of power elites and economic elites in fostering a particular pattern, two sub types in every pattern, fostered by rural power elites and by rural economic elites, could be divided. Consequently, the patterns of rural industrial development in China could be divided into six basic types and twelve sub types. At last, this paper respectively investigated the main forming conditions and the principal features of each pattern, the sphere of application of every pattern in China’s less developed areas was also discussed.
  • Zhu Xiang
    1998, 53(3): 279-284.
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    By means of analysing the native places of talented people in Hunan Province, their regional distribution and migration, basic laws of Hunan Province’s talented personal geography and its four elementary problems are clear: ① the number, level and kind of the talent in each place; ② the environment suitable for people becoming talent; ③ the talent’s distribution in a region, including its structure, pattern and centers; ④ migration of talent. The paper is based on a great quantity of documents and data from Hunan Province. The general situation of modern talent distribution and the different kinds of environment in which the talent develops in Hunan Province are discussed. Also some relationships between Hunan’s talent and the geography environment of the province are displayed. Physical and economic environment is the material base on which the talent exists; social environment provides the talent with a broad area and pratical chances. At the same time, the talent has a great reaction against geographical environment. In modern China, Hunan Province is well known for its large number of political and military talent of high level. The native places of Hunan’s revolutionary talent concentrated mainly in Changsha City, Xiangtan City, Xiangxiang City and Ningxiang County and the mountain area of the East Hunan Province and the distrist round Dongting lake.