• 2011 Volume 66 Issue 2
    Published: 20 February 2011

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  • LU Dadao
    2011, 66(2): 147-156.
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    Geographical research in China has witnessed great changes in the past 10 years. It is mainly involved in global change research in a wide range of fields. This paper presents the main topics of global change and the roles that geographers will play in these studies. It indicates that the long-term rapid economic growth in China has a much greater impact on environmental change than the atmospheric warming does. Thus geographers should put emphasis on the relevant major regional issues as well as the trends in the global change research.
  • CHAI Yanwei, ZHANG Yan, LIU Zhilin
    2011, 66(2): 157-166.
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    In the last decades Chinese cities have seen the phenomenal rise of job and residential mobility in transitional urban China, as well as the profound urban spatial restructuring as a consequence. Some studies, however, noticed possible negative impacts of urban sprawl and housing reform on households' living experience, particularly with respect to their accessibility to jobs, services and amenities. Western studies have shown that many households have moved to better housing by enduring longer commuting distance to workplace. In China, home-work separation becomes more acute for certain households due to the rapid urban sprawl and the dismantling of the work unit system that favored mixed land use patterns. However, so far there has been limited empirical research on the extent and determinants of home-work separation in transitional urban China. This paper attempts to contribute to such intellectual gap by providing empirical evidence for home-work separation and commuting patterns of urban residents in Beijing. Using survey data from 1200 residents conducted in 2007 and GIS spatial analysis techniques, we investigate the spatial patterns of commuting behavior as a measurement of home-work separation. Then we focus on job accessibility of residents in different socio-economic groups, using the measurement of commuting distance. Specifically, we use statistical methods to examine the impacts of institutional factors (such as housing reform, affordable housing policy, and urban sprawl) on residents' job accessibility.
  • CAO Xiaoshu, LIN Qiang
    2011, 66(2): 167-177.
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    From the perspective of behaviorism, the travel behavior of the urban resident is explored at the community scale. An example of Guangzhou is discussed and 218 samples from three communities are provided. Two Structural Equation Models (SEM) are developed respectively to explore the path relationships between various variables. Moreover, the mechanism of interaction between attributes and travel behaviors of residents are presented. The results indicate the distinctions between different urban residents’travel behaviors which result from various residents' attributes and community locations. Generally speaking, the travel pattern, travel timetable and travel frequency are influenced by travel motivation, which is determined by the residents' attributes and community location. Among all of the variables, residents’attributes and community location are the fundamental variables, while the former is the key variable. What's more, residents’attributes and community location have a significant impact on travel decision-making of the residents through four sub-path systems. The Gender Sub-path presents that females conduct more non-work trips which raise travel frequency. The Age Sub-path suggests that the older residents prefer a low-cost travel mode with more non-work travel intentions, thus their travel frequency is increased. The Income Sub-path indicates that the work trip plays a significant role in daily travel of high-income residents who prefer the high-cost travel mode, and as a result, their travel frequency is decreased. The Community Location Sub-path indicates that the residents in suburban communities care more about travel expenses than the residents in the city center; hence, the reduction of non-work trips will decrease their travel frequency.
  • KUANG Wenhui, LIU Jiyuan, SHAO Quanqin, HE Jianfeng, SUN Chaoyang, TIAN Hanqin, BAN Yifang
    2011, 66(2): 178-188.
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    Dynamic urban expansion simulation at regional scale is one of the important research methodologies in Land Use/Cover Change (LUCC) and global environmental change influenced by urbanization. However, previous studies indicate that the single urban expansion simulation for future scenarios at local scale cannot meet the requirements for characterizing and interpreting the interactive mechanisms of regional urbanization and global environmental change. This study constructed a regional Dynamic Urban Expansion Model(Reg-DUEM) suitable for different scenarios by integrating the Artificial Neural Network (ANN) and Cellular Automaton (CA) model. Firstly we analyzed the temporal and spatial characteristics of urban expansion and acquired a prior knowledge rules using land use/cover change datasets of Beijing-Tianjin-Tangshan metropolitan area. The future urban expansion under different scenarios is then simulated based on a baseline model, economic models, policy models and the structural adjustment model. The results indicate that Reg-DUEM has good reliability for a non-linear expansion simulation at regional scale influenced by macro-policies. The simulating results show that future urban expansion patterns from different scenarios of the metropolitan area have the tremendous spatio-temporal differences. Future urban expansion will shift quickly from Beijing metropolis to the periphery of Tianjin and Tangshan city along coastal belt.
  • WANG Li, DENG Yu, LIU Shenghe, WANG Jianghao
    2011, 66(2): 189-198.
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    Due to unique advantages in a clear understanding of the interrelationship between city and its hinterland, as well as city and city, the study on urban spheres of influence is becoming a highlight in regional research. This paper improves traditional field models in two aspects: the composite indicator and regional accessibility, in order to delineate urban spheres of influence more reasonably. Taking three years of central China as a case study, this paper investigates dynamic evolution of urban spheres of influence. Focusing on the evolution of spatial pattern, we abstract three stages and its corresponding five types theoretically. Finally, recommendation of development has been made for each stage. This study undertakes certain exploration in the study of urban spheres of influence from the perspective of theory and practice, which can provide some references for the studies in this field and other regional research.
  • LENG Bingrong, YANG Yongchun, LI Yingjie, ZHAO Sidong
    2011, 66(2): 199-211.
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    This paper gives both details and overview of research development and analytical methods in China’s urban systems since new China was founded. It is noteworthy that some new concepts and methods are introduced and well developed in this paper, which goes beyond the traditional hierarchical-and-order perspective. For example, we introduce the methodology and concepts from complex networks in the statistics physics field into urban studies. In addition to that, we create the urban network that is linked by basic activities among the Chinese cities at the prefecture level, by employing the technical tools such as GIS, Matlab and database analysis. Then this paper describes the changes and predicts the trends based on the empirical and comparative data of 2003 and 2007 in China. The conclusions can be drawn as follows. (1) According to the network structure we can divide urban China into three parts—the Northern China System, the Yangtze River system, and the Southern China System, which display the patterns of "three centers, several cores" in urban China. The directions of linkages among cities focus mainly on the large cities in the Bohai Rim, Yangtze River Delta, and Pearl River Delta. It is indicated that the hierarchical relation in the Bohai Rim can be easily distinguished and that the network linkages in Yangtze River Delta and Pearl River delta are gradually developed. In comparison with top 1 and top 5, it is shown that the directions of the linkage strength for each city in the network of top 10 tend to be more dispersed. In other words, the result is that the linkages in the network of top 1 and top 5 are inclined to be polarized and are likely to be widened in network of top 10. (2) Compared with the random network and the regular network (in this paper we choose the distance network in close relationship), the real networks such as top 1, top 5, top 10 have two typical characteristics—not only have high cluster coefficient in the distance network, but also have short path in random network. (3) It is deduced that the linkages in top 1, top 5, and top 10 tend to be decentralized as time goes by analyzing the cluster coefficient in 2003 and 2007, which means that zonal economic relationship is more open to each other. (4) Average path length decreases slightly in 2007 than in 2003, which reflects that there are close network linkages in urban China system.
  • WANG Maojun, YANG Xuechun
    2011, 66(2): 212-222.
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    Based on input-output relationships, industrial sectors of the national economy construct an industrial network. The characteristics of the industrial network structure reflect the evolution of industrial structure. Generally, research on industrial association mainly employs the method of input-output, constructs an index system to describe the overall industrial influence or uses principal component analysis and cluster analysis to categorize industrial clusters. These methods can not clearly describe the complex associative relationships among industries. With the introduction of the concept of complex network and research methods to geography, it is possible to conduct the quantitative analysis of the characteristics of industrial network structure. Based on the basic idea of complex network and by employing basic flow statement of input-output, this paper attempts to discuss quantitatively the structural features of industrial association network and to analyze different efficiencies of related industries in the network. The paper puts forward an effective association measuring method for undirected and unweighted industrial association. Based on effective association, the paper touches on the basic features of association network which has 67 manufacturing industries in Sichuan Province, such as small-world, free-scale and community structure, and identifies some important industries which play roles in hub efficiency, betweenness efficiency and information broker efficiency in this network. Four findings are obtained. Firstly, effective association network of manufacturing industries in Sichuan Province is a low density network of 246 effective association industry pairs. It has obvious features of free-scale, small-world and community structure. The network can be subdivided into six industrial communities. Secondly, manufacturing association network of Sichuan Province has six global hub industries, including electrical manufacturing, instrument manufacturing, textile and garment/shoes/hat manufacturing, coking industry, arts and crafts manufacturing and culture/office equipment manufacturing. The network has three global betweenness industries, including ceramic products manufacturing, sugar manufacturing and medical manufacturing. Thirdly, in each community, special chemical products manufacturing and glass and glassware manufacturing, steel wire products industry and automobile parts/ components manufacturing, coking industry, cultural commodities manufacturing, textile goods manufacturing and aquatic products processing industry play roles of both community hub and betweenness. Fourthly, communities are connected by five information broker industries, including ceramic products manufacturing, electrical manufacturing, instrument manufacturing, textile and garment/shoes/hat manufacturing and medical manufacturing.
  • MENG Guangwen, LIU Ming
    2011, 66(2): 223-234.
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    China is facing new challenges of transition from bonded zone to free trade zone under the background of globalization and China's entry into WTO. Established in the 1990s, Tianjin Port Free Trade Zone (Bonded Zone), Tianjin Airport Economic Zone and Tianjin Dong-Jiang Free Trade Zone (Bonded Zone) have become the most successful bonded zones in China and the growing poles and leading industry of Tianjin Binhai New Area (TBNA). Despite some problems in function and space arrangement and policy limit, in fact, the bonded zones in TBNA have the potential to transit to a typical free trade zone based on the favorable location, policy support and development demand. Based on fuzzy synthetic evaluation method, analytic hierarchy process (AHP) and questionnaire, this paper attempts to build an evaluation model with a three-level index system according to free trade theory and empirical experience of world free trade zones and free ports. Referred to the experience of Hong Kong Free Port, the study finally evaluates the comprehensive development level of TBNA's three bonded zones in terms of the objective and its utility, freedom and openness, functional development as well as environment improvement. Based on the above analysis, the paper discusses the achievements and problems of TBNA's bonded zones and puts forward suggestions, including implementing open-door policy, promoting industrial development, improving investment environment, raising the economic benefit and institutional innovation. The three-step plan of TBNA's transition to free trade zones has been submitted with three bonded zones as the first step, three separate free trade zones as the second step, and a comprehensive free trade zone of TBNA as the final step.
  • SHI Peihua, WU Pu
    2011, 66(2): 235-243.
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    In 2009, a total of nearly 900 million international tourist arrivals were counted worldwide. A global activity of this scale can be assumed to have a substantial impact on the environment. In this contribution, five major aspects such as the change of LUCC and the use of energy and its associated impacts had been recognized. Recently, the impact of tourism on environment and climate attracts the attention of international organizations and societies in pace with rapid development of tourism industry. Energy consumption and CO2 emissions in tourism sector has become a hot topic of international tourism research in recent five years. The use of energy for tourism can be divided according to transport-related purposes (travel to, from and at the destination) and destination-related purposes excluding transports (accommodation, food, tourist activities, etc.). In addition, transports, accommodation and food are related to many other industries dependent on energy. Thus, the estimations of energy consumption and CO2 emissions in tourism sector have become a worldwide concern. Tourism in China grows rapidly, and the number of domestic tourists was 1902 million in 2009. Energy use and its impact on the environment increase synchronously with China's tourism. It is necessary to examine the relationship between energy use and CO2 emissions. In this article, a preliminary attempt was applied to estimate the energy consumption and CO2 emissions from China's tourism sector in 2008. Bottom-up approach, literature research and mathematical statistics technology were also adopted. According to the calculations, Chinese tourism-related may have consumed approximately 428.30 PJ of energy in 2008, or ahout 0.51% of the total energy consumptions in China. It is estimated that CO2 emissions from tourism sector amounted to 51.34 Mt, accounting for 0.86% of the Chinese total. The results show that tourism is the industry of low-carbon and the leading industry coping with global climate change, energy-saving and CO2 emission reduction. Based on this, the authors hold that tourism should become an important field in low-carbon economy.
  • LI Renjie, LU Zi, LI Jifeng
    2011, 66(2): 244-256.
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    Based on past researches on landscape preference, landscape aesthetics assessment, landscape quality evaluation, and tourist perception evaluation, this paper proposes the concept of landscape perception sensitivity, and describes eco-tourists' perception degree about landscapes through the perspective of quantitative calculation of the ecological landscapes, which is unlike the angle from the tourists. Although public preferences on landscapes are shaped by many different factors, such as age, sex, social and economic status etc., there are also some common preferences on landscape types, especially for the people with similar education background and environmental viewpoints. Considering the common preferences on landscape types, we design a calculation method for landscape perception sensitivity on sight-seeing route in ecotourism destinations. The method includes 2 types of impact factors: visible perception factors and ecological perception factors. The visible perception is used to describe the perception stimulated by visual sense, which includes 3 factors, namely landscape visibility, the best viewing distance and the best viewing orientation. The ecological perception is mainly to emphasize the perception difference influenced by the ecological landscape, which also includes three factors, i.e., landscape type, resource grade and some landscapes for experiencing in them. By the method, we can obtain the eco-tourist's landscape perception sensitivity and its spatial variation at any locations. The method is applied in the case study of Qixiagu scenic region, Wu'an National Geopark in Handan, Hebei Province. Based on Digital Elevation Model (DEM) and high-resolution satellite images, the authors build the virtual 3D landscape in the ecotourism destination and design a guideline for calculation of landscape perception sensitivity on sightseeing route using the tools of view-shed analysis, spatial overlay analysis, buffer and others on ArcGIS9.3 platform. The result shows that the calculation method for landscape perception sensitivity is a good way to quantitatively describe the eco-tourists' perception for ecological landscapes at any locations on the sightseeing routes, and identify its spatial variation on linear units. Locations with high values of landscape perception sensitivity are mostly the gathering sites of eco-tourists. Thus, during the process of planning for ecotourism destinations, the spatial differences of landscape perception sensitivity should be taken into consideration, the relationship between landscape perception and ecological capacity should be well coordinated, and the infrastructures should be allocated rationally. This calculation method lays a methodological basis for introducing perceptual factors to eco-tourism planning.
  • CHEN Hao, LU Lin, ZHENG Shanting
    2011, 66(2): 257-266.
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    With the advance of urbanization process, urban agglomeration has become a regional subject of tourism development and will become a type of special scale tourist destination. Based on the analysis of relevant literature, the article defines the concept of urban agglomeration tourism destination. Besides, based on the analysis of the travel routes inner the Pearl River Delta region, local long-distance passenger transport, domestic (out of Guangdong) travel route to the Pearl River Delta, the actual number of tourists from Hong Kong and Macao into the Pearl River Delta, and using the network theory and method, the article conducts a quantitative research on the tourism network structure of the Pearl River Delta. The results show that the degree of the closeness, reach centrality and intermediate of Guangzhou is higher than those of the others, Guangzhou is also the distribution center of the domestic tourists in the Pearl River Delta, so Guangzhou is the tourism centre of the Pearl River Delta. Bordering Hong Kong and Macao, Shenzhen and Zhuhai are important tourism destinations of the Pearl River Delta, and also the distribution center of Hong Kong and Macao tourists reaching the Mainland. Other cities, such as Foshan and Dongguan are the business tourism destinations, while Huizhou and Zhaoqing are the eco-tourism destinations. Zhongshan and Jiangmen belong to the both types of destinations mentioned above. On this basis, the article builds the tourism network structure model of the Pearl River Delta, presenting the space layout of "three tourist bases, three types of tourism areas, and three main tourist axes".
  • DONG Xuewang, ZHANG Jie, LIU Chuanhua, LI Min, ZHONG Shi'en
    2011, 66(2): 267-278.
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    Contingent valuation method (CVM) is a valuation instrument for public goods on the basis of simulated market. However, its hypothesis arouses suspicions and controversies on its reliability and validity among academics. Combined with the literature review, this paper employs CVM to assess the recreational value of Jiuzhaigou and analyzes the biases in the survey. And finally, we conduct tests on test-retest reliability, content validity and convergent validity. It is found that (1) the recreational values of Jiuzhaigou in 2008 and 2009 are 333 million RMB yuan and 346 million RMB yuan respectively. Compared with other valuation results, these values are significantly lower; (2) the biases in CVM lie both in CVM itself and in the procedures where CVM is carried out. The former problems include hypothetical bias, information bias, protest response bias and strategic bias. The latter ones refer to questionnaire design, definition of population and samples, sampling methodology, and statistical analysis process; (3) the test on test-retest reliability indicates that this study is of high reliability; i.e. the valuation results are of high stability and repeatability; but the tests on content validity and convergent validity suggest low validity of the results and the fact that CVM tends to underestimate the value of tourist resources; (4) the development of CVM should shift gradually from case studies to validity and reliability tests. Thus, we have to establish and perfect the CVM implementation rules, which are suitable for developing countries to ensure validity and reliability of the valuation results.
  • ZHAO Yuan, ZHANG Xinchang, KANG Tingjun
    2011, 66(2): 279-286.
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    Site location by brute-force method is difficult for optimization due to massive spatial data and huge solution space under the constraint condition of multi-objective and large spatial resolutions. In this study, an improved ant colony optimization (ACO) based on multi-way tree is introduced to solve site location problem. Better solutions can be obtained swiftly according to the density of pheromone the ants leave on the search paths constructed in nested subspaces divided by means of the multi-way tree algorithm. First, the algorithm derived from ACO is aiming to search for an optimal path in space regardless of initial distribution, based on the behavior of ants seeking a path at a specific probability. Second, the multi-way tree algorithm's growth rate between search size and spatial scale is logarithmic, so the cost of searching increases slowly as the size of its input grows. The study area, located in Guangzhou city, is a densely populated region. The raster layers have a resolution of 92 m× 92 m with a size of 512 × 512 pixels. This optimization problem consists of two factors: population distribution and spatial distance. Comparison experiment between ACO based on multi-way tree and the simple search algorithm indicates that this method can produce closely related results with a greater convergence rate and spend less computing time. In conclusion, the proposed algorithm is important and suitable for solving site search problems.