Most Download articles

    Published in last 1 year| In last 2 years| In last 3 years| All| Most Downloaded in Recent Month | Most Downloaded in Recent Year|

    Published in last 1 year
    Please wait a minute...
    For Selected: Toggle Thumbnails
    Spatio-temporal differentiation and influencing factors of China's urbanization from 2010 to 2020
    LI Ruzi, HUANG Xiaoling, LIU Yaobin
    Acta Geographica Sinica    2023, 78 (4): 777-791.   DOI: 10.11821/dlxb202304001
    Abstract3966)   HTML976)    PDF (4458KB)(2910)      

    As China's urbanization has entered the middle and later stage and the improvement of well-being of residents has become a core goal, the transformation from "top-down" system goals optimization on the supply side to "bottom-up" multi-dimensional goals coordination on the demand side has become a new perspective to understand the connotation of urbanization. Based on the perspective of the human living conditions, the humanities environment, and human-city relationship, this paper constructs a connotation framework and index system of urbanization. Furthermore, Theil index is employed to analyze the spatio-temporal differentiation characteristics of China's urbanization before and after the implementation of the new-type urbanization strategy. Finally, in terms of both direct and indirect effect mechanisms, the mechanism framework of urbanization differentiation is constructed, and its evolution pattern is revealed by using Variance Decomposition and Geodetector. The results show that: since the implementation of the new-type urbanization strategy in 2014, China's urbanization has made remarkable achievements, with a steady improvement in human living conditions and human-city relationship, and there is still much room for improvement in the humanities environment. The high-level areas of urbanization are mainly distributed in coastal areas, and expanding to inland areas along the Yangtze River Basin and Yellow River Basin. The regional differences of urbanization gradually decrease, but the contribution rate of inner-regional differences shows an expanding trend. Differences in human living conditions and human-city relationship are the main factors of urbanization differentiation, but the contribution of differences in humanities environment is gradually expanding after 2014. Opening up and scientific & technological innovation are the main influencing factors of the difference in human living conditions. With the implementation of the new-type urbanization strategy, the impact on differences in humanities environment of the government finance gradually diminishes. Resource endowments have a relatively strong influence on differences in human-city relationship. This study can provide theoretical and empirical support for promoting the development of urbanization in China.

    Table and Figures | Reference | Related Articles | Metrics
    The extent and spatial distribution of terrace abandonment in China
    DONG Shijie, XIN Liangjie, LI Shengfa, XIE Hualin, ZHAO Yuluan, WANG Xue, LI Xiubin, SONG Hengfei, LU Yahan
    Acta Geographica Sinica    2023, 78 (1): 3-15.   DOI: 10.11821/dlxb202301001
    Abstract3234)   HTML559)    PDF (2847KB)(2087)      

    With urbanization and industrialization, cultivated land in hilly regions of China has been gradually marginalized. Abandoned cultivated lands have ranged from inferior sloping land and extended to high-quality terraces. The abandonment of terraces will lead to a series of social and ecological problems, especially with large-scale abandonment. Therefore, the degree and spatial distribution of terrace abandonment should be evaluated scientifically to address the issue of abandonment as well as its effects. This study investigated the extent of terrace abandonment in China via a questionnaire sampling method. Based on 560 village questionnaires from 329 counties in China, the scale of terrace abandonment was calculated and the spatial heterogeneity characteristics and primary reasons for terrace abandonment were further analyzed. Study results showed that: (1) The phenomenon of terrace abandonment was observed throughout China, occurring in 54% of all the villages investigated; 9.79% of the total terraced areas have been abandoned. (2) The degree of terrace abandonment showed a spatial pattern of "high in the south and low in the north". The degree of terrace abandonment was higher in the southern hilly mountains, and the middle and lower reaches of the Yangtze River was the most serious. (3) The primary factors related to terrace abandonment were found to be labor migration, the degree to which terraces have been mechanized, irrigation conditions, and farming traffic conditions. Measures that include improving the degree of terrace mechanization should be enacted to address the problem of terrace abandonment. An orderly "conversion of cropland" could be applied to poor-quality terraces. Changing the planting structure, strengthening new agricultural infrastructure, and encouraging circulation and large-scale operations are options that could be applied to good-quality terraces.

    Table and Figures | Reference | Related Articles | Metrics
    On spatial effects in geographical analysis
    LIU Yu, WANG Keli, XING Xiaoyue, GUO Hao, ZHANG Weiyu, LUO Qinyao, GAO Song, HUANG Zhou, LI Haifeng, LI Xin, WANG Jiaoe, WANG Jinfeng, ZHU Di
    Acta Geographica Sinica    2023, 78 (3): 517-531.   DOI: 10.11821/dlxb202303001
    Abstract2980)   HTML476)    PDF (1266KB)(2028)      

    GIScience inherits the spatial analysis tradition of geography. Given that "spatial is special", GIScience needs to highlight spatial effects when constructing methods for geographical analysis. The research presents an explicit definition of spatial effect. By formalizing core GIScience concepts including space, location, field, distance, and region, we identify four types of spatial effects, namely spatial heterogeneity effect, neighbor effect in spatial dependence, distance decay effect in spatial interactions, and scale effect in spatial zoning. A unified framework is constructed to cover the four spatial effects based on the inherent linkages among them. We argue that spatial heterogeneity effect is the most fundamental one. While spatial dependence and spatial interaction are two basic geographical processes that represent the second-order relationships between two locations, neighbor effect and distance decay effect reflect the impacts of space. Scale effect is raised when aggregating attributes using regional units. Hence, the four types of effects form a hierarchical system. From a methodological perspective, this paper summaries related GIScience tools that implement different effects, and emphasizes the value of geospatial artificial intelligence for revealing and quantifying spatial effects.

    Table and Figures | Reference | Related Articles | Metrics
    Pattern evolution and optimal paths of county urbanization in China
    LIU Yansui, YANG Ren, LIN Yuancheng
    Acta Geographica Sinica    2022, 77 (12): 2937-2953.   DOI: 10.11821/dlxb202212001
    Abstract3193)   HTML484)    PDF (5350KB)(1735)      

    The orderly development of county urbanization, as an effective driving force for the integrated development of urban and rural areas in the new era, promotes the interaction and flow of elements between urban and rural territorial system, the optimization and adjustment of industrial structures, the optimal allocation of resources and markets, and the organic integration of urban and rural territorial system. The results show that: (1) From 2000 to 2020, the county urbanization in China developed rapidly, and the regional differences in spatial and temporal dynamics were significant. The county urbanization rate in the eastern coastal, central suburbs and northern border areas was high, while it is low in southwest China, rural areas of the central region and most parts of Tibet and Xinjiang. In 2020, to the east of the Hu Huanyong Line, the northeastern region, northern Hebei, Shanxi-Shaanxi-Henan region, eastern Sichuan, and Yunnan-Guizhou region became high-value areas for urbanization rates at the county level. There are 716 counties with urbanization rates exceeding 50%, including the Pearl River Delta, the Yangtze River Delta, the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei region, the Chengdu-Chongqing region, the middle and lower reaches of the Yangtze River, the border areas of Inner Mongolia, and the southeastern coastal areas of Jiangsu, Zhejiang and Fujian, accounting for 38.3% of the country's total. (2) The county urbanization in China is the result of the combined effects of factors such as population, economy, society, and culture. The level of economic development, natural environment conditions, infrastructure construction, geographic locations, public resource supply, professional entrepreneurial clusters, and macro policies affect the direction, scope and depth of county urbanization. It is predicted that by 2035, the urbanization rate of China will reach about 76.04%, and that of counties will be about 64.38%. In the future, we should strengthen the adjustment and optimization of county population, economy, society and spatial organizational structure. (3) There are five types of county urbanization in China, including factor agglomeration urbanization in counties around big cities, industrial agglomeration-driven urbanization in counties with specialized function, agricultural modernization-led urbanization in counties with main agricultural production areas, ecological conservation urbanization in counties with ecological function areas, and concentrated urbanization in counties with population loss. (4) County urbanization takes county and key towns as important spatial carriers for the agglomeration of urbanization elements, and forms a multi-level system of residence-industry and industry-city coordination. The rational spatial distribution of factors such as the development of industrial integration and population resources will further promote the interactive flow of urban and rural elements, the integration of urban and rural industries, the equalization of urban and rural residents, and the equalization of urban and rural infrastructure, and enhance urban-rural integration and network development.

    Table and Figures | Reference | Related Articles | Metrics
    Spatial evolution of new infrastructure and its determinants: A case study of big data centers
    WANG Jiaoe, DU Fangye, XIAO Fan
    Acta Geographica Sinica    2023, 78 (2): 259-272.   DOI: 10.11821/dlxb202302001
    Abstract2097)   HTML481)    PDF (2376KB)(1538)      

    Data center is a new infrastructure system based on new development concepts, technological innovation, and information networks. It provides services for digital transformation, smart upgrading, and integrated innovation to meet the needs of high-quality development. The new infrastructure covers the construction of 5G base stations, intercity high-speed rail, intercity rail transit, new energy vehicle charging piles, big data centers, artificial intelligence, and industrial internet. It could promote resource integration, nurture new growth points, and shape new locations. Analyzing the spatial patterns of new infrastructures and their influencing factors is of great significance for understanding the regional development advantages. Using the data center as an example, this paper explores the spatial distribution and determinants of new infrastructure. Since the data center is not only infrastructure but also a strategic emerging industry, it is different from traditional infrastructure in terms of technical requirements and energy consumption. Since this difference will be reflected in the spatial layout, this paper proposes the macro layout principle of the data center. Then, the evolution characteristics and influencing factors of the spatial pattern of data centers in China are analyzed, and the following conclusions are drawn: (1) The macroscopic distribution of data centers should follow four principles: demand-oriented, cost oriented, operating environment-oriented, and safety oriented. (2) The distribution of data centers presents a spatial structure centered on the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei region, Yangtze River Delta, Pearl River Delta, and Chengdu-Chongqing urban agglomeration. (3) Economic development, internet development, the number of high-tech enterprises, labor costs, and educational institutions have a positive impact on the macro layout of data centers. The impacts of location conditions, land costs, and layout policies of data centers on their macro layout begin to appear at a certain stage. (4) There are three types of data center distribution models in China: demand-orientated, cost-oriented, and demand-cost-operating environment-oriented. At present, the data center in China is demand-oriented and will develop into a comprehensive demand-cost-operating environment-oriented model in the future. Our conclusion could provide guidance and suggestions for scientific site selection and the optimal layout of data centers.

    Table and Figures | Reference | Related Articles | Metrics
    Regionalization of flash floods in China
    CHEN Yuehong, XU Congcong, ZHANG Xiaoxiang, ZHANG Ruojing, MA Qiang, LIU Changjun, REN Liliang, SHI Kaixin
    Acta Geographica Sinica    2023, 78 (5): 1059-1073.   DOI: 10.11821/dlxb202305001
    Abstract1841)   HTML419)    PDF (4275KB)(1524)      

    According to the Ministry of Water Resources of the People's Republic of China, the number of casualties in flash flood disasters accounts for nearly 70% of flood disaster casualties in recent years and flash flood has become one of the major natural disasters causing casualties in China. Flash flood regionalization is fundamental for implementing the local measures of the flash flood prevention and mitigation according to local conditions. Using results from existing flash flood relevant physiographical regionalization schemes, and in accordance with the principles of comprehensive, dominant factors, the relative consistency within units, the relative difference between units, the integrity of spatial distribution and the hierarchical divisions, this paper firstly constructs an index system of the flash flood trigger factors and its underlying surface environment for the flash flood regionalization in China. In the combination of top-down and bottom-up regionalization, the hybrid self-organizing-map-based spatial clustering algorithm is then built. Finally, nine homogeneous regions at the first-grade and thirty-three subregions at the second-grade are delineated for flash floods in China. The historical flash flood events and the Geodetector method are adopted to evaluate the developed regionalization schemes. Results show that the first-grade and the second-grade flash flood regionalization schemes in China can respectively provide the determinant power of 66.4% and 75.4% for the spatial distribution of historical flash flood events in the whole country, indicating the developed flash flood regionalization has a good spatial consistency with the distribution of historical flash flood events with different densities. The developed flash flood regionalization not only effectively delineates the regional differentiation pattern of flash floods, but also provides a scientific basis for the implementation of localized flash flood prevention and mitigation measures in China, which benefits for the sound development of flash flood disasters prevention and management in China.

    Table and Figures | Reference | Related Articles | Metrics
    The characteristics and multi-scale governance of rural space in the new era in China
    GE Dazhuan
    Acta Geographica Sinica    2023, 78 (8): 1849-1868.   DOI: 10.11821/dlxb202308001
    Abstract2035)   HTML405)    PDF (3252KB)(1463)      

    Deconstructing rural spatial characteristics is the precondition for building rural spatial governance system in the new era, and multi-scale rural spatial characteristics and its governance path would effectively support the modernization of the national governance system. Based on the comprehensive, regional and mobile thinking paradigm of geography, this paper deconstructs the multi-scale rural spatial characteristics, identifies its internal operating logics, summarizes its governance dilemmas, constructs a multi-scale rural spatial governance framework that is based on geographical analysis paradigm, explores feasible governance paths, and constructs a multi-scale rural spatial governance system research plan, namely, "characteristics identification-dilemma analysis-governance framework-governance path". The paper finds that: (1) to analyze the operating logics of the multi-scale rural space through the comprehensive, regional and mobile analytical thinking of geography, it is necessary to understand the mechanism of action of scale synthesis, scale differentiation and scale flow to the multi-scale rural spatial characteristics, highlighting the comprehensive characteristics of rural space, strengthening rural spatial heterogeneity, and integrating rural spatial mobility. (2) The lacking urban-rural spatial overall planning, unsmooth spatial mobile network and not-reflected different types of rural spatial value are the key dilemmas in the rural spatial governance, which need to be addressed. (3) The multi-scale rural spatial governance framework of "comprehensive spatial governance-spatial zoning governance-spatial mobile governance" could effectively solve the problems of urban-rural spatial integration, regional spatial coordination and spatial network blockage. (4) Integrating urban-rural comprehensive governance, innovating regulation control to improve regional governance and balancing the configuration of spatial development right to achieve mobile spatial governance are feasible paths for multi-scale rural space governance. In conclusion, clarifying the multi-scale rural spatial characteristics in the new era and constructing a scientific governance system could provide theoretical support to promote integrated urban-rural development and rural vitalization strategy.

    Table and Figures | Reference | Related Articles | Metrics
    China's regional economic development and policy system evolution: A three-dimensional analysis framework based on dynamic perspective
    XIA Tian, XIA Ying, LIU Xiaoyu, SUN Jiuwen
    Acta Geographica Sinica    2023, 78 (8): 1904-1919.   DOI: 10.11821/dlxb202308004
    Abstract2067)   HTML445)    PDF (2025KB)(1448)      

    Despite the initial development goals achieved, China's macro-economy is still deeply affected by the external environment and stuck in its own structure at the same time. In retrospect, not until 1949 with the founding of the People's Republic of China did China's budding regional economy witness the prominence of a fixed development pattern shifting from a spontaneous to an actuating one. After comparing the three regional economic practices, this paper finds that each development stage has its corresponding development strategy. At the same time, several development patterns, namely, the coastal and inland areas, the three regions, and four plates were formed accordingly. Furthermore, through combing the literature and historical facts, this paper determines the historical starting point, division criteria and division scheme of China's regional economic development before summarizing three main lines and also contradictions therein: the government-market relations against the background of market reform, the coastal-inland relations against the tide of economic zonation, and the urban-rural relations against the trend of urbanization. Based on the above, the paper constructs a three-dimensional model out of the spatio-termporal process of China's regional development before proposing new historical stages from the perspective of economic system modernization. These historical stages are: industrial economy, special zone economy, district economy, regional economy and urban network economy. Finally, from the urbanization angle, this paper concludes that for different urbanization stages, regional policies should be industrial policies, factor policies, fiscal and tax policies sequentially.

    Table and Figures | Reference | Related Articles | Metrics
    Unbalanced trend of urban and rural development on the east and west sides of Hu Huanyong Line and micro-breakthrough strategy along the Bole-Taipei Line
    FANG Chuanglin, LI Guangdong, QI Wei, SUN Si'ao, CUI Xuegang, REN Yufei
    Acta Geographica Sinica    2023, 78 (2): 443-455.   DOI: 10.11821/dlxb202302011
    Abstract2473)   HTML309)    PDF (2438KB)(1226)      

    Under the background of promoting more balanced and fuller regional development in the new era, standing at the strategic height of national regional coordinated and balanced development, it is necessary to comprehensively consider the natural environment, the unbalanced situation of economic and social development and the reality of widening gap on both sides of the Hu Huanyong Line, and put forward the basic idea of the Hu Huanyong Line to achieve micro-breakthrough along the Bole-Taipei Line. The Hu Huanyong Line is an important dividing line of population geography, natural geography and ecological environment in China, the dividing line of national main function area and national ecological function area, the dividing line of new urbanization main area and non-main area in China, and the dividing line of unbalanced and inadequate economic and social development in China. In the past 40 years, the gap of economic and social development between the two sides of the Hu Huanyong Line has been widening at an accelerating speed. In the next 30 years, the gap can be narrowed to achieve micro-breakthroughs, focusing on achieving "ten 10%", namely, the proportion of population in the northwest half of China will be 10%, the proportion of total economy will be 10%, with the economic growth rate being more than 10%, the proportion of fixed asset investment in the whole society will be more than 10%, the proportion of local fiscal revenue will be more than 10%, the proportion of actual use of foreign capital will be 10%, the growth rate of per capita GDP will be more than 10%, the rate of increase in the absolute difference in the per capita disposable income of urban residents will be controlled within 10%, the rate of increase in the absolute difference in the per capita disposable income of rural residents will be controlled within 10%, and the absolute gap in education resources will be narrowing at an average annual rate of 10%. In order to achieve the strategic goal of micro-breakthrough, this paper puts forward the main paths and countermeasures to narrow the development gap between the east and the west of the Hu Huanyong Line and attain the micro-breakthrough from the aspects of population micro-layout, economic micro-layout, urbanization micro-layout, industrial micro-layout, moderate water diversion nearby, improvement of ecological compensation and transfer mechanism, construction of the Bole-Taipei Line and implementation of the strategy of further development in the western region.

    Table and Figures | Reference | Related Articles | Metrics
    Dynamics and driving mechanisms of cultivated land at county level in China
    ZHANG Jie, LIU Yujie, ZHANG Ermei, CHEN Jie, TAN Qinghua
    Acta Geographica Sinica    2023, 78 (9): 2105-2127.   DOI: 10.11821/dlxb202309001
    Abstract1678)   HTML389)    PDF (7676KB)(1124)      

    The land conversion processes concerning non-agricultural and non-grain production areas have prominently decreased arable land availability, which substantially impacted grain production capacity and threatened national food security. Thus, it is critical to establish a novel scientific approach to identify spatio-temporal evolution patterns of land conversion and its influencing factors in different stages. This study evaluates the evolutionary characteristics of non-agricultural and non-grain fields by constructing a comprehensive index system that considers factors like cultivated land resources, social and economic conditions, and farmers' subjective perspectives, using a county as the basic research unit. For a comprehensive analysis, a geographical detector model was utilized to quantify driving factors in different stages. The results indicated spatial clustering effects for non-agricultural and non-grain fields throughout China, particularly in the eastern region beyond the "Hu Huanyong Line". Further analysis revealed a spatial pattern for non-grain conversion phenomenon was more intense in the southwestern than the northeastern fields. Over the past four decades, non-agricultural fields recorded an area expansion, but the year-wise area increase was gradually reduced, while non-grain areas exhibited a "growth-stable" change pattern. Although progress in non-grain was less in primary producing areas over the last 40 years, an increase of 1.49 times and 1.33 times was recorded from 2010 to 2020 in PSB (production and sales balance area) and Mrt (marketing) areas, respectively. Compared to the period 1980-2000, the rate of non-agricultural conversion in primary producing areas decreased by 77% during 2010-2020, while the rate of non-agricultural conversion increased by 1.63 and 4.65 times for PSB and Mrt regions, respectively. Based on these findings, this paper puts forward suggestions, such as setting control rules and subsidy mechanisms according to area classification, promoting control policies based on regional considerations, strengthening dynamic monitoring and risk warning, as well as enhancing supervision and assessment.

    Table and Figures | Reference | Related Articles | Metrics
    Evolutionary characteristics and zoning of ecosystem functional stability on the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau
    WANG Qianxin, CAO Wei, HUANG Lin
    Acta Geographica Sinica    2023, 78 (5): 1104-1118.   DOI: 10.11821/dlxb202305004
    Abstract1522)   HTML346)    PDF (6316KB)(1072)      

    As the third pole of earth, the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau is an important ecological security barrier in China and an ecologically sensitive area of global climate change. The increasing climate change has posed a major challenge to its ecosystem function and stability. This paper first analyzes the spatiotemporal variation characteristics of the ecosystem pattern of the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau and its key functions including water conservation, soil conservation, windbreak and sand fixation from 2000 to 2020, clarifies the regional differences in ecosystem functions and their importance, and further evaluates the stability of ecosystem functions. And there is no doubt that the stable state will lay a scientific foundation for the plateau to build an ecologically civilized highland and launch protection and restoration projects. The results show that: (1) From 2000 to 2020, the wetland area of the study area increased and the grassland area decreased significantly. The water conservation and windbreak and sand fixation capacity were improved, and the annual change rates were 3.57 m3/(hm2·a) and 0.23 t/(hm2·a), respectively. However, the overall soil conservation showed a downward trend with an annual change rate of -0.16 t/(hm2·a). (2) The core areas of water conservation, soil conservation and windbreak and sand fixation accounted for 12.7%, 13.9% and 14.2%, respectively. The core water conservation barrier areas were mainly located in southeast Tibet, Sanjiangyuan and Ruoergai. The core windbreak and sand fixation areas were concentrated in the central and western parts of the plateau, and the core soil conservation areas surrounded the plateau. (3) From 2000 to 2020, the water conservation, soil conservation, and wind protection and sand-fixation functions have shown relatively high stability in the southeastern and central parts of the plateau, while relatively weak stability in the western part of the plateau. Combining stability assessment and ecological protection and restoration practices, we can divide the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau into three major categories of 16 ecosystem function zones and carry out differentiated ecological protection and restoration for different core ecosystem functions and zones.

    Table and Figures | Reference | Related Articles | Metrics
    The influence of regional dual-nuclei structure on provincial economic development in China:An empirical study based on spatial Dubin model
    DAI Hongwei, HU Xifei
    Acta Geographica Sinica    2023, 78 (10): 2375-2391.   DOI: 10.11821/dlxb202310001
    Abstract1665)   HTML407)    PDF (1154KB)(1025)      

    At present, the empirical analysis of regional dual-nuclei structures at the national level is still relatively rare. How to define the provinces with the characteristics of dual-nuclei structures and analyze their impact needs further empirical discussion. In this paper, the spatial Dubin model and the data of 259 prefecture-level cities are used to analyze the distribution characteristics of regional dual-nuclei structure in China and its influence on provincial development. The empirical results show that 11 provincial-level regions (hereafter provinces) in China show the characteristics of dual-nuclei structure. The regional dual-nuclei structure plays a significant role in promoting the economic development of the province, but the northern and southern regions show great differences. The regional dual-nuclei structure has a promoting effect on provincial industrial agglomeration and helps to promote the improvement of local scientific and technological innovation. In general, compared with some single-core provinces with small scale and weak radiation driving force in some provincial capitals, the regional dual-nuclei structure can make up for these shortcomings to a certain extent by virtue of the number of central cities and spatial distribution, which is more conducive to driving local economic development and scientific and technological innovation.

    Table and Figures | Reference | Related Articles | Metrics
    Dynamics of developmental vitality and equilibria of counties in China based on nighttime lights data
    LIU Lingcen, SUN Zhongxiao, WU Feng, LI Yuheng, ZHANG Qian
    Acta Geographica Sinica    2023, 78 (4): 811-823.   DOI: 10.11821/dlxb202304003
    Abstract1393)   HTML280)    PDF (4351KB)(1021)      

    Eliminating inequality and achieving balanced development is one of the Sustainable Development Goals of the United Nations. Accurate measurement of development equilibrium is a primary scientific problem to be solved urgently. Nighttime lights data have been proven to be a good proxy for economic activity, and they have been used widely due to their advantages of convenient acquisition and wide spatial coverage. Therefore, in this study, we applied the Gini coefficients derived from nighttime lights data and pixelized population data to evaluate the development equilibria for China's 2900 counties from 2002-2020. We then examined the nexus of the development equilibrium and developmental vitality represented by the average nighttime lights intensity within each county. The results showed that the Gini coefficients based on nighttime lights data have generally been decreasing for 96% of the counties in China during 2002-2020. Moreover, in general, the Gini coefficients present a spatial pattern of being lower in the east and higher in the west. The results illustrate the synergetic development pathways of economic growth and equilibrium promotion of the economically developed counties, although the variation of their equilibria is significant. On the contrary, there is still distinct room for improvement of development equilibria for 60% of the economically underdeveloped counties in China. The results provide scientific support for achieving balanced development and promoting common prosperity in China.

    Table and Figures | Reference | Related Articles | Metrics
    Green water in China: Geological structure and its significance
    WANG Guangqian, ZHANG Yu, XIE Di, ZHONG Deyu
    Acta Geographica Sinica    2023, 78 (7): 1641-1658.   DOI: 10.11821/dlxb202307006
    Abstract533)   HTML76)    PDF (4432KB)(1007)      

    Terrestrial recycling of green water, which is created through a continuous cycle of evapotranspiration, atmospheric transport, and terrestrial precipitation, serves as bridges connecting hydrosphere, atmosphere, biosphere, and anthroposphere. Limited knowledge of terrestrial recycling may underestimate the impact of human activities on water and ecology. This study focuses on the structure of China's green water recycling (CGWR) and quantifies the contributions of natural and human ecosystems. Results indicate a high green water recycling ratio (50.4%) and a large recycled amount (2.75 trillion m3/a) over China, with significant south-to-north transport structures over eastern China, southwest-to-northeast transport structures from southwestern China to northern China, and high self-recycling structures in western China. The grassland-dominated Qinghai-Tibet Plateau provides the largest amount of green water (about 800 billion m3/a) and serves as the most critical region for CGWR. The forest-dominated southern hilly region and Yunnan-Guizhou-Sichuan region play a crucial role in supplying green water to a wide area of China. The cropland-dominated Middle-Lower Yangtze Plain and the grassland-dominated Loess Plateau are the key hubs for south-to-north and southwest-to-northeast transport of green water. The structure of CGWR is driven by large-scale geosystems such as ecosystems and atmospheric circulation systems, and has strategic implications in the following three aspects. First, CGWR serves as the "domestic cycle" of water, based on which a general domestic-level water governance framework can be established. Second, CGWR is a representative picture of the water-related processes in the Mountain-River-Forest-Farmland-Lake-Grassland-Desert (MRFFLGD) system and serves as a critical pivot to actualize the conservation and improvement of the MRFFLGD system. Finally, CGWR, together with inter-basin water resources transfer and virtual water transfer, forms a complete picture of China's inter-basin water transfer. The scientific coordination and integration of the three processes present a new approach for achieving spatial equilibrium between China's water resources and economic development.

    Table and Figures | Reference | Related Articles | Metrics
    Measurement and spatio-temporal pattern of urban-rural integrated development in China
    ZHENG Yuhan, LONG Hualou
    Acta Geographica Sinica    2023, 78 (8): 1869-1887.   DOI: 10.11821/dlxb202308002
    Abstract1040)   HTML215)    PDF (7275KB)(972)      

    Urban-rural integrated development is an advanced stage in the evolution of the urban-rural relationship, and it is also the basic path and main goal for the implementation of rural revitalization. Scientifically understanding and identifying the integration stage and its current level of urban-rural development in China is the prerequisite basis for promoting urban-rural integrated development and rural revitalization. Based on the concept connotation, this paper constructed a multi-dimensional evaluation system of urban-rural integrated development at the prefecture level. The process status and spatiotemporal divergent characteristics of urban-rural integrated development in 336 prefecture-level regions in China from 2000-2018 were portrayed and revealed. The results show that: (1) The current state of urban-rural integrated development in China is generally at a low-to-middle level, showing a heterogeneous spatiotemporal pattern with apparent gradient divergence. The integrated development level of the Pearl River Delta, Jiangsu and Zhejiang provinces, and the Shandong Peninsula is high, but the regions distributed to the west of the "Hu Line" develops slowly. (2) According to the level and characteristics of integrated development, the 366 prefecture-level regions can be divided into four types: integrated development, tending integration, imbalanced development, and lagging development, with a more active transformation between the latter three types. (3) The development level of urban-rural economic integration is higher than that of demographic and social integration, while the development process of urban-rural spatial and ecological integration shows some natural zonal divergent characteristics. Finally, we identified the problem areas for different types of integrated development and explored the regional promotion path of urban-rural integrated development, which could provide scientific references for the strategies of regional urban-rural development and rural revitalization.

    Table and Figures | Reference | Related Articles | Metrics
    Spatio-temporal variation patterns of diurnal freeze-thaw cycles of the near-surface soil on the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau between 2002 and 2020
    SHEN Qikai, LIU Xiuguo, ZHOU Xin, ZHANG Zhengjia, CHEN Qihao
    Acta Geographica Sinica    2023, 78 (3): 587-603.   DOI: 10.11821/dlxb202303006
    Abstract1279)   HTML221)    PDF (8122KB)(969)      

    The diurnal freeze-thaw cycle of near-surface soils on the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau (QTP) significantly affects the exchange of water and energy between the soil and the atmosphere, which is important for an understanding of the response of the QTP to climate change. Based on MODIS, AMSR-E and AMSR-2 data, we first obtained the diurnal calibration coefficients from AMSR-2 to AMSR-E in the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau (QTP), and then used the Fourier nonlinear model to fusion diurnal freeze-thaw index with surface temperature, and further obtained the diurnal freeze-thaw condition of near-surface soils at 1 km resolution per day, and finally carried out a study on the spatial and temporal changes of diurnal freeze-thaw cycles of near-surface soils in the QTP between 2002 and 2020. The results indicate that: (1) The improved calibration method of AMSR series sensors in this paper is more suitable for the QTP region than the calibration method for global scale. The accuracy of the freeze-thaw product obtained by fusion using the Fourier nonlinear model was 80.96% for diurnal freeze-thaw discrimination, which was 3.95% higher than that of the unfused product. (2) The frequency of diurnal freeze-thaw cycles in the seasonal freeze-thaw process of near-surface soils on the QTP varies spatially, with the highest frequency occurring in the southern Tibetan region and the Qinghai plateau, and is cyclical in time, the high frequency region shows a shift to the northwest when warming and to the southeast when cooling. (3) In the past 20 years, the trend of diurnal freeze-thaw days in different parts of the QTP is varied, with the northern Tibetan plateau, southern Tibetan alpine region and eastern Tibetan region showing an increase and the Qinghai plateau showing a decrease. (4) There are regional differences in the beginning of the continuous diurnal freeze-thaw cycle on the QTP, with the beginning of the thawing process being gradually delayed from east to west and the beginning of the freezing process being gradually delayed from west to east. In the past 20 years, the starting time of continuous diurnal freeze-thaw cycle in near-surface soils has been changing, with 0.17 d/a earlier during thawing and 0.18 d/a earlier during freezing.

    Table and Figures | Reference | Related Articles | Metrics
    Spatiotemporal variation of snow cover days and influencing factors in north and south Qinling Mountains based on remote sensing monitoring
    LI Shuangshuang, HU Jialan, DUAN Keqin, HE Jinping, YAN Junping
    Acta Geographica Sinica    2023, 78 (1): 121-138.   DOI: 10.11821/dlxb202301008
    Abstract883)   HTML95)    PDF (9308KB)(884)      

    It is a hot issue in climate change research to study the response mechanism of mountain snow cover to climate warming based on elevation-dependent warming. Based on Terra Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) snow cover phenology datasets from 2000 to 2019, we analyzed the spatiotemporal variation of snow cover days in the north and south of the Qinling Mountains by the methods of trend and detrended correlation analysis. Meanwhile, we identified the influencing factors of snow cover days from the perspectives of sea surface temperature (SST) in autumn and winter of the equatorial Pacific, high pressure over the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau, respectively. The results are as follows: (1) after 2013, climate condition in the north and south of the Qinling Mountains shifted from "warming hiatus" to "warming up", followed by declining snow cover days. And the proportion of areas with snow cover more than 10 days decreased from 35.1% to 8.6%. (2) We identified 1950-2000 m in the Qinling Mountains and 1600-1650 m in the Daba Mountains as transition zones of snow cover days. Above the transition zone, the increasing rate of snow cover days with altitude is higher than that of the low altitude area. Particularly, the altitudinal belt between 2100 m and 3150 m is the sensitivity zone of snow cover days to climate change. On the basis of the reference period of 2000-2004, we find that the elevation with 40, 60 and 80 days of snow cover increased by 100 m, 100 m and 150 m for the period of 2015-2019. (3) The SST in autumn and winter over NINO C and NINO Z regions and the winter high pressure over Qinghai-Tibet Plateau are two effective indicators of snow cover days anomaly in the Qinling Mountains, Hanjiang Valley and Daba Mountains. The lower SST of the central equatorial Pacific in autumn and winter, or the lower the winter high pressure over the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau is, the more excessive snow cover days would occur. (4) In terms of circulation mechanism, during the years with more snow cover days, the 0 ℃ isotherm in January and February was southerly, providing the proper temperature for increasing snow and ice accumulation and delaying snow and ice melting. Moreover, there was a weak water vapor convergence zone in January, which provided water vapor conditions for increasing snow and ice accumulation. The findings can enrich our understanding of winter climate change and provide early warning information of snow anomaly in the subtropical and warm-temperate zones in China.

    Table and Figures | Reference | Related Articles | Metrics
    Ecological and hydrological perspectives of the water retention concept
    GAO Hongkai, LIU Junguo, GAO Guangyao, XIA Jun
    Acta Geographica Sinica    2023, 78 (1): 139-148.   DOI: 10.11821/dlxb202301009
    Abstract902)   HTML79)    PDF (1020KB)(873)      

    Water retention plays a critical role in terrestrial ecosystem service. However, regarding its definition and calculation, there is a long debate in academia, which illustrates its importance in practice, and simultaneously demonstrates the complexity and vagueness of this essential concept. Thus, there is an urgent need to clarify its definition and calculation method based on basic ecological and hydrological theories, and eventually promote science-based decision-making and integrated water management. Interestingly, we observed that for the same term of "water retention function", ecologists intended to concern the terrestrial ecosystem's water storage capacity (Smax), while hydrologists concerned more about the water yield from the catchment (Q). Both perspectives have their own rationality, but with totally different vision and emphasis. By theorical discussion and data analysis, we found that water storage capacity (Smax) and water yield (Q) indeed have strong connection, but they are definitely two different concepts. The Smax of terrestrial ecosystem determined the separation of precipitation into either evaporation (green water) and Q (blue water). The size of Smax in most cases trades off with the amount of Q. We further revealed that the root zone storage capacity (SRmax) of ecosystem is at the heart of water retention function assessment, and plays a key role linking blue and green water. The SRmax is the result of ecosystem's adaption to its climate, and can be derived by the classic method to design reservoir, i.e. the Mass Curve Technique (MCT). Lastly, we gave three recommendations: (1) simultaneously evaluating green water retention capacity and blue water yield in practice; (2) further investigating the water retention functions of more water bodies, e.g. glacier, snow cover, and groundwater; (3) synergizing natural and artificial water retention capacities to enhance the water use efficiency in both the ecosystem and our economic-social system.

    Table and Figures | Reference | Related Articles | Metrics
    Spatial pattern and influencing factors of shipping service industry
    WANG Liehui, CHEN Ping, ZHANG Nanyi
    Acta Geographica Sinica    2023, 78 (4): 913-929.   DOI: 10.11821/dlxb202304009
    Abstract1369)   HTML188)    PDF (5101KB)(868)      

    The shipping service industry is a major driving force in the economic growth and reorganization of port cities' spatial structure, as well as a core element in raising hub port cities' competitiveness. Recently, the global distribution and network connections of the shipping service industry have attracted significant attention, but few studies have analyzed the distribution differences and influencing factors of different shipping service industries. In this study, we divided the shipping service industry into upstream shipping auxiliary industries (ship owners, ship management, ship repair and construction) and downstream shipping derivative service industries (shipping finance, shipping insurance, maritime law). And based on Lloyd's Maritime Directory in 2019, we built a database about the world's shipping service industry. The spatial connection network of the global shipping service industry was then examined at the global, regional and city levels, using the correlation network model and the negative binomial regression model, which revealed the differences in distribution between the upstream and downstream shipping services. The affecting elements on upstream and downstream shipping services are explored in the last section. The results are as follows: (1) Europe and Asia are the primary distribution region of the upstream and downstream shipping service industries, a pyramid structure is shown under the variation in countries' distribution. The spatial distribution of the upstream industry is wider in range, closer in connections and stronger in agglomeration, compared to the downstream industry. (2) The global shipping service network presents a dual-center structure. Europe centers on London and builds a trans-continental radiation network of downstream shipping derivative services connecting to neighboring capital cities. Asia forms an upstream service network that connects Hong Kong, Shanghai and other cities with Singapore as the center. (3) The upstream shipping auxiliary industry is mainly distributed in non-capital seaport cities, while the downstream shipping derivative service industry is chiefly distributed in the capitals and other administrative centers. (4) The e-commerce index and the logistics performance index are positively related to the upstream and downstream industries. Otherwise, the upstream shipping auxiliary industry is also affected by the degree of economic freedom, the number of tourist arrivals, and the liner transport index, while the downstream shipping derivative service industry is mainly influenced by international trade and political culture. This study provides a theoretical reference for China to construct an international shipping center, reaches the linkage development between upstream and downstream shipping services, and improves the overall strength of China's shipping industry.

    Table and Figures | Reference | Related Articles | Metrics
    Urban-rural population change and the regional types evolution of China's urbanization
    LIU Tao, ZHUO Yunxia, PENG Rongxi, CAO Guangzhong
    Acta Geographica Sinica    2022, 77 (12): 3006-3022.   DOI: 10.11821/dlxb202212005
    Abstract974)   HTML100)    PDF (3003KB)(795)      

    Urbanization is the outcome of population dynamics in both urban and rural areas, which has a profound influence on urban-rural development. This paper puts forward a method to identify regional types of urbanization from the perspective of urban-rural population change. Using this method and based on the census data, this paper analyzes the spatial pattern and influencing factors of China's urbanization. The results show that China has entered an era of rapid urbanization since 1990. Urbanization rates have risen in almost all regions, but with varied pathways over time and across regions. With the decline of natural population growth and the expansion of rural-urban migration, the process of urbanization depends more and more on rural population loss, leading to the transformation of urbanization regional type from "urban-rural growth" to "urban growth" in the country. Although the "urban growth" is the most common regional type of urbanization at both provincial and prefecture levels, the transformation of urbanization regional type from "urban growth" to "rural loss" has been witnessed in a large number of regions in the past decade. Besides, regions with the "urban-rural growth" type have shrunk to places such as Tibet and Shanghai while regions with the "urban-rural loss" type have expanded in non-provincial capital cities in Northeast China. At present, China's urbanization regional type is still driven by economic development: rural population declines faster in areas with rapid economic growth, leading to the "rural loss" urbanization; rapidly industrialized regions have undergone faster urban population growth and slower rural population loss than their counterparts; while the effect of social factors such as public services on urbanization regional type is limited. In addition, the impact of new urbanization strategy and rural revitalization strategy is not yet clear, given the limited attractiveness of urban agglomerations of the western region as well as small and medium-sized cities and the prevalence of rural population loss.

    Table and Figures | Reference | Related Articles | Metrics
    Hydrological mechanism and disaster-causing effects of subsurface stormflow
    CUI Peng, ZHANG Guotao, ZHANG Chendi
    Acta Geographica Sinica    2023, 78 (7): 1627-1640.   DOI: 10.11821/dlxb202307005
    Abstract547)   HTML82)    PDF (3723KB)(770)      

    Subsurface stormflow is a special form of subsurface flow in the vadose zone of steep slopes in mountainous and hilly regions, and it is also one of the most important runoff generation mechanisms in the process of flash flood formation. However, the systematic summary on the scientific connotation, mechanisms, and disaster-causing characteristics of the subsurface stormflow in current research is very rare and this limits the development of the theoretical system of runoff generation, routing, and modeling methods of flash floods. Herein, we clarify the scientific connotation and definition of subsurface stormflow based on the division of the development periods of the subsurface stormflow research around the world as well as the analysis of physical processes for the runoff generation. Meanwhile, three physical conditions for the occurrence of subsurface stormflow, together with their influences on the nonlinear response process, are highlighted. The influences of the subsurface stormflow on the dynamic development of flash floods, landslides, and debris flow hazards are analyzed and summarized. Finally, three key research directions are proposed: water transport processes and hydrological connectivity mechanism of the macropores in the vadose zone, processes and mechanisms of water exchange at the geotechnical channel interfaces inside the slopes, and the formation mechanism for flash flood from multiple runoff generation processes with complex slope topography conditions. This work can provide new research perspectives for the formation mechanism and hydrological theoretical framework of flash floods in complex mountainous regions, and better support the national scientific and technological needs for flash flood forecast as well as disaster prevention and mitigation.

    Table and Figures | Reference | Related Articles | Metrics
    Spatiotemporal interaction characteristics and transition mechanism of carbon intensity in China's service industry under the targets of carbon peak and carbon neutrality
    WANG Zheng, CHENG Zhanhong
    Acta Geographica Sinica    2023, 78 (1): 54-70.   DOI: 10.11821/dlxb202301004
    Abstract1076)   HTML137)    PDF (3402KB)(764)      

    To realize carbon‐related nationally determined contributions and achieve the targets of carbon peak and carbon neutrality on schedule, low-carbon development of China's service industry is an inevitable trend. On the basis of the comprehensive application of multiple spatial analysis methods, the spatiotemporal evolution and dynamic interaction characteristics of carbon intensity in China's service industry from 2005 to 2019 are analyzed from the perspective of spatiotemporal interaction. Combined with quantile regression and the nested model of spatiotemporal transition, the driving mechanism patterns of carbon intensity in China's service industry under different transition types are revealed. The results are as follows: (1) The carbon intensity in China's service industry first increased and then decreased from 2005 to 2019, showing spatially unbalanced characteristics. (2) The kernel density curve demonstrates the dynamic convergence trend of regional differences in the carbon intensity of the service industry. And the carbon intensity also showed a significant spatial agglomeration phenomenon according to the spatial autocorrelation analysis. (3) Based on the evolution analysis of the spatial correlation pattern of carbon intensity in the service industry from 2005 to 2019, a path-locking feature was shown by few spatiotemporal transitions across different types. The eastern coastal region had relatively stable spatial structure and spatial dependence direction, while the central and western regions demonstrated the opposite. (4) The spatiotemporal network pattern of carbon intensity in China's service industry was dominated by positive correlations, although a certain degree of spatiotemporal competition was found between some neighboring provinces. (5) Regional differences existed in the spatiotemporal transition driving patterns of carbon intensity in China's service industry. Specifically, the eastern coastal provinces were mainly influenced by the population-urbanization restriction mode, while most regions in the northwest, southwest, and northeast were mainly influenced by the driving pattern of technology-regulation. From the northwest to the southeast, the spatiotemporal transition patterns showed an evolutionary characteristic of "synthetic development-synthetic restriction". Therefore, the formulation of the emission reduction policies should not only consider various driving/restriction factors but also emphasize differentiated emission reduction measures in China's service industry by combining different types of carbon intensity agglomeration and transition paths, as well as avoiding the regional closure of inter-provincial emission reduction policies through synergistic emission reduction.

    Table and Figures | Reference | Related Articles | Metrics
    Attribution of vegetation dynamics in Southwest China from 1982 to 2019
    MA Bingxin, HE Caixia, JING Juanli, WANG Yongfeng, LIU Bing, HE Hongchang
    Acta Geographica Sinica    2023, 78 (3): 714-728.   DOI: 10.11821/dlxb202303013
    Abstract830)   HTML152)    PDF (8587KB)(761)      

    Southwest China is an important carbon sink region in China. Monitoring vegetation dynamics and exploring the impacts of climate change and human activities on vegetation are essential for gaining insight into carbon cycle mechanisms and promoting sustainable economic development. In this paper, downscaled NDVI data were obtained by fusing the GIMMS NDVI and SPOT NDVI. Then, the data were combined with multitemporal land use and meteorological data to explore the relative contributions of human activities and climate change to vegetation dynamics in Southwest China from 1982 to 2019 by using trend analysis, partial correlation analysis and residual trend analysis. The results are obtained as follows: (1) From 1982 to 2019, the NDVI showed an overall increasing trend in the study area, with an average annual rate of 0.0020 a-1; the NDVI showed a decreasing trend before the Grain to Green Program (GTGP) was implemented, but it turned to an increasing trend after the implementation of the GTGP. (2) Temperature and precipitation increased NDVI as a whole, but there was apparent spatial heterogeneity. Except in the central cities, temperature mainly promoted the NDVI. However, precipitation inhibited the NDVI in the western part of the study area and promoted the NDVI in the eastern part. (3) As the areas affected by climate change and human activities became separated, the contribution of climate change to vegetation recovery increased from 30.47% to 60.28%. In comparison, the contribution of human activities to vegetation recovery decreased from 69.53% to 39.72%. The results suggest that the impact of human activity on vegetation may decline further in the sparsely populated western part of the southwest region.

    Table and Figures | Reference | Related Articles | Metrics
    Rural digitalization and rural spatial transformation
    YANG Ren, LIN Yuancheng
    Acta Geographica Sinica    2023, 78 (2): 456-473.   DOI: 10.11821/dlxb202302012
    Abstract825)   HTML111)    PDF (2284KB)(760)      

    The extension and penetration of digital technology into rural areas profoundly affects the organization and structure of rural economy, society and politics, and promotes the transformation and reorganization of rural territorial system from the perspective of urban-rural development network. Based on defining the concept of rural digitalization, this paper discusses the coupling relationship between rural digitalization and rural spatial transformation, deeply analyzes the mechanism of rural digitalization and rural spatial transformation, and builds a research framework for rural digitalization development and transformation. The main conclusions are as follows: (1) Rural digitalization is a process of reshaping the physical environment, economic form, social network and spatial organization of rural areas with the wide application of digital technology in vast rural areas. It promotes the digital transformation of rural economic and social forms and spatial organizational structure, including the process, role and effect of digital technology on rural regional space. (2) Under the background of rural digitalization, the transformation of rural space tends to be comprehensive and complex, and multiple spaces such as material, economy, society and culture are superimposed and transformed, and cyberspace and network culture forms are derived under the connection of digital information. (3) The multi-dimensional embedded mechanism of rural digitalization and rural spatial transformation includes the logic of digital infrastructure construction and rural physical environment transformation, the mechanism of digital economic development and rural economic transformation, the relationship between digital technology application and rural social network restructuring, digital governance models and the role of rural spatial organization reconstruction. (4) Under the major strategic direction of urban-rural integrated development and rural revitalization, future research needs to explore frontier fields and innovative dimensions of rural development based on digitalization for strengthening disciplinary contributions. It includes focusing on smart rural application scenarios, developing rural planning and construction systems and engineering technical specifications, and serving the rural sustainable development, informatization and modernization of rural development.

    Table and Figures | Reference | Related Articles | Metrics
    The influence of the industrial structure of central cities on surrounding cities and regional urban systems
    LI Jiaming, SUN Dongqi, JIANG Yanpeng
    Acta Geographica Sinica    2023, 78 (8): 1955-1968.   DOI: 10.11821/dlxb202308007
    Abstract898)   HTML203)    PDF (1605KB)(747)      

    The study of the new economic geography has paid attention to the polarization and balanced development of urban systems. In reality, however, transport accessibility is subject to great uncertainty in explaining the polarization and balance of the urban system. In fact, the polarization or equilibrium of the regional urban system is not only unique in China, but also a general phenomenon in countries with different development outcomes, political systems and degrees of marketization. From the perspective of industrial heterogeneity, this study empirically analyzes the process and mechanism of the industrial structure of regional central cities on the population growth of neighboring cities in China from 1980 to 2020, and examines the influence of industrial structure on the polarization and equilibrium development of the regional urban system. The results show that, firstly, the manufacturing sector strengthens the spillover effect from the core city and promotes the population growth in neighboring cities, while the service sector weakens the spillover effect and hinders the growth in neighboring cities. Secondly, the manufacturing-oriented cities have relatively small city scale, while the service-oriented cities are relatively large. Therefore, the driving effect of manufacturing-oriented central cities on the neighboring cities is larger, which tends to produce a relatively balanced regional city system. Correspondently, the spillover effect of service-oriented central cities on the neighboring cities is smaller, which tends to form a relatively polarized regional city system. Finally, as the share of services in the industrial structure of central cities continues to rise, China's urban system may become more polarized rather than balanced. Certainly, the higher the proportion of manufacturing in the central city, the more balanced the regional urban system is. In fact, the empirical results show that the industrial structure and the spillover effect of the core city have an inverted U-shaped relationship, i.e. a high proportion of manufacturing or services weakens the driving effect of the core city on surrounding cities. The reasons for this vary. The high proportion of manufacturing and the small size of the central city have a limited spillover effect on the neighboring cities and therefore can hardly drive their growth; while the high proportion of service industry and the negative effect of the service industry on the spillover effect lead to the slow development of the neighboring small-and-medium-sized cities. It is worth noting that because of the significant spatial impact of industry on the urban system, the future regional urbanization strategy should be coordinated with the industrial strategy. More importantly, with the gradual liberalization of the household registration system, industry selection can become an effective policy option for macro-control of the regional urban system.

    Table and Figures | Reference | Related Articles | Metrics
    The evolutionary characteristics and innovation effects of technological knowledge polycentricity in Chinese urban agglomerations
    MA Haitao, XU Xuanfang, JIANG Kaile
    Acta Geographica Sinica    2023, 78 (2): 273-292.   DOI: 10.11821/dlxb202302002
    Abstract1056)   HTML259)    PDF (5289KB)(738)      

    Technological knowledge polycentricity is a measure of the degree of polycentricity present in knowledge innovation; it can be used to model the spatial structure of technological knowledge production and cooperation within urban agglomerations, and can thus be used to gauge the level of innovation and the quality of development in an urban agglomeration. Drawing on patent application and inter-city patent cooperation data for 293 cities in China in the years 2000, 2005, 2010, 2015, and 2019, we used polycentricity measures, instrumental variables, and panel threshold models in order to explore the spatiotemporal evolution characteristics, type evolution trends, and innovation output effects of technological knowledge polycentricity in 19 urban agglomerations. Our results show that: (1) The evolution of the morphological and functional polycentricity of technological knowledge differs significantly between agglomerations—whilst morphological polycentricity showed a fluctuating trend (whereby a decline was followed by an increase and then a further decrease); in fact, we found functional polycentricity to have gradually increased over the study period. (2) Urban agglomerations with high morphological and functional polycentricity values were found to maintain higher innovation levels, while low morphological and functional polycentricity could be linked to lower innovation levels; the results of the type of distribution analysis, further, show that while morphological polycentricity did not present any obvious concentration or evolution trends over the study period, functional polycentricity increased significantly. (3) The modeling results show that the relation between the morphological polycentricity of urban agglomerations and urban innovation outputs has an inverted U-shaped relationship, with an inflection point at the value 0.438; functional polycentricity, in contrast, was found to maintain a consistently positive relationship with innovation outputs, confirming the importance of inter-city innovation cooperation when it comes to urban innovation output. Our conclusions on the development pattern of technological knowledge polycentricity can provide theoretical support for the formulation of innovation development strategies in urban agglomerations.

    Table and Figures | Reference | Related Articles | Metrics
    The evolution modes of town-villages construction pattern of typical counties:A comparative case study of three counties in Jiangsu province
    JIA Kaiyang, QIAO Weifeng, HU Xiaoliang, HUANG Xianjin
    Acta Geographica Sinica    2022, 77 (12): 2954-2971.   DOI: 10.11821/dlxb202212002
    Abstract998)   HTML107)    PDF (5940KB)(719)      

    Town-village shows a heterogeneous development trend in the urban-rural transition in China. However, previous studies focused more on the dynamics of the physical space of town-villages and the impact of natural factors while ignoring the shaping effects of the underlying socioeconomic changes. Scientific understanding of town-villages development rules at the county scale and the refinement of typical evolutionary modes can help construct an efficient and coordinated town-villages construction pattern (TVCP) that adapts to socioeconomic patterns according to local conditions. It also helps to promote industrial reshaping, organisational reconstruction, and spatial reconfiguration of town-villages. More importantly, it can build a new platform for urban-rural integrated development and thus achieve common prosperity for both rural and urban areas. This research aims to refine the evolutionary modes of TVCP in counties with different development paths. First, we analysed the logic and history of the differentiation of the TVCP evolutionary path from the perspective of "social process-space form". Then, a multicase method was used to compare and analyse the differences in the evolution of TVCP in three typical counties of Jiangsu province from 2009 to 2018. Finally, we generalised the experience into universal evolution modes. The results show that the TVCP evolution is a typical process of the production of space, and the transformation of the production mode leads to various evolutionary paths of the TVCP. Moreover, there are obvious differences in the spatio-temporal characteristics of the TVCP evolution and the mechanisms of influencing factors under different development paths due to the difference in spatial demands of element agglomeration and evacuation. Based on the comparative case analysis, we summarise three types of evolutionary modes with different changing trends and dynamic mechanisms. The agricultural production mode shows a trend of polarised expansion of Chengguan town and shrewd contraction of the villages, which is mainly driven by urbanisation combined with state power and social demands. The industrial production mode, driven by rapid capital circulation dominated by market power, shows a trend of polycentric expansion of towns and consolidation of villages. The ecological consumption mode is characterised by the divergence between the revival and decline of villages; the driving mechanism is commodification and authoritativeness in rural space. According to the three modes, we suggest that efforts should be made to equalise basic public services, realise the citizenization of the migrant agricultural population, and promote commercial cooperation between urban and rural areas in the future.

    Table and Figures | Reference | Related Articles | Metrics
    Human sedentism and utilization of animal resources on the prehistoric Tibetan Plateau
    WANG Qing, ZHANG Ying, CHEN Shungang, GAO Yu, YANG Jishuai, RAN Jingkun, GU Zhengquan, YANG Xiaoyan
    Acta Geographica Sinica    2023, 78 (1): 177-197.   DOI: 10.11821/dlxb202301012
    Abstract671)   HTML61)    PDF (3829KB)(707)      

    It is a long process for human to shift from highly mobile to year-round sedentary lifeways. Sedentism had a profound impact on the subsistence, technologies, and ultimately the origin of civilization in human societies. The emergence of sedentism was effected by climate change, population growth, resource pressure, technological innovation and so forth. The Tibetan Plateau is a key region to study human evolution and adaptation to extreme environment due to the alpine and hypoxia conditions. How people adapted and permanently occupied the Tibetan Plateau has been a heated debate in the past decades, but the prehistoric process of sedentism on the Tibetan Plateau is still ambiguous. By reviewing the published archaeological and genetics research, we find that current studies of prehistoric human sedentism on the Tibetan Plateau focused on agricultural diffusion from low-altitude to high-altitude areas and its effects; Few attentions were paid to the role of animal resources in the process of sedentism, and the chronological sequence and driving mechanism of sedentism on the Tibetan Plateau are still controversial. Seasonality analysis is crucial to determine whether a site is occupied year-round. We summarized the methods for seasonality analysis using animal remains, and put forward some suggestions on how to efficiently establish the schedule of animal resources utilization at a site according to the local conditions. Firstly, the database of skeletal morphology, whole genome and proteome of modern animals on the Tibetan Plateau should be established to provide a basis for the identification of animal remains from archaeological sites. Subsequently, the human-animal-environment relationship and the role of animal resources in human sedentism process on the Tibetan Plateau should be evaluated.

    Table and Figures | Reference | Related Articles | Metrics
    Coupling correlation between economic resilience and industrial structure evolution in the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei region
    ZHANG Xuebo, FU Wenshuo, MA Haitao
    Acta Geographica Sinica    2023, 78 (10): 2392-2411.   DOI: 10.11821/dlxb202310002
    Abstract925)   HTML279)    PDF (5210KB)(685)      

    Regional economic resilience is closely related to the state of the regional industrial structure. During the process of the region undergoing and recovering from external shocks, whether and how the spatio-temporal correlation between economic resilience and the evolution of the established industrial structure should be further explored. The micro and mesoscopic views of enterprises and industries, multi-year economic growth data, and enterprise status in the counties of the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei region were employed to measure regional economic resilience at the county level and divide its economic development stages. In addition, a spatio-temporal correlation between regional economic resilience and industrial structure was appropriately tested, and the main industries affecting regional economic resilience were distinguished. Finally, the coupling mechanism of regional economic resilience and industrial structure evolution was analyzed. The major findings are as follows: (1) The periods of rapid and slow economic growth occur alternately in the study region, and the economic resilience shows a fluctuating growth trend. Meanwhile, central urban areas such as Beijing, Tianjin, and Shijiazhuang exhibited high economic resilience, and a typical center-periphery structure gradually took shape. (2) There was a significant spatial correlation between regional economic resilience and industrial structure. In economically developed regions, such as Beijing and Tianjin, the agglomeration of high economic resilience and high industrial structure was evident. There was a two-way causal correlation and consistency in time-series changes. (3) The industrial structure in the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei region had gradually improved. Compared to the effect of industrial structure, the effect of competitiveness contributed more to economic resilience. Primary industries as well as those pertinent to consumer services and social services have played a pivotal role in improving regional resisting economic resilience. Besides, the development of consumer services and social services leads to the strengthening of the region's recovering economic resilience. (4) The evolution of the industrial structure achieved the evolution of the development path, which was revealed in the distinction of economic resilience at the county level. In addition, the coupling correlation between regional economic resilience and the evolution of industrial structure in the study region was mainly revealed in the time scale, which had not yet led to the fundamental restructuring of the regional spatial structure, and the center-periphery structure is still relatively significant.

    Table and Figures | Reference | Related Articles | Metrics
    Spatial structure and factors influencing county urbanization of inter-provincial border areas in China
    LIU Hailong, ZHANG Liping, WANG Weiqiao, ZHANG Yu, WANG Zhenglei, TANG Fei, GUO Xiaojia
    Acta Geographica Sinica    2023, 78 (6): 1408-1426.   DOI: 10.11821/dlxb202306006
    Abstract628)   HTML155)    PDF (5448KB)(665)      

    Selecting 887 inter-provincial border counties in China as a research area, this paper constructs an evaluation index system incorporating five dimensions to measure the degree of urbanization that each county experienced from 2000 to 2019, describes characteristics of the evolution of urbanized spatial patterns combined with spatial autocorrelation analysis, uses geodetectors to identify the main factors influencing urbanization and interactive relationships, divides driving areas into types on the above basis, and proposes targeted suggestions. The results show that: (1) From 2000 to 2019, the urbanization level of China's inter-provincial border areas continued to increase, but the overall level remained low, and displayed a spatial distribution pattern of stepwise decline from east to central to west. (2) The urbanization level of counties on the inter-provincial border showed a significant positive spatial correlation. In terms of spatial distribution, HH-clustering counties formed a "T" pattern, and LL-clustering counties concentrated in the inter-provincial border areas of the northwest, northeast, and southwest. (3) Economic development and traffic level are the leading factors affecting the spatial pattern of urbanization in the inter-provincial border areas. (4) The spatial pattern of urbanization in the inter-provincial border areas results from the main factors directly driving economic development and determining transportation levels. In addition, medical care, social investment, and natural conditions also directly impact the spatial pattern of urbanization. Government behavior and educational services exert indirect effects. (5) Inter-provincial border areas are divided into six types with distinct patterns of leading driving factors: terrain element restriction, location traffic leading, economic development driving, social investment driving, public service lagging, and government leading. (6) Urbanization of inter-provincial border areas exerts a spatial nearest neighbor effect, and the urbanization level of counties close to urban agglomerations of developed regions is high. The marginality of urbanization space of counties in the inter-provincial border areas is prominent. In areas with more county borders in the inter-provincial areas, urbanization levels tend to be lower.

    Table and Figures | Reference | Related Articles | Metrics