Table of Content

    25 December 2001, Volume 56 Issue 7s Previous Issue    Next Issue
    Along the Historcal Way up to Knowledge Innovation
    CHEN Shu-peng
    2001, 56 (7s):  1-7.  doi: 10.11821/xb20017s001
    Abstract ( )   PDF (1128KB) ( )   Save

    In China, cartographic cultural inheritance conserved to now can be traced back to inscriptions on bones or tortoise shells of the Shang Dynasty, which was about 3,500 years ago. Its information medium was bones, copper, gold, silk, papers or stone inscriptions, all of which were made of the most advanced materials and craftworks at that time. It’s content included hunting, gardening, grave burying, city and geography, all of these also showed advancement of science and technology, comprehensive social requirement of military administration, traffic and roads, urban planing etc. They supplied a multi-cartography-gene base for world and resource of knowledge innovation for progress of science and technology. Farmland irrigation and “Jing Tian Zhi” (The Square-Fields System) of 6th-4th century B.C. gestated grid rudiment, mapping principal in “Ji Li Hua Fang” (Counting-in-miles and Drawing-in grids) brought forward the 3rd century A.D. affected about 1,000 years from carved stone map of 11th century to chorography and countrywide map of Yuan, Ming, and Qing dynasties. Biorbit system overlaid by latitude-longitude and grid system appeared after biexchangment of oriental and occidental mapping science and technology about 16th century. In the 20th century of remote sensing and computer aided mapping widespread, grid map bobbed up like a cork, it is exerted particular function and created resplendence for solving matching of pixel and statistical cells. With the flying development of science and technology on aerial photograph, Remote Sensing and Global Position System etc. in the 20th century, social function of maps has changed distinctly--it is being drifted step by step to client information server. That is: firstly it is reverse with traditional mapping craftwork program, small-scale maps go ahead, after large scale maps come to heel. Thus it accelerated and simplified enormously mapping craftworks, improved efficiency, advanced adjustment of mapping industry structure, gained valuable time for science prediction and forecast. Secondly it was widely applied in new fields of geosciences, space science, bioscience, and maps were used as graph-thinking method of spatial-temporal analysis, data mining and knowledge discovering. These made delightful progress for discovering new geographical distribution law or situation. Chinese science-technology progress in the 20th century, for example, full digital surveying map, digital mechanical test, Chinese characters edition composition and map-making system, science prediction theory and ways of prototype-model method, all of which directly made roads even for knowledge innovation and technology revolution of cartography. One of thought—“Cartographic methodology for geo-information science” with Chinese characteristic is being explored and researched. Traditional spatial-temporal method has made golden experience and social-economic benefit in geo-science fields. Based on remote sensing image analysis, satellites positioning technology and network technology, depending on integrating of geographical information system, including status, diagnose, model and virtual reality during the course of information flow, “cartographic methodology for geo-information science” will be applied in historical inversion and future prediction, it has been made primary research in solving spatial situation and advantage appraise of eco-environment evaluation, urban growth, resource collocation, its prospect will be very broad.

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    Researchon the Theory and Method of Geo-Info-TUPU
    QI Qing-wen,CHI Tian-he
    2001, 56 (7s):  8-18.  doi: 10.11821/xb20017s002
    Abstract ( )   PDF (2046KB) ( )   Save

    Geo-info-TUPU was raised as a scientific subject when Geo-System Science and Geo-information Science met with challenges and was driven to the innovation in theory, methodology, technology, product as well as application. This paper expounds at first the authors understanding of Geo-info-TUPU, i.e, from Pu (series) to TUPU (graphic series) and then to Geo-TUPU (geo-science map & graphics series), and then induces to Geo-info-TUPU. The definition, feature and key problems of Geo-info-TUPU is also related. Secondly, the authors describe the theoretic bases, standards & models of Geo-info-TUPU, in which the theoretic bases include Geo-science bases, cognition bases and Geo-information mechanism, and Geo-info-TUPU standards & models include its typical style and structure, category criteria, extraction models, modeling standards, integrating & application. Thirdly, the inducing & extracting methods are discussed, with three methods as human manual inducing, GIS & RS tools aided extraction, and automated inducing & extraction being emphasized. These three methods also present Geo-info-TUPU through three levels as primary, medium and higher. Fourthly, the authors explain the development of our knowledge innovation key project, respectively in the spatial dimension of regional Geo-info-TUPU, taking the demographic Info-TUPU and soil erosion Info-TUPU as sample theme, and the dimension of the whole country's Geo-info-TUPU, taking China's hydrology network Info-TUPU and comprehensive landscape Info-TUPU as main theme. Finally, the significance and application method of Geo-info-TUPU for Geo-system-Science and Geo-information Science is concluded.

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    Principles and Methods of Designing and Establishing Complex Informatic Tupu of Natural Landscape in China
    LIAO Ke
    2001, 56 (7s):  19-25.  doi: 10.11821/xb20017s003
    Abstract ( )   PDF (1095KB) ( )   Save

    In this paper, basic conception (definition, meanings and significance) of Geo-informatic Tupu is discussed, and basic conception of natural landscape and scientific base of complex informatic Tupu of natural landscape in China are analyzed. The basic spatio-temporal change and integrated presentative formats of natural landscape Tupu in China are put forward. Then, principles and methods of designing and establishing complex informatic Tupu of natural landscape in China are elucidated. Finally, it elucidates methods and process of establishing complex informatic Tupu of natural landscape in China, as follows: classifying natural landscape types; defining outline and boundary of natural landscape types; establishing Tupu characteristics and index and its finding system, establishing Tupu quantitative index system and Tupu mathematic model; establishing Tupu informatic data base; and Tupu applied analysis.

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    The Determination of Outline and the Establishment of Index System on Complex Informatic TuPu of Natural Landscape in China
    CHEN Yu-fen, LIAO Ke
    2001, 56 (7s):  26-31.  doi: 10.11821/xb20017s004
    Abstract ( )   PDF (850KB) ( )   Save

    The research contents of the complex Informatic Tupu of natural landscape in China include the outline partition of natural landscape types, the establishment of TuPu character and index system, Tupu retrieval system, TuPu quantity index system, TuPu mathematical model, Tupu database and demo system of natural landscape, and the application research on TuPu. According to the rules of establishing index system, we divide Chinese natural landscape into 82 natural landscape types. Their attribute index include satellite image character, temperature zone and dry and humid sections, geological and construct traits, topographical gurgitation and relief types, water system construct characters, vegetation types, aprotypes, ground utilization and soil overlay types, direction of utilization and protection. Attribute database structure was designed according to attribute description index. The outlines of complex Informatic Tupu of natural landscape in China base on the borderline of landscape type, then consult 1:500 000 satellite image and recognize 1:10 000 000 land satellite image, lastly conform and draw the outline of landscape type piece by piece.

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    Research on the Geo-Info-TUPU of the Landforms of Loess Plateau
    QI Qing-wen, CHENG Xi-fang, JI Cui-ling, WANG Nai-bin
    2001, 56 (7s):  32-37.  doi: 10.11821/xb20017s005
    Abstract ( )   PDF (982KB) ( )   Save

    Being one of the four main plateaus in China, Loess Plateau is a unique geomorphologic unit. Its special landform plus the extraordinary erosion by modern external forces makes it a sample region in which human beings destruct natural environment and meanwhile seriously harmed by natural disasters. For this region, what geomorphologists and cartographers have long been used to describe its landform is not only indirect and unobvious, but also inaccurate, and sometimes incapable or inefficient. Therefore, the method we try to use for the landform of Loess Plateau, i.e., Geo-Info-TUPU, is very important and essential. This paper introduced the authors research work and initial achievements in the application of Geo-info-TUPU in Loess Plateau landform. After expounding its importance, the authors describe four issues in details, that is, at first, the method and steps of inducing & extracting Geo-info-TUPU for the landform by using current major GIS & RS software packages such as MGE and ERDAS; secondly, several key problems and points in the above procedure; thirdly, the examples of Loess Plateau's landform Info-TUPU in sample area, including six tables as shape table for single cross-ditch-units, shape table for combined cross-ditch-units vertical zone series table spatial pattern table for cross-ditch-units, spatial pattern table for ditches and valleys, as well as virtual combination table for landform units; at last, the application of landform Info-TUPU in the research work of soil erosion. The result shows that it plays an important role in our research on Loess Plateau soil erosion and geomorphologic mapping.

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    RS Informatic Tupu and the Ananlysis of Macau Evolution
    TANG Zhong-shi, LI Xiao-yi
    2001, 56 (7s):  38-42.  doi: 10.11821/xb20017s006
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    The concept, features, and research contents of Remote Sensing Informatic Tupu have been discussed firstly. And then Macau's evolution Tupu in the 20th century has been built with RS/GIS. The final Macau's evolution in the 20th century, and its future evolution tendency have been analyzed based on the Macau's evolution Tupu in the 20th century.

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    Resarch on Temporal Visualization of Multi-dimensional Mapping
    CHEN Hua-bin, LI Bo-nan, LIAO Ke, CHI Tian-he, QI Qing-wen
    2001, 56 (7s):  43-48.  doi: 10.11821/xb20017s007
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    The spatial-temporal map visualization is a subset of the research of multi-dimensional dynamical map visualization. It has its specialty because of the temporal relativity. This paper discusses the representative spatio-temporal data structure, such as snapshot and revision model, 3D & 4D models, instance based spatio-temporal data model, etc., and then summarizes and concludes the spatio-temporal changes, including its appearing and disappearing, periodical & gradual changes, as well as moving in the space. Furthermore, the authors bring forward the spatial-temporal mapping methods, including the raster image based map animation, display of point feature changes, linear feature changing and moving, and also the moving and continuous changes of area features, and carries them out in the National Natural Electronic Atlas. Furthermore, this paper designs some spatio-temporal-change-related dynamical interactive tools and dynamical symbols.

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    WebGIS Resolution for National Physical Atlas of China on the Internet
    WANG Lei, CHI Tian-hei, LIAO Ke, QI Qing-wen
    2001, 56 (7s):  49-55.  doi: 10.11821/xb20017s008
    Abstract ( )   PDF (903KB) ( )   Save

    With the development of Internet, serving data on the Internet has become one of hotspots for research and application. WebGIS has been applied to serve GIS data on the Internet in GIS field. National Physical Atlas of China (NPAC) is a large-scale synthesizing atlas with great scientific value, serving it on the internet can bring great social benefit, users can query and explore what they need, making thematic map. This paper approaches the implementing way of this system. Firstly, data preparation including data standardization, database reconstruction, data quality control, was expounded. Secondly, the system functions, including data query, dynamic mapping, statistical analysis, etc., was described. Thirdly, the authors discussed the developing technology of the system, including homepage designing, system strategy, browse and server technology, etc. Finally, the future developing direction of the system was foreseen.

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    Research of Distributed E-map Service
    WANG Yu-xiang, ZHANG Yan
    2001, 56 (7s):  56-63.  doi: 10.11821/xb20017s009
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    Distributed e-map service research mainly focuses on the method of providing map service to clients in distributed computing environment. Its principle is to provide map service by a few distributed servers cooperatively and transparently. Map service includes map information query, remote modifying map symbol, map edit, map projection transform, map printing, subject map and map spatial analysis and etc. Distributed e-map service is implemented by integration of distributed computing and geographic information system. Now the main distributed computing technology is the middleware technology such as CORBA, DCOM and EJB. This article will focus on how to design distributed heterogeneous map database and map symbol database on servers and how to provide map service on clients with CORBA.

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    The Design and Construction of Digital Atlas of Regional Development in China
    WANG Ying-jie, YU Zhuo-yuan, YAN Hong, ZHANG Yan
    2001, 56 (7s):  64-72.  doi: 10.11821/xb20017s010
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    This paper discusses several key matters for design and construction of digital atlas for regional development in China, including its contents, database structure, system structure, functionality, and analysis models. The index category system for regional development was researched and constructed, and based on that, the spatial database for national, provincial, prefecture, county and city levels were designed respective to population, economy, urban development, environment, natural resources and regional development. The digital atlas system, designed for the regional information input/output, category, storage, query, statistics, mapping, analysis and management, provides the basic information and modern tool for the decision makers and researchers to analyses regional development problems and making the long-term exploration policy.

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    The Model Design for Linear Dynamic Annotation Visualization in Digital Map
    YU Zhuo-yuan, WANG Ying-jie, CHEN Xiao-gang
    2001, 56 (7s):  73-77.  doi: 10.11821/xb20017s011
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    This paper discussed the model design and experiment for linear dynamic annotations in digital map system. The digital differential analyzer (DDA) model was designed for optimum solutions of annotation point position selection and annotation overlay identification. The model was successfully used in the Beijing Digital Atlas, China Regional Development Management System, etc. All practice shows that it has made a great effect.

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    Design and Implementation of Chinese Digital City Atlas
    ZHANG Zhong, ZHANG Yan, LIU Ji-rong
    2001, 56 (7s):  78-85.  doi: 10.11821/xb20017s012
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    In this article, the purpose for designing the Chinese Digital City Atlas is introduced, then the market future of the atlas is described. The design and implementation of Chinese Digital City Atlas can be divided into the following parts: data gathering, geocoding, map digitalization, software system designing, map editing and integrating and map explorer designing. A new approach for atlas compiling is introduced.

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    Research of Resources & Environment Information System in Tibet
    ZHANG Yan, WANG Ying-jie
    2001, 56 (7s):  86-91.  doi: 10.11821/xb20017s013
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    The resource and environment in Tibet is unparalleled. It is important to make full use of new high-tech for socio-economic sustainable development and ecosystem protection. Based on the richness of information from the explorations, the construction of resource and environment information system in Tibet is absolutely necessary. In this article, after the analysis of system demand, the system architecture, database content and system functions are introduced and a wonderful future of this system is described.

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    A Multimedia Electronic Mapping System Based on Geographic Semantic Network
    CHEN Xiao-gang, WANG Ying-jie, YU Zhuo-yuan
    2001, 56 (7s):  92-97.  doi: 10.11821/xb20017s014
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    There is an increasing demand for the exploration of geo-information by visualization. The paper mainly deals with a multimedia electronic mapping system, composed of preprocessing sub-system, map-making subsystem and map-view sub-system. The spatial cognition on geographic objects and their spatial semantic relationship is emphasized. A psychological cognition model is introduced for the associative and humanized representation of concept and knowledge, so as to facilitate developing application-oriented multimedia system.

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    Thematic Mapping and Analysis of RS Image Based on Knowledge
    FU Su-xing, FU Qiao-yan
    2001, 56 (7s):  98-102.  doi: 10.11821/xb20017s015
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    This paper expounded the author's study on the geo-analysis of various information sources including Geo-Science characteristics and time property of remote sensing image, such as Agro-phonological date (Heading data of rice, heading spring maize and tillering & jointing date of wheat) in different areas. RS image mapping is based on knowledge and application of fusion information technical system in RS image thematic mapping.

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    The Knowledge Innovation in the Compilation of the Atlas of Population,Environment and Sustainable Development of China
    LIU Yue, ZHANG Qing-zhen
    2001, 56 (7s):  103-108.  doi: 10.11821/xb20017s016
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    The paper analyses the knowledge innovation in the Atlas of Population, Environment and Sustainable Development of China. It is composed of four parts. First, the authors expound the scientific atlas editing theory. This atlas was conceived with the theme of sustainable development and the theory of man-land relationship as its guiding principles. Secondly, the scientific basis for preparation of atlas is established by developing an indicator system for population, environment and sustainable development. On the basis of this system, the anthors discuss the designing of the atlas contents structure. Then, the third part gives the exploration of a cognitive cartographic visualization environment establishment, data processing, and visualization technology research. The cognitive environment on population, environment and sustainable development is discussed in detail. Finally, the computer cartography technology about the atlas designing, making and application is described, including the electronics mapping software, EA-world, and the integrated mapping systems developed and owned by the Institute of Geographic Sciences and Natural Resources Research, CAS.

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    The Computer Map Designing ,Compiling and Plate Making for The National History Atlas of China
    YAN Hong , LIU Yue, LIU Ji-rong, JIN Xue-ying, JIANG Li-li
    2001, 56 (7s):  109-116.  doi: 10.11821/xb20017s017
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    After an introduction to the background, general characteristic, objective, scheme, part division and map types about the atlas, a new computer aided design method for maps is given and presented as the following parts: map designing, establishment of graphic database for geographical base map, computer map compiling and plate making technology and flow designing.

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    Computer Map Compiling and Making for The Atlas of Plague and Its Environment in China
    CHENG Xi-fang, ZHU Che, JIANG Li-hui
    2001, 56 (7s):  117-121.  doi: 10.11821/xb20017s018
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    The Atlas of Plague and Its Environment in China is a huge thematic atlas. It provides a systematic and precise presentation, for the first time, of plague spatial distribution and prevalent law and plague relationship with the environment in China. The atlas has been completed by using computer mapping and plate-making technology to designing, compiling and making the maps. The content of the atlas is unique and significant.

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    Establishing Macro-land Database Based on The National Physical Atlas of China
    ZHU Che,CHENG Xi-fang, JIANG Li-hui
    2001, 56 (7s):  122-126.  doi: 10.11821/xb20017s019
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    This paper mainly depicts the utilization of data sources based on THE NATIONAL PHYSICAL ATLAS OF CHINA, and establishes the national integrated information network system (Basic Macro-land Database) and the components of shared database; it also focuses on the application of WebGIS to distribute space data and genetic data in the service of reading, consulting and analyzing for the various users in all areas of China.

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