RESEARCHES ON MUNICIPAL ADMINISTRATIVE CITIES IN YUAN DYNASTY (AD 1260-1368)
1995, 50 (4):
The municipal administrative system in ancient China appeared in the mid-12th century, developed and matured in the 13th and the first half of 14th century. The main sign was the establishment of Jingxunyuan (municipal council) and Lushisi (municipality) . During the Yuan Dynasty(A. D. 1260-1368) there appeared 123 municipal administrative cities, of which 102 were developed steadily. The special administration on cities was both the objective demand of urban development and the result of urban expansion and functional integration. Therefore, the appearance of such number of municipal administrative cities is the important sign of the then leading status of the Chinese urban development in the world. In this paper. the systematic research is focused on the functions of municipal organizations and the scales and characters of municipal administritive cities in Yuan Dynasty.Jingxunyuans (municipal council) were founded only in the two capital cities: Dadu and Shangdu, where municipal magistrates, Just like those in adjacent capital counties, administrated the civil affairs, taxations and corvees of urban residents. Lushisis (municipality), whose administrative level were lower than that of Jingxunyuans, were generally founded in Zongguanfus (great regional capital) or Luzhis (provincal capital). Magistrates just like those in adjacent provincal capital counties were also appointed, and they administrated the same issues as those of Jingxunyuan magistrates. Commanded by Lus (province) and Zongguanfus, and paralleled with suburban Zhous (small cities) and counties, Jingxunyuans and Lushisis were independent municipal administration agencies in Yuan Dynasty.Having been regional political, cultural and educational centers. municipal administative cities developed into regional economic centers with the intensification of social division of labour and the development of urban economies. This can be proved by the economic statistics of Jiqing (Nanjing at present), Guangzhou (Canton). Zhenjiang and Jiaxing.The urban population varied greatly in different cities owing to distinct economic, social and physical factors. In the late Yuan Period (about A. D. 1345), the population in Jiqing reached 140 000, Guangzhou and Jingjiang reached 70 000, Jiaxing reached 40 000. They were the typical different scale cities. As a country with diversified nationalities, Yuan Empire made complex nationalitical and household structures in municipal administration cities. For example, the population of municipal administrative cities in South China were mainly Nanrens (southern people).while richer northern migrators constructed a certain ratio.With regard to the regional geographical distribution of municipal administrative cities, we can conclude that the two capitals in which Jingxunyuans were set up were located at the edge of the north agriculture-stock raising interlocking area; more than 100 cities with Lushisis were in the following two regions Huabei (northern China) and middle and low Yangtze River Basin. Between the two regions there was a obvious empty area. This geographic character of municipal administrative cities is the result of the long historical process of political, social, economical and migrational development.
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