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    Spatio-temporal differentiation and influencing factors of China's urbanization from 2010 to 2020
    LI Ruzi, HUANG Xiaoling, LIU Yaobin
    Acta Geographica Sinica    2023, 78 (4): 777-791.   DOI: 10.11821/dlxb202304001
    Abstract4521)   HTML1070)    PDF (4458KB)(3324)      

    As China's urbanization has entered the middle and later stage and the improvement of well-being of residents has become a core goal, the transformation from "top-down" system goals optimization on the supply side to "bottom-up" multi-dimensional goals coordination on the demand side has become a new perspective to understand the connotation of urbanization. Based on the perspective of the human living conditions, the humanities environment, and human-city relationship, this paper constructs a connotation framework and index system of urbanization. Furthermore, Theil index is employed to analyze the spatio-temporal differentiation characteristics of China's urbanization before and after the implementation of the new-type urbanization strategy. Finally, in terms of both direct and indirect effect mechanisms, the mechanism framework of urbanization differentiation is constructed, and its evolution pattern is revealed by using Variance Decomposition and Geodetector. The results show that: since the implementation of the new-type urbanization strategy in 2014, China's urbanization has made remarkable achievements, with a steady improvement in human living conditions and human-city relationship, and there is still much room for improvement in the humanities environment. The high-level areas of urbanization are mainly distributed in coastal areas, and expanding to inland areas along the Yangtze River Basin and Yellow River Basin. The regional differences of urbanization gradually decrease, but the contribution rate of inner-regional differences shows an expanding trend. Differences in human living conditions and human-city relationship are the main factors of urbanization differentiation, but the contribution of differences in humanities environment is gradually expanding after 2014. Opening up and scientific & technological innovation are the main influencing factors of the difference in human living conditions. With the implementation of the new-type urbanization strategy, the impact on differences in humanities environment of the government finance gradually diminishes. Resource endowments have a relatively strong influence on differences in human-city relationship. This study can provide theoretical and empirical support for promoting the development of urbanization in China.

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    On spatial effects in geographical analysis
    LIU Yu, WANG Keli, XING Xiaoyue, GUO Hao, ZHANG Weiyu, LUO Qinyao, GAO Song, HUANG Zhou, LI Haifeng, LI Xin, WANG Jiaoe, WANG Jinfeng, ZHU Di
    Acta Geographica Sinica    2023, 78 (3): 517-531.   DOI: 10.11821/dlxb202303001
    Abstract3398)   HTML525)    PDF (1266KB)(2393)      

    GIScience inherits the spatial analysis tradition of geography. Given that "spatial is special", GIScience needs to highlight spatial effects when constructing methods for geographical analysis. The research presents an explicit definition of spatial effect. By formalizing core GIScience concepts including space, location, field, distance, and region, we identify four types of spatial effects, namely spatial heterogeneity effect, neighbor effect in spatial dependence, distance decay effect in spatial interactions, and scale effect in spatial zoning. A unified framework is constructed to cover the four spatial effects based on the inherent linkages among them. We argue that spatial heterogeneity effect is the most fundamental one. While spatial dependence and spatial interaction are two basic geographical processes that represent the second-order relationships between two locations, neighbor effect and distance decay effect reflect the impacts of space. Scale effect is raised when aggregating attributes using regional units. Hence, the four types of effects form a hierarchical system. From a methodological perspective, this paper summaries related GIScience tools that implement different effects, and emphasizes the value of geospatial artificial intelligence for revealing and quantifying spatial effects.

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    China's regional economic development and policy system evolution: A three-dimensional analysis framework based on dynamic perspective
    XIA Tian, XIA Ying, LIU Xiaoyu, SUN Jiuwen
    Acta Geographica Sinica    2023, 78 (8): 1904-1919.   DOI: 10.11821/dlxb202308004
    Abstract2509)   HTML521)    PDF (2025KB)(1796)      

    Despite the initial development goals achieved, China's macro-economy is still deeply affected by the external environment and stuck in its own structure at the same time. In retrospect, not until 1949 with the founding of the People's Republic of China did China's budding regional economy witness the prominence of a fixed development pattern shifting from a spontaneous to an actuating one. After comparing the three regional economic practices, this paper finds that each development stage has its corresponding development strategy. At the same time, several development patterns, namely, the coastal and inland areas, the three regions, and four plates were formed accordingly. Furthermore, through combing the literature and historical facts, this paper determines the historical starting point, division criteria and division scheme of China's regional economic development before summarizing three main lines and also contradictions therein: the government-market relations against the background of market reform, the coastal-inland relations against the tide of economic zonation, and the urban-rural relations against the trend of urbanization. Based on the above, the paper constructs a three-dimensional model out of the spatio-termporal process of China's regional development before proposing new historical stages from the perspective of economic system modernization. These historical stages are: industrial economy, special zone economy, district economy, regional economy and urban network economy. Finally, from the urbanization angle, this paper concludes that for different urbanization stages, regional policies should be industrial policies, factor policies, fiscal and tax policies sequentially.

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    The characteristics and multi-scale governance of rural space in the new era in China
    GE Dazhuan
    Acta Geographica Sinica    2023, 78 (8): 1849-1868.   DOI: 10.11821/dlxb202308001
    Abstract2232)   HTML429)    PDF (3252KB)(1733)      

    Deconstructing rural spatial characteristics is the precondition for building rural spatial governance system in the new era, and multi-scale rural spatial characteristics and its governance path would effectively support the modernization of the national governance system. Based on the comprehensive, regional and mobile thinking paradigm of geography, this paper deconstructs the multi-scale rural spatial characteristics, identifies its internal operating logics, summarizes its governance dilemmas, constructs a multi-scale rural spatial governance framework that is based on geographical analysis paradigm, explores feasible governance paths, and constructs a multi-scale rural spatial governance system research plan, namely, "characteristics identification-dilemma analysis-governance framework-governance path". The paper finds that: (1) to analyze the operating logics of the multi-scale rural space through the comprehensive, regional and mobile analytical thinking of geography, it is necessary to understand the mechanism of action of scale synthesis, scale differentiation and scale flow to the multi-scale rural spatial characteristics, highlighting the comprehensive characteristics of rural space, strengthening rural spatial heterogeneity, and integrating rural spatial mobility. (2) The lacking urban-rural spatial overall planning, unsmooth spatial mobile network and not-reflected different types of rural spatial value are the key dilemmas in the rural spatial governance, which need to be addressed. (3) The multi-scale rural spatial governance framework of "comprehensive spatial governance-spatial zoning governance-spatial mobile governance" could effectively solve the problems of urban-rural spatial integration, regional spatial coordination and spatial network blockage. (4) Integrating urban-rural comprehensive governance, innovating regulation control to improve regional governance and balancing the configuration of spatial development right to achieve mobile spatial governance are feasible paths for multi-scale rural space governance. In conclusion, clarifying the multi-scale rural spatial characteristics in the new era and constructing a scientific governance system could provide theoretical support to promote integrated urban-rural development and rural vitalization strategy.

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    The influence of regional dual-nuclei structure on provincial economic development in China:An empirical study based on spatial Dubin model
    DAI Hongwei, HU Xifei
    Acta Geographica Sinica    2023, 78 (10): 2375-2391.   DOI: 10.11821/dlxb202310001
    Abstract2115)   HTML494)    PDF (1154KB)(1416)      

    At present, the empirical analysis of regional dual-nuclei structures at the national level is still relatively rare. How to define the provinces with the characteristics of dual-nuclei structures and analyze their impact needs further empirical discussion. In this paper, the spatial Dubin model and the data of 259 prefecture-level cities are used to analyze the distribution characteristics of regional dual-nuclei structure in China and its influence on provincial development. The empirical results show that 11 provincial-level regions (hereafter provinces) in China show the characteristics of dual-nuclei structure. The regional dual-nuclei structure plays a significant role in promoting the economic development of the province, but the northern and southern regions show great differences. The regional dual-nuclei structure has a promoting effect on provincial industrial agglomeration and helps to promote the improvement of local scientific and technological innovation. In general, compared with some single-core provinces with small scale and weak radiation driving force in some provincial capitals, the regional dual-nuclei structure can make up for these shortcomings to a certain extent by virtue of the number of central cities and spatial distribution, which is more conducive to driving local economic development and scientific and technological innovation.

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    Dynamics and driving mechanisms of cultivated land at county level in China
    ZHANG Jie, LIU Yujie, ZHANG Ermei, CHEN Jie, TAN Qinghua
    Acta Geographica Sinica    2023, 78 (9): 2105-2127.   DOI: 10.11821/dlxb202309001
    Abstract2067)   HTML452)    PDF (7676KB)(1566)      

    The land conversion processes concerning non-agricultural and non-grain production areas have prominently decreased arable land availability, which substantially impacted grain production capacity and threatened national food security. Thus, it is critical to establish a novel scientific approach to identify spatio-temporal evolution patterns of land conversion and its influencing factors in different stages. This study evaluates the evolutionary characteristics of non-agricultural and non-grain fields by constructing a comprehensive index system that considers factors like cultivated land resources, social and economic conditions, and farmers' subjective perspectives, using a county as the basic research unit. For a comprehensive analysis, a geographical detector model was utilized to quantify driving factors in different stages. The results indicated spatial clustering effects for non-agricultural and non-grain fields throughout China, particularly in the eastern region beyond the "Hu Huanyong Line". Further analysis revealed a spatial pattern for non-grain conversion phenomenon was more intense in the southwestern than the northeastern fields. Over the past four decades, non-agricultural fields recorded an area expansion, but the year-wise area increase was gradually reduced, while non-grain areas exhibited a "growth-stable" change pattern. Although progress in non-grain was less in primary producing areas over the last 40 years, an increase of 1.49 times and 1.33 times was recorded from 2010 to 2020 in PSB (production and sales balance area) and Mrt (marketing) areas, respectively. Compared to the period 1980-2000, the rate of non-agricultural conversion in primary producing areas decreased by 77% during 2010-2020, while the rate of non-agricultural conversion increased by 1.63 and 4.65 times for PSB and Mrt regions, respectively. Based on these findings, this paper puts forward suggestions, such as setting control rules and subsidy mechanisms according to area classification, promoting control policies based on regional considerations, strengthening dynamic monitoring and risk warning, as well as enhancing supervision and assessment.

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    Regionalization of flash floods in China
    CHEN Yuehong, XU Congcong, ZHANG Xiaoxiang, ZHANG Ruojing, MA Qiang, LIU Changjun, REN Liliang, SHI Kaixin
    Acta Geographica Sinica    2023, 78 (5): 1059-1073.   DOI: 10.11821/dlxb202305001
    Abstract2015)   HTML438)    PDF (4275KB)(1687)      

    According to the Ministry of Water Resources of the People's Republic of China, the number of casualties in flash flood disasters accounts for nearly 70% of flood disaster casualties in recent years and flash flood has become one of the major natural disasters causing casualties in China. Flash flood regionalization is fundamental for implementing the local measures of the flash flood prevention and mitigation according to local conditions. Using results from existing flash flood relevant physiographical regionalization schemes, and in accordance with the principles of comprehensive, dominant factors, the relative consistency within units, the relative difference between units, the integrity of spatial distribution and the hierarchical divisions, this paper firstly constructs an index system of the flash flood trigger factors and its underlying surface environment for the flash flood regionalization in China. In the combination of top-down and bottom-up regionalization, the hybrid self-organizing-map-based spatial clustering algorithm is then built. Finally, nine homogeneous regions at the first-grade and thirty-three subregions at the second-grade are delineated for flash floods in China. The historical flash flood events and the Geodetector method are adopted to evaluate the developed regionalization schemes. Results show that the first-grade and the second-grade flash flood regionalization schemes in China can respectively provide the determinant power of 66.4% and 75.4% for the spatial distribution of historical flash flood events in the whole country, indicating the developed flash flood regionalization has a good spatial consistency with the distribution of historical flash flood events with different densities. The developed flash flood regionalization not only effectively delineates the regional differentiation pattern of flash floods, but also provides a scientific basis for the implementation of localized flash flood prevention and mitigation measures in China, which benefits for the sound development of flash flood disasters prevention and management in China.

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    Evolutionary characteristics and zoning of ecosystem functional stability on the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau
    WANG Qianxin, CAO Wei, HUANG Lin
    Acta Geographica Sinica    2023, 78 (5): 1104-1118.   DOI: 10.11821/dlxb202305004
    Abstract1770)   HTML380)    PDF (6316KB)(1279)      

    As the third pole of earth, the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau is an important ecological security barrier in China and an ecologically sensitive area of global climate change. The increasing climate change has posed a major challenge to its ecosystem function and stability. This paper first analyzes the spatiotemporal variation characteristics of the ecosystem pattern of the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau and its key functions including water conservation, soil conservation, windbreak and sand fixation from 2000 to 2020, clarifies the regional differences in ecosystem functions and their importance, and further evaluates the stability of ecosystem functions. And there is no doubt that the stable state will lay a scientific foundation for the plateau to build an ecologically civilized highland and launch protection and restoration projects. The results show that: (1) From 2000 to 2020, the wetland area of the study area increased and the grassland area decreased significantly. The water conservation and windbreak and sand fixation capacity were improved, and the annual change rates were 3.57 m3/(hm2·a) and 0.23 t/(hm2·a), respectively. However, the overall soil conservation showed a downward trend with an annual change rate of -0.16 t/(hm2·a). (2) The core areas of water conservation, soil conservation and windbreak and sand fixation accounted for 12.7%, 13.9% and 14.2%, respectively. The core water conservation barrier areas were mainly located in southeast Tibet, Sanjiangyuan and Ruoergai. The core windbreak and sand fixation areas were concentrated in the central and western parts of the plateau, and the core soil conservation areas surrounded the plateau. (3) From 2000 to 2020, the water conservation, soil conservation, and wind protection and sand-fixation functions have shown relatively high stability in the southeastern and central parts of the plateau, while relatively weak stability in the western part of the plateau. Combining stability assessment and ecological protection and restoration practices, we can divide the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau into three major categories of 16 ecosystem function zones and carry out differentiated ecological protection and restoration for different core ecosystem functions and zones.

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    Historical geographical evolution in Ladakh region
    ZHANG Xiaohong, CHEN Hao, HUANG Yu, XU Jianping, CHEN Fahu
    Acta Geographica Sinica    2023, 78 (9): 2358-2372.   DOI: 10.11821/dlxb202309015
    Abstract1693)   HTML134)    PDF (3236KB)(737)      

    Ladakh is located in the northwest of the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau, the western section of the Himalayas, and the upper reaches of the Indus River valley. It is now part of Indian-controlled Kashmir. Since ancient times, Ladakh has been the "key point" from northwest South Asia to the Ngari Prefecture of Xizang and southern Xinjiang. However, most existing research on Ladakh focuses on its local history and culture. Although there are some related works on geopolitical relations, few have studied the historical changes of this region and its subordinate relationship and geographical value with China over a long time scale and analyzed the geographical significance of Ladakh. At the same time, some erroneous views and geographical maps have been disseminated on the Internet at home and abroad, which urgently needs a comprehensive correction from the academic level. Based on a variety of historical documents, map data, and a detailed review of previous research results, this paper demonstrates the changes in place names, historical evolution, and regional scope of Ladakh from the 1st to the 21st century and analyzes its significance in the homeland security of western China. The results show that: (1) As the native land of China's Xizang Ladakh was part of the Tubo Dynasty until the 9th century. After the collapse of the Tubo Dynasty in the middle of the 9th century, Ladakh was an essential part of the Ngari local administration established by the descendants of the Tubo Royal family. In the 13th century, Ladakh was again united within the territory of China's Yuan Dynasty and continued through the Ming and Qing dynasties. It remained until the mid-19th century when the Prince-state of Jammu in southern Kashmir invaded it and incorporated it into the British Indian colony. It was then occupied by the Indian army in 1947. (2) Ladakh region has a tortuous history with many changes in place names. However, when Jammu annexed it in modern times, Ladakh only referred to the upper reaches of Indus Valley between the Western Himalayas and the Karakoram Mountains, with Leh as the center. (3) The complexity of the historical and geographical processes in the Ladakh region makes it the central area of conflicts created by India in the western section of the China-India border. Therefore, China should adopt active strategies to avoid India's continuous "assimilation" policy.

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    Dynamics of developmental vitality and equilibria of counties in China based on nighttime lights data
    LIU Lingcen, SUN Zhongxiao, WU Feng, LI Yuheng, ZHANG Qian
    Acta Geographica Sinica    2023, 78 (4): 811-823.   DOI: 10.11821/dlxb202304003
    Abstract1607)   HTML318)    PDF (4351KB)(1143)      

    Eliminating inequality and achieving balanced development is one of the Sustainable Development Goals of the United Nations. Accurate measurement of development equilibrium is a primary scientific problem to be solved urgently. Nighttime lights data have been proven to be a good proxy for economic activity, and they have been used widely due to their advantages of convenient acquisition and wide spatial coverage. Therefore, in this study, we applied the Gini coefficients derived from nighttime lights data and pixelized population data to evaluate the development equilibria for China's 2900 counties from 2002-2020. We then examined the nexus of the development equilibrium and developmental vitality represented by the average nighttime lights intensity within each county. The results showed that the Gini coefficients based on nighttime lights data have generally been decreasing for 96% of the counties in China during 2002-2020. Moreover, in general, the Gini coefficients present a spatial pattern of being lower in the east and higher in the west. The results illustrate the synergetic development pathways of economic growth and equilibrium promotion of the economically developed counties, although the variation of their equilibria is significant. On the contrary, there is still distinct room for improvement of development equilibria for 60% of the economically underdeveloped counties in China. The results provide scientific support for achieving balanced development and promoting common prosperity in China.

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    Spatial pattern and influencing factors of shipping service industry
    WANG Liehui, CHEN Ping, ZHANG Nanyi
    Acta Geographica Sinica    2023, 78 (4): 913-929.   DOI: 10.11821/dlxb202304009
    Abstract1539)   HTML208)    PDF (5101KB)(970)      

    The shipping service industry is a major driving force in the economic growth and reorganization of port cities' spatial structure, as well as a core element in raising hub port cities' competitiveness. Recently, the global distribution and network connections of the shipping service industry have attracted significant attention, but few studies have analyzed the distribution differences and influencing factors of different shipping service industries. In this study, we divided the shipping service industry into upstream shipping auxiliary industries (ship owners, ship management, ship repair and construction) and downstream shipping derivative service industries (shipping finance, shipping insurance, maritime law). And based on Lloyd's Maritime Directory in 2019, we built a database about the world's shipping service industry. The spatial connection network of the global shipping service industry was then examined at the global, regional and city levels, using the correlation network model and the negative binomial regression model, which revealed the differences in distribution between the upstream and downstream shipping services. The affecting elements on upstream and downstream shipping services are explored in the last section. The results are as follows: (1) Europe and Asia are the primary distribution region of the upstream and downstream shipping service industries, a pyramid structure is shown under the variation in countries' distribution. The spatial distribution of the upstream industry is wider in range, closer in connections and stronger in agglomeration, compared to the downstream industry. (2) The global shipping service network presents a dual-center structure. Europe centers on London and builds a trans-continental radiation network of downstream shipping derivative services connecting to neighboring capital cities. Asia forms an upstream service network that connects Hong Kong, Shanghai and other cities with Singapore as the center. (3) The upstream shipping auxiliary industry is mainly distributed in non-capital seaport cities, while the downstream shipping derivative service industry is chiefly distributed in the capitals and other administrative centers. (4) The e-commerce index and the logistics performance index are positively related to the upstream and downstream industries. Otherwise, the upstream shipping auxiliary industry is also affected by the degree of economic freedom, the number of tourist arrivals, and the liner transport index, while the downstream shipping derivative service industry is mainly influenced by international trade and political culture. This study provides a theoretical reference for China to construct an international shipping center, reaches the linkage development between upstream and downstream shipping services, and improves the overall strength of China's shipping industry.

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    Spatio-temporal variation patterns of diurnal freeze-thaw cycles of the near-surface soil on the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau between 2002 and 2020
    SHEN Qikai, LIU Xiuguo, ZHOU Xin, ZHANG Zhengjia, CHEN Qihao
    Acta Geographica Sinica    2023, 78 (3): 587-603.   DOI: 10.11821/dlxb202303006
    Abstract1448)   HTML239)    PDF (8122KB)(1091)      

    The diurnal freeze-thaw cycle of near-surface soils on the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau (QTP) significantly affects the exchange of water and energy between the soil and the atmosphere, which is important for an understanding of the response of the QTP to climate change. Based on MODIS, AMSR-E and AMSR-2 data, we first obtained the diurnal calibration coefficients from AMSR-2 to AMSR-E in the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau (QTP), and then used the Fourier nonlinear model to fusion diurnal freeze-thaw index with surface temperature, and further obtained the diurnal freeze-thaw condition of near-surface soils at 1 km resolution per day, and finally carried out a study on the spatial and temporal changes of diurnal freeze-thaw cycles of near-surface soils in the QTP between 2002 and 2020. The results indicate that: (1) The improved calibration method of AMSR series sensors in this paper is more suitable for the QTP region than the calibration method for global scale. The accuracy of the freeze-thaw product obtained by fusion using the Fourier nonlinear model was 80.96% for diurnal freeze-thaw discrimination, which was 3.95% higher than that of the unfused product. (2) The frequency of diurnal freeze-thaw cycles in the seasonal freeze-thaw process of near-surface soils on the QTP varies spatially, with the highest frequency occurring in the southern Tibetan region and the Qinghai plateau, and is cyclical in time, the high frequency region shows a shift to the northwest when warming and to the southeast when cooling. (3) In the past 20 years, the trend of diurnal freeze-thaw days in different parts of the QTP is varied, with the northern Tibetan plateau, southern Tibetan alpine region and eastern Tibetan region showing an increase and the Qinghai plateau showing a decrease. (4) There are regional differences in the beginning of the continuous diurnal freeze-thaw cycle on the QTP, with the beginning of the thawing process being gradually delayed from east to west and the beginning of the freezing process being gradually delayed from west to east. In the past 20 years, the starting time of continuous diurnal freeze-thaw cycle in near-surface soils has been changing, with 0.17 d/a earlier during thawing and 0.18 d/a earlier during freezing.

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    The new narrative of economic globalization and the new trends in economic geography
    MAO Xiyan, HE Canfei
    Acta Geographica Sinica    2023, 78 (12): 2905-2921.   DOI: 10.11821/dlxb202312001
    Abstract1292)   HTML327)    PDF (1427KB)(853)      

    Economic globalization has reshaped the world economy's spatial pattern while simultaneously changing the context for developing economic geography theories. This study revisited the changing features of economic globalization and investigated its geographical implications. Next, it summarized the new trends in economic geography studies in response to the changing economic globalization. Lastly, this study proposed a research agenda for domestic economic geography studies by combining the requirements of global trends and national strategies. The main findings include the following: The scale of geographical integration during economic globalization keeps shrinking, leading to a pattern of regionalization. The driving forces of economic globalization have gradually shifted from cost-saving to innovation. Accordingly, the benefits of economic globalization will be reallocated between developed and developing countries. The trade-offs between efficiency and resilience alter the global value chain, shifting outsourcing from off-shoring to re-shoring or near-shoring. The changing economic globalization has witnessed the rising effects of geographical distances, institutions, and resilience on increasing the inequality of the global economic geography. In economic geography, the scalar structures shifted from the global-local to the global-national-local. The relational networks evolved toward a multi-level, multi-agent, and multi-scale one. The role of the nation has been revisited. More attention has been paid to geopolitical hotspots. Overall, economic geography's institutional, cultural, relational, and evolutionary turns exhibit an emerging trend to convergence. In such a setting, domestic economic geography should find a new balance between global trends and national strategies. This study proposed seven research issues, including: (1) the practice of the Belt and Road and the pattern of inclusive globalization; (2) the economic geography of dual circulation; (3) the paths and resilience of regional development in response to the global production network restructuring; (4) the evolution and competitiveness of industrial clusters; (5) the building of multi-level innovation systems; (6) the regional sustainable development within the global environmental governance system; and (7) the impact of geo-economics on national economic security and interests.

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    Measurement and spatio-temporal pattern of urban-rural integrated development in China
    ZHENG Yuhan, LONG Hualou
    Acta Geographica Sinica    2023, 78 (8): 1869-1887.   DOI: 10.11821/dlxb202308002
    Abstract1250)   HTML247)    PDF (7275KB)(1335)      

    Urban-rural integrated development is an advanced stage in the evolution of the urban-rural relationship, and it is also the basic path and main goal for the implementation of rural revitalization. Scientifically understanding and identifying the integration stage and its current level of urban-rural development in China is the prerequisite basis for promoting urban-rural integrated development and rural revitalization. Based on the concept connotation, this paper constructed a multi-dimensional evaluation system of urban-rural integrated development at the prefecture level. The process status and spatiotemporal divergent characteristics of urban-rural integrated development in 336 prefecture-level regions in China from 2000-2018 were portrayed and revealed. The results show that: (1) The current state of urban-rural integrated development in China is generally at a low-to-middle level, showing a heterogeneous spatiotemporal pattern with apparent gradient divergence. The integrated development level of the Pearl River Delta, Jiangsu and Zhejiang provinces, and the Shandong Peninsula is high, but the regions distributed to the west of the "Hu Line" develops slowly. (2) According to the level and characteristics of integrated development, the 366 prefecture-level regions can be divided into four types: integrated development, tending integration, imbalanced development, and lagging development, with a more active transformation between the latter three types. (3) The development level of urban-rural economic integration is higher than that of demographic and social integration, while the development process of urban-rural spatial and ecological integration shows some natural zonal divergent characteristics. Finally, we identified the problem areas for different types of integrated development and explored the regional promotion path of urban-rural integrated development, which could provide scientific references for the strategies of regional urban-rural development and rural revitalization.

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    Coupling correlation between economic resilience and industrial structure evolution in the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei region
    ZHANG Xuebo, FU Wenshuo, MA Haitao
    Acta Geographica Sinica    2023, 78 (10): 2392-2411.   DOI: 10.11821/dlxb202310002
    Abstract1149)   HTML322)    PDF (5210KB)(884)      

    Regional economic resilience is closely related to the state of the regional industrial structure. During the process of the region undergoing and recovering from external shocks, whether and how the spatio-temporal correlation between economic resilience and the evolution of the established industrial structure should be further explored. The micro and mesoscopic views of enterprises and industries, multi-year economic growth data, and enterprise status in the counties of the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei region were employed to measure regional economic resilience at the county level and divide its economic development stages. In addition, a spatio-temporal correlation between regional economic resilience and industrial structure was appropriately tested, and the main industries affecting regional economic resilience were distinguished. Finally, the coupling mechanism of regional economic resilience and industrial structure evolution was analyzed. The major findings are as follows: (1) The periods of rapid and slow economic growth occur alternately in the study region, and the economic resilience shows a fluctuating growth trend. Meanwhile, central urban areas such as Beijing, Tianjin, and Shijiazhuang exhibited high economic resilience, and a typical center-periphery structure gradually took shape. (2) There was a significant spatial correlation between regional economic resilience and industrial structure. In economically developed regions, such as Beijing and Tianjin, the agglomeration of high economic resilience and high industrial structure was evident. There was a two-way causal correlation and consistency in time-series changes. (3) The industrial structure in the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei region had gradually improved. Compared to the effect of industrial structure, the effect of competitiveness contributed more to economic resilience. Primary industries as well as those pertinent to consumer services and social services have played a pivotal role in improving regional resisting economic resilience. Besides, the development of consumer services and social services leads to the strengthening of the region's recovering economic resilience. (4) The evolution of the industrial structure achieved the evolution of the development path, which was revealed in the distinction of economic resilience at the county level. In addition, the coupling correlation between regional economic resilience and the evolution of industrial structure in the study region was mainly revealed in the time scale, which had not yet led to the fundamental restructuring of the regional spatial structure, and the center-periphery structure is still relatively significant.

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    Spatial pattern of oxygen concentration and "three-dimensional zonation" in the natural zone on the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau
    SHI Peijun, HU Xiaokang, CHEN Yanqiang, ZHANG Hui, YANG Heyi, HU Jinpeng, YANG Wenqian, JIA Wei, MA Weidong, JIANG Lu, ZHANG Gangfeng, PU Xiaoyan, HAO Lizhuang, WANG Jing'ai, ZHU Wenquan, MA Yonggui, TANG Haiping, CHEN Zhi
    Acta Geographica Sinica    2023, 78 (3): 532-547.   DOI: 10.11821/dlxb202303002
    Abstract1107)   HTML129)    PDF (4316KB)(668)      

    The earth surface oxygen concentration on the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau is the result of the combined effect of multi-factors, such as elevation, topography, climate, water, vegetation, and soil, among them, the relative contributions of altitude, temperature, vegetation coverage and leaf area index are -39.58%, 35.50%, and 24.92%, respectively. The earth surface oxygen concentration on the plateau primarily shows the difference from southeast to northwest, which is mainly related to the effect of vegetation on oxygen production depending on precipitation; secondly shows the difference on east-west extension and north-south turnover, which is mainly related to the effect of atmospheric pressure on relative oxygen concentration depending on temperature and terrain; thirdly shows the vertical zonation, which is mainly related to the effect of atmospheric pressure on the relative oxygen concentration depending on the terrain and temperature, bond with the effect of vegetation on oxygen production depending on temperature and precipitation. The earth surface oxygen concentration can quantitatively reveal the spatio-temporal pattern of the physiographical characteristics of the earth surface. Accordingly, we divide the natural zone of the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau into 3 first-grade regions and 17 second-grade zones. In the southeastern subtropical forest-forest steppe region, including 2 second-grade zones, the annual average oxygen concentration is 20.35%, the average oxygen concentration in July is 20.45%, and the average oxygen concentration in January is 20.27%. In the eastern temperate forest-steppe region, including 5 second-grade zones, the annual average oxygen concentration is 20.10%, the average oxygen concentration in July is 20.23%, and the average oxygen concentration in January is 20.00%. In the western cold temperate grassland-desert-steppe region, including 10 second-grade zones, the annual average oxygen concentration is 20.00%, the average oxygen concentration in July is 20.10%, and the average oxygen concentration in January is 19.91%.

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    Evaluation and enhancement methods of POI data quality in the context of geographic big data
    XUE Bing, ZHAO Bingyu, LI Jingzhong
    Acta Geographica Sinica    2023, 78 (5): 1290-1303.   DOI: 10.11821/dlxb202305014
    Abstract1093)   HTML73)    PDF (5371KB)(474)      

    Geographic big data enables a fine-grained depiction of regional human-terrestrial systems and provides new data for the study of human-terrestrial relations and regional development. At present, geographic big data research has entered the stage of widespread application, but the examination of its quality and the corresponding evaluation methods have been lacking to guarantee the widespread and efficient application of the data. POI is an important part of geographic big data and plays an important role in location-based services and an understanding of regional scenarios. This paper proposes a method to assess and enhance POI-type big data, and realize quality evaluation based on site research, GIS and other methods from three dimensions: feature identification completeness, data redundancy rate and spatial location accuracy; discover and summarize possible influencing factors of data quality based on data production process, and prove that multi-source data fusion is an effective means to enhance POI data quality. We found that: the volume of Amap data acquired based on API interface is slightly higher than that of Baidu, the accuracy rate of spatial location is comparable and the redundancy rate is lower; Amap focuses on identifying the entrance of features, which is suitable for analysis such as accessibility; Baidu focuses on discovering non-significant features, which is suitable for analysis such as spatial planning; the discovery, acquisition and processing stages are possible links to reduce data quality, which is influenced by data protection mechanism, and the data quality is inversely proportional to the acquisition volume and area. The quality assessment, enhancement and integration of multi-source heterogeneous geographic data is one of the key ways to enhance the "emergent value" of data, promote trans- and cross-multidisciplinary and solve geographic problems in the new era.

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    Jiaoyufication as an education-driven gentrification in urban China:A case study of Nanjing
    SONG Weixuan, CAO Hui, TU Tangqi, SONG Zhengna, CHEN Peiyang, LIU Chunhui
    Acta Geographica Sinica    2023, 78 (4): 792-810.   DOI: 10.11821/dlxb202304002
    Abstract1074)   HTML157)    PDF (5002KB)(687)      

    Jiaoyufication, as an education-driven gentrification in urban China, mainly refers to the social space process that the well-off middle-class groups who attach importance to education cluster around the catchment zone of leading elementary schools through the purchase of an apartment in the district at an inflated price. Based on the existing theoretical analysis of Jiaoyufication by domestic and foreign scholars, this empirical study is carried out by utilizing multi-source data such as POI, real estate market, portraits of mobile phone users and questionnaires in 2020, taking Nanjing as a case. This paper evaluates the Jiaoyufication level of 218 public primary school districts in the main urban area of Nanjing by virtue of the entropy-weight TOPSIS model. Findings show that only a few top-level school districts are highly gentrified, and they are contiguous and mainly settle in Gulou and Xuanwu districts. In order to better reveal the characteristics of typical gentrified school districts, they are divided into four types by Jiaoyufication level, namely high level Jiaoyufied school districts, mid-high level Jiaoyufied school districts, medium level Jiaoyufied school districts and low level Jiaoyufied school districts. Results demonstrate that there is a close correlation between the unit system and the highly Jiaoyufied neighborhoods that register the presence of a substantial number of middle-class families with high social, economic and cultural capital and paying great attention to children's education. They attempt to buy their way into the catchment areas of prestigious schools regardless of lower quality of life, inhabit them for relatively brief periods, and then sell them on at a profit to the next cohort of parents without needing to invest to improve them. A combination of strict school district systems in policy, soaring market-oriented school district housing prices and surging educational anxiety in the cultural realm continuously strengthens the educational resource advantages of elite schools and intensifies Jiaoyufication, which nails down high-quality educational opportunities to specific neighborhoods and groups. Jiaoyufication is essentially a process in which "school district space", as the pivotal driving factor, promotes the mutual transformation and consolidation of economic capital and cultural capital, and passes the family's social capital on to the next generation. This kind of social space reconstruction caused by imbalance of high-quality educational resources can easily widen the gap between the rich and the poor and perpetuates the class stratification. To avoid the negative effects brought by Jiaoyufication and promote the equity of education and society, it is necessary to effectively advance the balanced development of resources in urban compulsory education and students.

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    The influence of the industrial structure of central cities on surrounding cities and regional urban systems
    LI Jiaming, SUN Dongqi, JIANG Yanpeng
    Acta Geographica Sinica    2023, 78 (8): 1955-1968.   DOI: 10.11821/dlxb202308007
    Abstract1068)   HTML223)    PDF (1605KB)(904)      

    The study of the new economic geography has paid attention to the polarization and balanced development of urban systems. In reality, however, transport accessibility is subject to great uncertainty in explaining the polarization and balance of the urban system. In fact, the polarization or equilibrium of the regional urban system is not only unique in China, but also a general phenomenon in countries with different development outcomes, political systems and degrees of marketization. From the perspective of industrial heterogeneity, this study empirically analyzes the process and mechanism of the industrial structure of regional central cities on the population growth of neighboring cities in China from 1980 to 2020, and examines the influence of industrial structure on the polarization and equilibrium development of the regional urban system. The results show that, firstly, the manufacturing sector strengthens the spillover effect from the core city and promotes the population growth in neighboring cities, while the service sector weakens the spillover effect and hinders the growth in neighboring cities. Secondly, the manufacturing-oriented cities have relatively small city scale, while the service-oriented cities are relatively large. Therefore, the driving effect of manufacturing-oriented central cities on the neighboring cities is larger, which tends to produce a relatively balanced regional city system. Correspondently, the spillover effect of service-oriented central cities on the neighboring cities is smaller, which tends to form a relatively polarized regional city system. Finally, as the share of services in the industrial structure of central cities continues to rise, China's urban system may become more polarized rather than balanced. Certainly, the higher the proportion of manufacturing in the central city, the more balanced the regional urban system is. In fact, the empirical results show that the industrial structure and the spillover effect of the core city have an inverted U-shaped relationship, i.e. a high proportion of manufacturing or services weakens the driving effect of the core city on surrounding cities. The reasons for this vary. The high proportion of manufacturing and the small size of the central city have a limited spillover effect on the neighboring cities and therefore can hardly drive their growth; while the high proportion of service industry and the negative effect of the service industry on the spillover effect lead to the slow development of the neighboring small-and-medium-sized cities. It is worth noting that because of the significant spatial impact of industry on the urban system, the future regional urbanization strategy should be coordinated with the industrial strategy. More importantly, with the gradual liberalization of the household registration system, industry selection can become an effective policy option for macro-control of the regional urban system.

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    Estimation of soil carbon storage change from land use and management at a high spatial resolution in China during 2000-2020
    TONG Rongxin, LIANG Xun, GUAN Qingfeng, SONG Yu, CHEN Yuling, WANG Qinyi, ZHENG Lina, JIN Qun, YU Yanping, HE Jie, XIONG Xuehui, LIAO Weilin
    Acta Geographica Sinica    2023, 78 (9): 2209-2222.   DOI: 10.11821/dlxb202309006
    Abstract1050)   HTML157)    PDF (1496KB)(984)      

    Soil organic carbon (SOC) storage and soil carbon sinks play a crucial role in the global carbon cycle of terrestrial ecosystem. However, many previous studies of soil carbon storage and sinks utilized low-resolution land use dataset, with limited focus on soil carbon sinks from farmland and grassland management. To address this issue, this study employed a series of accounting models to estimate the carbon sink from farmland and grassland management, the carbon sink from forest management, changes in soil carbon storage, changes in carbon storage due to land use conversion from 2000 to 2020, as well as the soil carbon storage in China in 2000 and 2020 using a 30 m-resolution land use dataset. The results showed that the national carbon sink from farmland management in China was approximately 17.918 Tg C a-1 and the carbon sink from grassland management was approximately 20.171 Tg C a-1 during 2000-2020. The carbon sink from forest management in China was approximately 81.622 Tg C a-1 during 2000-2020. The soil carbon storage (0-100 cm) in China increased from 86.074 Pg C in 2000 to 86.771 Pg C in 2020. The soil carbon storage increased by approximately 34.850 Tg C a-1 from 2000 to 2020. The land use transformation during the study period resulted in a decrease of approximately 17.621 Tg C a-1 in soil carbon storage. The findings of this study can help researchers understand China's carbon storage and provide scientific data to China's 2060 Carbon Neutrality Target.

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    Influence of industrial evolution path dependence and path creation on regional economic resilience: Taking the coastal areas of China as an example
    LI Bo, QU Yi
    Acta Geographica Sinica    2023, 78 (4): 824-839.   DOI: 10.11821/dlxb202304004
    Abstract1026)   HTML168)    PDF (2235KB)(719)      

    Regional industrial evolution path dependence and path creation are the key to investigate regional economic resilience from the perspective of evolutionary economic geography. Exploring the impact of industrial evolutionary path dependence and path creation on regional economic resilience based on regional new industries from an empirical perspective can improve the understanding of industrial evolutionary path and regional economic resilience. Taking the coastal areas of China as an example, we measure and analyze its spatio-temporal distribution characteristics based on a panel data from 2002 to 2017. This paper explores the main affecting factors of regional economic resilience in China's coastal areas by using one-step system GMM. Results show that: (1) The gaps in regional economic resilience in China's coastal areas has narrowed in the early financial crisis, but then presented obvious differentiation. Shanghai and Guangdong showed a U-shaped distribution; Fujian, Guangxi and Hainan continued to improve and maintain a high level; Jiangsu and Zhejiang saw two declines and then recovered quickly during the financial crisis and the early stage of the new normal; the Bohai Rim is mostly negative. (2) The path dependency in China's coastal areas is generally higher than path creativity. The overall industrial evolution path dependency and path creativity showed a fluctuating trend of decline and rise respectively, and path creation gradually became the main direction of industrial evolution. (3) The number of new industries in each region decreased significantly under the impact of the financial crisis. The advantages of new industries in steel and its products declined rapidly, and then concentrated in chemical industry, machinery manufacturing and other industries. (4) Dialectically looking at different evolutionary paths is of great significance to regional resilience. Both path dependence and path creation of industrial evolution have a positive influence on regional economic resilience, and the influence of path creation is more prominent. In addition, economic development level, per fixed assets investment and ratio of fixed asset investment to GDP affect economic resilience at the same time.

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    Geospatial enabled monitoring for urban SDGs: Progress, challenges and prospect
    BAI Jianjun, CHEN Jun
    Acta Geographica Sinica    2023, 78 (11): 2647-2658.   DOI: 10.11821/dlxb202311001
    Abstract1018)   HTML228)    PDF (1020KB)(614)      

    On the basis of analyzing urban SDGs monitoring and evaluation, this paper expounds the conceptual connotation of geospatial enabled monitoring and its differences from traditional statistical-based monitoring for urban SDGs. Meanwhile, through document comparison and analysis, the development and latest progress of urban SDGs monitoring and evaluation has been revealed, suggesting a transformation of urban SDGs monitoring and evaluation from traditional statistical-based monitoring to geospatial enabled monitoring. In addition, this paper systematically analyzes the research progress and current situation of geospatial enabled monitoring from the aspects of monitoring index system, geospatial data acquisition for monitoring, and monitoring ideas and methods. Results showed that the number of urban SDGs indicators is too large and the relationship is complex, with the lack of clear core and key indicators, which need to be optimized and improved according to the specific situation. The lack of standard, public and directly available data requires the development of appropriate methods for spatial data generation and multi-source data utilization, and the establishment of data products for urban SDGs monitoring and evaluation. Besides, the lack of scientific and efficient monitoring and evaluation methods is also one of the main problems facing the current urban SDGs studies. Finally, through the analysis of current challenges in urban SDGs monitoring, future research in geospatial enabled monitoring for urban SDGs are proposed, including the establishment of scientific and efficient monitoring and evaluation methods, the establishment of a standardized and unified monitoring index system, the construction of data production sharing and monitoring and evaluation knowledge service platform, and the strengthening of the application research of big earth data and related disciplines support for the monitoring and evaluation of urban SDGs.

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    Attribution of vegetation dynamics in Southwest China from 1982 to 2019
    MA Bingxin, HE Caixia, JING Juanli, WANG Yongfeng, LIU Bing, HE Hongchang
    Acta Geographica Sinica    2023, 78 (3): 714-728.   DOI: 10.11821/dlxb202303013
    Abstract999)   HTML184)    PDF (8587KB)(876)      

    Southwest China is an important carbon sink region in China. Monitoring vegetation dynamics and exploring the impacts of climate change and human activities on vegetation are essential for gaining insight into carbon cycle mechanisms and promoting sustainable economic development. In this paper, downscaled NDVI data were obtained by fusing the GIMMS NDVI and SPOT NDVI. Then, the data were combined with multitemporal land use and meteorological data to explore the relative contributions of human activities and climate change to vegetation dynamics in Southwest China from 1982 to 2019 by using trend analysis, partial correlation analysis and residual trend analysis. The results are obtained as follows: (1) From 1982 to 2019, the NDVI showed an overall increasing trend in the study area, with an average annual rate of 0.0020 a-1; the NDVI showed a decreasing trend before the Grain to Green Program (GTGP) was implemented, but it turned to an increasing trend after the implementation of the GTGP. (2) Temperature and precipitation increased NDVI as a whole, but there was apparent spatial heterogeneity. Except in the central cities, temperature mainly promoted the NDVI. However, precipitation inhibited the NDVI in the western part of the study area and promoted the NDVI in the eastern part. (3) As the areas affected by climate change and human activities became separated, the contribution of climate change to vegetation recovery increased from 30.47% to 60.28%. In comparison, the contribution of human activities to vegetation recovery decreased from 69.53% to 39.72%. The results suggest that the impact of human activity on vegetation may decline further in the sparsely populated western part of the southwest region.

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    Temporal and spatial laws and simulations of erosion and deposition in the Lower Yellow River since the operation of the Xiaolangdi Reservoir
    SHEN Yi, $\boxed{\hbox{WU Baosheng}}$, WANG Yanjun, QIN Chao, ZHENG Shan
    Acta Geographica Sinica    2023, 78 (11): 2735-2749.   DOI: 10.11821/dlxb202311006
    Abstract973)   HTML203)    PDF (2795KB)(720)      

    This study focuses on the Lower Yellow River (LYR), which has experienced continuous erosion since the operation of Xiaolangdi Reservoir in 1999, and its complex spatio-temporal variation process. Using the single-step mode of the Delayed Response Model (DRM), we derive a calculation formula for the accumulated erosion and deposition volume in the LYR. The coefficient of determination R2 between the simulated and observed values from 2000 to 2020 is 0.99. Currently, the LYR is undergoing continuous erosion, but the erosion rate is gradually slowing down, and the difference between the equilibrium value and the calculated value of accumulated erosion and deposition volume gradually decreases, which means that the riverbed erosion is approaching equilibrium. Additionally, we derive a formula for the spatial distribution of main channel accumulated erosion volume per unit river length in the LYR based on the non-equilibrium suspended sediment transport equation. The coefficient of determination between the fitted value and observed value from 2003 to 2015 is about 0.98-0.99, with a relative error of approximately 6.2%. Our findings suggest that under the current conditions of decreasing sediment inflow and continuous scouring, it takes around 3.0 years for the riverbed to achieve half of the erosion and deposition adjustment and approximately 13.0 years to achieve 95% of the adjustment. Moreover, the spatial distribution of accumulated erosion volume in the LYR tends to become more uniform with the continuous development of erosion. These results provide valuable reference for analyzing the complex spatio-temporal variation process of the LYR.

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    The spatiotemporal pattern evolution and formation mechanism of high-quality development in Central China
    CHEN Minghua, WANG Zhe, XIE Linxiao, LI Qian
    Acta Geographica Sinica    2023, 78 (4): 859-876.   DOI: 10.11821/dlxb202304006
    Abstract962)   HTML182)    PDF (3842KB)(835)      

    The high-quality development of national strategic regions is a hot topic in today's academic circles. Central China connects the east to the west and links the south to the north, which plays a pivotal role in supporting the coordinated development in China. At present, there is a relative lack of multi-scale and multi-dimensional comprehensive analysis on high-quality development in Central China. Based on the basic logic and scientific connotation of high-quality development in Central China, this paper constructs an evaluation index system to measure the high-quality development level of Central China from 2006 to 2019, and examines the spatiotemporal pattern of high-quality development in Central China from a multi-level spatial scale, and uses the traditional and spatial kernel density to analyze the distribution dynamic evolution and long-term transfer trend, and explores its formation mechanism from a structural perspective. The results show that: (1) The high-quality development level in Central China is lower than the national average, but the growth rate is relatively large; the gap is obvious between the eastern and central regions, and it is close to the western and northeastern regions; Central China presents a distribution pattern of "provincial capital cities are better than non-provincial capital cities". (2) The high-quality development in Central China is generally good, but there is a trend of spatial polarization, among which, Henan and Hubei are prominent. The high-quality development in Central China generally has the characteristics of "club convergence"; the positive spillover effect of the high-level neighboring cities in the whole region and most provinces is significant, while the spatial spillover effect of Hubei and Shanxi is not obvious. (3) From the perspective of structure, the differences between the central and other regions are mainly due to differences in economic structure, ecological environment and people's livelihood development, and internal differences come from differences in coordination and innovation; structural optimization and people's livelihood development are the main driving forces for high-quality development in Central China, and the formation mechanism of polarization characteristics varies from province to province. Among them, the polarization trend of Henan and Hubei is mainly determined by the characteristics of structural coordination and technological innovation; the spillover of industrial elements, ecological cooperation and development, and people's livelihood co-construction and sharing are the main reasons for the transfer of high-quality development in the region, but there is obvious spatial heterogeneity in the formation mechanism of transfer across provinces.

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    Drainage connection and terrace formation promoted early hominin occupation in the upper Hanjiang River during the Early-Middle Pleistocene
    ZHANG Danfeng, WANG Xianyan, ZHANG Hanzhi, LIU Quanyu, WANG Shejiang, LU Huayu
    Acta Geographica Sinica    2023, 78 (5): 1213-1232.   DOI: 10.11821/dlxb202305010
    Abstract914)   HTML59)    PDF (9296KB)(577)      

    The Hanjiang River, located between the Qinling and Daba mountains, connects the Hanzhong, Ankang and other intermontane basins where there are numerous paleolithic sites. Here is an ideal area to explore the impacts of geomorphic processes on hominin activities. In this study, based on loess stratigraphy, magnetostratigraphy and detrital zircon U-Pb geochronology, the age of high terraces in the Ankang basin and the time of the drainage connection of the Ankang and Hanzhong basins by the Hanjiang River from west to east was determined. In addition, the possible influence of the evolution of landform and drainage network pattern of the Hanjiang River on the hominin occupation in the southern Qinling Mountains in the context of orbital scale climate change is discussed. The results show that (1) Eight terraces of the Hanjiang River were developed in the Ankang basin, with the sixth forming at ~1.82 Ma; (2) Most of these terraces were formed during the climatic transitions from interglacial to glacial periods, and more terraces were formed under the conditions of the Mid-Pleistocene climate transition (MPT) and the increase of uplift rate of the Qinling Mountains since 1.2 Ma; (3) It was not later than 1.82 Ma when the Hanjiang River connected the Ankang and Hanzhong basins as a result of river capture from east to west. River capture and the resulted connections of intermountain basins provided convenient geomorphological conditions for hominins to migrate into the Qinling and Daba mountains along broad river valleys since ~1.5 Ma, and thereafter fluvial terraces provided beneficial space for hominin activities.

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    The impact of import spillover effect on the reconstruction of regional export industries: From the perspective of cognitive proximity
    HE Canfei, GUO Jiahong, XIE Yuhuan
    Acta Geographica Sinica    2023, 78 (6): 1323-1338.   DOI: 10.11821/dlxb202306001
    Abstract904)   HTML200)    PDF (2346KB)(511)      

    Most of the existing research focuses on local or non-local forces that promote regional development, but few studies explore the "global-local" interactions of import spillovers as external knowledge, leaving the specific mechanism unclear. Based on China's customs data from 2000 to 2016, the import spillover effects on Chinese manufacturing industries can be better investigated. With cognitive proximity as a tool of measurement and classification, import products are sorted into three categories: same products, related products and unrelated products. We found that the import spillover effects of same products and related products can significantly increase the probability of export entry and reveal comparative advantage enhancement in city-product dimension, while the effect of unrelated products remains negative. Furthermore, the mediation effect of urban related production capacity is verified. The import of the same products and related products can improve the urban related production capacity, while the import of unrelated products plays the opposite effect. In addition, the process of import spillover effects promoting the expansion of export products shows significant heterogeneity at the product and regional levels. To give full play to the positive role of import spillover effect and avoid its negative role, local governments should build industrial chains around local core products and optimize import structure and mode. Strengthening the cultivation of local technology R&D and innovation capabilities, and improving the local ability to absorb, transform and utilize external knowledge is also helpful. After meeting the local import demand, the resource competition and crowding out effect caused by the excessive introduction of irrelevant products should also be paid attention to. Finally, differentiated import modes and strategies should be adopted according to the nature of export products, regional industrial base and export development level, so as to create a spatial aggregation form with close technological links for enterprises and industries, enhance cognitive proximity, and promote the flow and dissemination of tacit knowledge.

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    Experience and future research trends of wetland protection and restoration in China
    JIANG Weiguo, ZHANG Ze, LING Ziyan, DENG Yawen
    Acta Geographica Sinica    2023, 78 (9): 2223-2240.   DOI: 10.11821/dlxb202309007
    Abstract901)   HTML182)    PDF (4952KB)(718)      

    Wetland is an important natural resource for human beings and plays an irreplaceable ecological function in the terrestrial ecosystem. In order to curb the continued loss of wetlands around the world, international organizations and many countries have taken a series of major protection and restoration measures. This paper reviews the wetland protection and restoration measures of international organizations and some countries, comprehensively interprets China's wetland protection and restoration management experience, and proposes that future research on wetland resources should be carried out from the aspects of international frontier and national strategy, social economy and intelligent services. The results show that: (1) The 27 International Wetlands Day from 1997 to 2023 provide new goals and tasks for the protection and management of wetlands in corresponding years. The important topics and outcomes of the 14 International Convention on Wetlands Conferences from 1980 to 2022 provide new directions and new challenges for wetland development in the coming period. In the future, we should enhance ecological functions of wetlands, promote the sustainable development of wetlands, and overcome the technical bottleneck of ecological restoration of fragile wetland ecosystems from 2020 to 2035. (2) During the 30-year period from 1992 to 2022, China embarked on a new phase of wetland protection and restoration. The overall experience of wetland protection and restoration with Chinese characteristics has been formed through "national strategic deployment-legal policy establishment-project planning and implementation". Emphasis was placed on the need to provide for and prepare planning for the long-term protection of wetlands at the national legal level, to innovate restoration and management techniques and application systems, and to effectively address the complex issues of wetland protection and restoration through collaborative division of labor among multiple departments. (3) The research on the future trend of wetlands should be directed towards the exploration and practice of "United Nations Sustainable Development Goals and several international conventions" in support of the sustainable development of wetlands. Wetland protection, restoration and management services should be promoted for "national strategic needs and local social and economic high-quality development". Research on the cross-integration and academic innovation development also should be enhanced for "disciplinary development - global supervision - comprehensive assessment-intelligent decision-making".

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    The impacts of urban population agglomeration and human mobility on economic performance
    LEI Weiqian, JIAO Limin
    Acta Geographica Sinica    2023, 78 (8): 1969-1982.   DOI: 10.11821/dlxb202308008
    Abstract871)   HTML169)    PDF (1935KB)(757)      

    As a product of certain type of social interaction, urban scaling laws assume that urban attributes such as urban economic outputs are largely determined by urban population size (internal interactions), implying the assumption of agglomeration economies. Urban population agglomeration represents a local network effect, while the global network effect on a larger spatial scale between cities should also be considered in terms of the improvement of social productivity. Taking 275 Chinese cities at prefecture level and above as the research object, we constructed an urban human mobility network by Baidu migration data and portraied the degree of external interaction by human mobility between cities. We comparatively analysed the non-linear relationship between population size within cities and external interaction and urban economic outputs under the urban scaling framework. Results show that there is a significant super-linear scaling relationship between urban economic output and external interaction, revealing the higher multiplier effect of external interaction on urban economic outputs. The role of network spatial interaction cannot be ignored and it has become an important complement to agglomeration economies. Further, indicators such as urban population density, agglomeration and network externalities are introduced to quantitatively and comprehensively measure the effects of urban population agglomeration and interurban population mobility and their synergistic effects on urban economic outputs. The agglomeration effect brought about by urban population size remains the main driver of regional economic development, and the ability of cities to benefit from exchange and cooperation on a larger spatial scale has yet to be enhanced. This study contributes to fully understanding the origins of urban scaling laws from taking both internal and external interaction into consideration, deepening the recognization of the agglomeration effect and network effect of regional economic growth. This paper is supposed to support for promoting high-quality integrated urban development and deepening the practice of coordinated regional development.

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    Mechanism and regional practice of ecological industrialization and rural revitalization: A case study from Yangxian county, Shaanxi province
    WANG Yongsheng, LIU Yansui
    Acta Geographica Sinica    2023, 78 (10): 2412-2424.   DOI: 10.11821/dlxb202310003
    Abstract866)   HTML204)    PDF (2245KB)(781)      

    Rural area has abundant ecological resources. Ecological industrialization has become the emerging trends in rural areas and the new driving forces for rural revitalization. This study summarized the evolution of China's ecological environmental policies, and clarified the promotion mechanisms of regional ecological industrialization development to rural revitalization from the perspectives of ecosystem and human society, ecological products and economic development, ecological industrialization and rural revitalization, and discussed the models and pathways of poverty alleviation and rural revitalization by developing modern organic industry based on the regional ecological resources from the case study of Yangxian county in southern Shaanxi province. Three stages of China's ecological environmental policies were summarized, including "Focus on economy and light on environmental protection", "Environmental protection and scientific development" and "ecological civilization construction". Relationship between natural ecosystem and human social welfare reflects the objective needs of social and economic development and subjective initiative of human utilization of nature. The crucial ecological products and economic development was the engine of "nature-ecology-society-economy" in the core of benefits. The core of ecological industrialization and rural revitalization is the guarantee mechanism of "human-land-industry-right". Organic industry development is the typical model and important direction of ecological industrialization. In Yangxian county, the organic production paradigm of "product-industry-production area" promotes the transformation of organic practitioners from single subject management to multi-agent operation, and the transformation of land use type from resource optimal allocation to man-land coordination. In the future, coupling of ecological protection and socio-economic development can be realized by the model construction of modern organic agriculture and rural revitalization in Hanjiang River basin from the aspects of improving organic products quality and yield, enhancing organic industrial integration and value, reducing consumption and increasing efficiency in production areas.

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