Formation and evolution of sandy deserts in Xinjiang:The palaeo-environmental evidences

  • 1. Key Laboratory of Water Cycle and Related Land Surface Processes, Institute of Geographic Sciences and Natural Resources Research, CAS, Beijing 100101, China;
    2. Key Laboratory of Cenozoic Geology and Environment, Institute of Geology and Geophysics, CAS, Beijing 100029, China;
    3. Key Laboratory of Oasis Ecology, Ministry of Education, Urumqi 830046, China

Received date: 2012-12-24

  Revised date: 2013-02-08

  Online published: 2013-05-20

Supported by

National Basic Research Program of China (973 Program), No.2009CB421305; National Natural Science Foundation of China, No.91025023; No.40901059; No.41271049


Based on the palaeoclimatic and palaeoenvironmental evidences of geological history and human history periods, this paper reviews the researches and progresses on the development of the sandy deserts in Xinjiang. It points out that under the tectonic conditions, the Tarim and Zhungarer basins are greatly influenced by the foehn effects originated from the planetary wind system of westerly, the East-Asia ocean-continental monsoon and the topographical mountain-valley winds. The regional patterns of climate and environment since the Quaternary have been characterized by the overall persistent drought accompanied by fluctuations in the secondary scale. Formations of aeolian sediments in the basins and at the margins are a potential response to global climate change, particularly to the aridification of the Asian hinterland deduced by the uplift of the Tibetan Plateau and its surrounding highlands. For the question about the formation time of the Taklimakan Desert, because the research methods, objects and information carriers used in previous studies are different, there are many disputes in the academic circles at present. Evidences from aeolian deposits/rocks at the edge and in the hinterland of these sandy deserts and their chronological data indicate that arid climate and land surface aeolian processes have been observed at the edge of the Tarim Basin and its hinterland areas since the Tertiary period.

Cite this article

ZHU Bingqi, YU Jingjie, QIN Xiaoguang, LIU Ziting, XIONG Heigang . Formation and evolution of sandy deserts in Xinjiang:The palaeo-environmental evidences[J]. Acta Geographica Sinica, 2013 , 68(5) : 661 -679 . DOI: 10.11821/xb201305008


[1] Wang X, Eerdun H, Zhou Z. Significance of variations in the wind energy environment over the past 50 years with respect to dune activity and desertification in arid and semiarid northern China. Geomorphology, 2007, 86: 252-266.

[2] Zhu Zhenda, Wu Zheng, Liu Shu et al. Outline of Chinese Sandy Deserts. rev. ed. Beijing: Science Press, 1980.[朱震 达, 吴正, 刘恕等. 中国沙漠概论. 修订版. 北京: 科学出版社, 1980.]

[3] Yang X, Scuderi L, Paillou P, Liu Z, Li H, Ren X. Quaternary environmental changes in the drylands of China e A critical review. Quaternary Science Reviews, 2011, 30: 3219-3233.

[4] Yang Xiaoping, Shi Changxing, Li Bingyuan et al. Some aspects about Chinese geomorphology: Recent progresses from an earth system science perspective. Quaternary Sciences, 2008, 28(4): 521-534.[杨小平, 师长兴, 李炳元等. 从 地球系统科学角度浅析中国地貌若干问题研究的新进展. 第四纪研究, 2008, 28(4): 521-534.]

[5] Yang X, Li H, Conacher A. Large-scale controls on the development of sand seas in northern China. Quaternary International, 2012, 250: 74-83.

[6] Guo Z, Ruddiman W, Hao Q et al. Onset of Asian desertification by 22 myr ago inferred from loess deposits in China. Nature, 2002, 416: 159-163.

[7] Sun J, Liu T. The age of the Taklimakan Desert. Science, 2006, 312: 1621.

[8] Sun J, Zhang L, Deng C et al. Evidence for enhanced aridity in the Tarim Basin of China since 5.3 Ma. Quaternary Science Reviews, 2008, 27: 1012-1023.

[9] Sun J, Zhang Z, Zhang L. New evidence on the age of the Taklimakan Desert. Geology, 2009, 37(2): 159-162.

[10] Honda M, Shimizu H. Geochemical, mineralogical and sedimentological studies on the Taklimakan Desert sands. Sedimentology, 1998, 45: 1125-1143.

[11] Li Zhenshan, Chen Guangting. Effective wind regime in the Taklimakan Desert. Journal of Desert Research, 1999, 19 (1): 43-45.[李振山, 陈广庭. 塔克拉玛干沙漠起沙风况. 中国沙漠, 1999, 19(1): 43-45.]

[12] Zhu Zhenda, Chen Zhiping, Wu Zheng et al. Study on the Aeolian Geomorphology of the Taklimakan Desert. Beijing: Science Press, 1981.[朱震达, 陈冶平, 吴正等. 塔克拉玛干沙漠风沙地貌研究. 北京: 科学出版社, 1981.]

[13] Ma Lifang. Atlas of Chinese Geology. Beijing: Geological Publishing House, 2002.[马丽芳. 中国地质图集. 北京: 地 质出版社, 2002.]

[14] Wu Zheng. The basic characteristic of landform development in the Jungar Basin//Wu Zheng. Studies on the Sandy Deserts and the Coastal Dunes in China. Beijing: Science Press, 1997: 29-43.[吴正. 准噶尔盆地沙漠地貌发育的基本 特征//吴正. 中国沙漠与海岸沙丘研究. 北京: 科学出版社, 1997: 29-43.]

[15] Qu Jianjun, Zuo Guochao, Zhang Kecun et al. Relationship between the formation and evolution of the Kumtag Desert and the regional Neotectonic Movement. Arid Land Geography, 2005, 28(4): 424-428.[屈建军, 左国朝, 张克 存等. 库姆塔格沙漠形成演化与区域新构造运动关系研究. 干旱区地理, 2005, 28(4): 424-428.]

[16] Dong Z, Qu J, Wang X et al. Pseudo-feathery dunes in the Kumtagh Desert. Geomorphology, 2008, 100: 328-334.

[17] Zhang X, Gong S, Zhou T et al. Sources of Asian dust and role of climate change versus desertification in Asian dust emission. Geophysical Research Letters, 2003, 30(24): 2272.

[18] Goudie A S, Middleton N J. Desert Dust in the Global System. Berlin: Springer, 2006.

[19] Svensson A, Biscaye P, Grousset F. Characterization of late glacial continental dust in the Greenland Ice Core Project ice core. Journal of Geophysical Research, 2000, 105(D4): 4637-4656.

[20] Bory A, Biscaye P, Grousset F. Two distinct seasonal Asian source regions for mineral dust deposited in Greenland (North GRIP). Geophysical Research Letters, 2003, 30(4): 1167, doi: 10.1029/2002GL016446.

[21] Rea D, Snoeckx H, Joseph L. Late Cenozoic eolian deposition in the North Pacific: Asian drying, Tibetan uplift, and cooling of the Northern Hemisphere. Paleoceanography, 1998, 13: 215-224.

[22] Kyte F, Leinen M, Heath G et al. Cenozoic sedimentation history of the central North Pacific: Inferences from the elemental geochemistry of core LL44-GPC3. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, 1993, 57: 1719-1740.

[23] Greaves M. Aeolian sources of rare earth elements to the Western Pacific Ocean. Marine Chemistry, 1999, 68: 31-37.

[24] Wu Z. Sandy Deserts in China. Beijing: The Commercial Press, 1982.[吴正. 我国的沙漠. 北京: 商务印书馆, 1982.]

[25] Zhou F J W, Xing Y G X, Rong L Z Z et al. Sands in the Taklamakan Desert of China. Arid Zone Research, 1990, 7 (4): 66-70.[诹访兼位, 星野光雄, 荣林知子等. 中国塔克拉玛干沙漠的沙. 干旱区研究, 1990, 7(4): 66-70.]

[26] Qian Yibing, Wu Zhaoning, Ishii T et al. The constituent characteristics of sand materials and sand sources of the Taklamakan Desert. Journal of Desert Research, 1993, 13(4): 32-38.[钱亦兵, 吴兆宁, 石井武政等. 塔克拉玛干沙漠 沙物质成分特征及其来源. 中国沙漠, 1993, 13(4): 32-38.]

[27] Mu Guijin, Ji Qihui. Characteristics and significance of the mechanical composition of the Quaternary deposits of the Taklimakan Region, China. Arid Land Geography, 1990, 13(2): 31-36.[穆桂金, 吉起慧. 塔克拉玛干地区第四纪沉积 物的机械组成特征及其意义. 干旱区地理, 1990, 13(2): 31-36.]

[28] Chen Weinan. Grain size parameters of arolian sediments in the vicinity of the longitude 84°E, Taklamakan Desert. Acta Geographica Sinica, 1993, 48(1): 33-46.[陈渭南. 塔克拉玛干沙漠84°E 沿线沙物质的粒度特征. 地理学报, 1993, 48(1): 33-46.]

[29] Besler H. The Keriya Dunes: first results of sedimentological analysis. Die Erde Erg.-H., 1991, 6: 73-88.

[30] Hattori Y, Suzuki K, Honda M. Re-Os systematics of the Taklimakan Desert sands, moraines and river sediments around the Taklimakan Desert, and of Tibetan soils. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, 2003, 67: 1195-1205.

[31] Chang Q, Mishima T, Yabuki S et al. Sr and Nd isotope ratios and REE abundances of moraines in the mountain areas surrounding the Taklimakan Desert, NW China. Geochemical Journal, 2000, 34: 407-427.

[32] Besler H. The Keriya dunes in the Taklimakan Sand Sea. Die Erde, 1995, 126: 205-222.

[33] Yang X, Zhu B, Whiter P D. Provenance of Aeolian sediment in the Taklamakan Desert of western China, inferred from REE and major element data. Quaternary International, 2007, 175: 71-85.

[34] Zhu B, Yang X. Chemical weathering of detrital sediments in the Taklimakan Desert, northwestern China. Geographical Research, 2009, 47(1): 57-70.

[35] Zhu B, Yang X. The origin and distribution of soluble salts in the sand seas of northern China. Geomorphology, 2010, 123: 232-242.

[36] Zhu B, Yang X, Liu Z et al. Geochemical compositions of soluble salts in aeolian sands from the Taklamakan and Badanjilin deserts in northern China, and their influencing factors and environmental implications. Environmental Earth Sciences, 2012, 66: 337-353.

[37] Yang X, Preusser F, Radtke U. Late Quaternary environmental changes in the Taklamakan Desert, western China, inferred from OSL-dated lacustrine and aeolian deposits. Quaternary Science Reviews, 2006, 25: 923-932.

[38] Qian Yibing, Zhou Xinggui, Li Chongshun et al. Multi-sources of sand minerals for the deserts in the Jungger Basin. Journal of Desert Research, 2001, 21(2): 182-187.[钱亦兵, 周兴佳, 李崇舜等. 准噶尔盆地沙漠沙矿物组成的多源 性. 中国沙漠, 2001, 21(2): 182-187.]

[39] Xia Xuncheng. The basic characteristics of the Kumtag Desert//Xinjiang Branch of Chinese Academy of Sciences, The Scientific Survey and Study on the Luobupo. Beijing: Science Press, 1987: 78-94.[夏训诚. 库姆塔格沙漠的基本特 征//中国科学院新疆分院, 罗布泊综合科学考察队. 罗布泊科学考察与研究. 北京: 科学出版社, 1987: 78-94.]

[40] Sun J, Ye J, Wu W et al. Late Oligocene-Miocene mid-latitude aridification and wind patterns in the Asian interior. Geology, 2010, 38(6): 515-518.

[41] Zheng H, Powell C M, An Z et al. Pliocene uplift of the northern Tibetan Plateau. Geology, 2000, 28(8): 715-718.

[42] Yang X, Liu Z, Zhang F et al. Hydrological changes and land degradation in the southern and eastern Tarim Basin, Xinjiang, China. Land Degradation & Development, 2006, 17: 381-392.

[43] Editing Committee of Chinese Physical Geography, Chinese Academy of Sciences. Chinese Physical Geography · Palaeo-Geography. Beijing: Sicence Press, 1984.[中国科学院中国自然地理编委会. 中国自然地理·古地理. 北京: 科学出版社, 1984.]

[44] Institute of Geology, Chinese Academy of Geological Science et al. Map of Palaeo-Geography of China. Beijing: Geological Publishing House, 1985.[中国地质科学院地质研究所等. 中国古地理图. 北京: 地质出版社, 1985.]

[45] Yong Tianshou, Yang Chengmei. Several questions about the strata at the northeastern edge of the Jungar Basin. Xinjiang Petroleum Geology, 1986, 7(2): 44-47.[雍天寿, 杨成美. 准噶尔盆地东北缘的几个地层问题. 新疆石油地 质, 1986, 7(2): 44-47.]

[46] Zhang Z, Wang H, Guo Z et al. Impacts of tectonic changes on the reorganization of the Cenozoic paleoclimatic patterns in China. Earth and Planetary Science Letters, 2007, 257: 622-634.

[47] Liu Tungsheng. Loess and Environment in China. Beijing: Science Press, 1985.[刘东生. 黄土与环境. 北京: 科学出版 社, 1985.]

[48] Dong Guangrong, Li Sen. A preliminary study on the formation and evolution of deserts in China. Journal of Desert Research, 1991, 11(4): 23-32.[董光荣, 李森. 中国沙漠形成演化的初步研究. 中国沙漠, 1991, 11(4): 23-32.]

[49] Fang X, Lu L, Yang S et al. Loess in Kunlun Mountains and its implications on desert development and Tibetan Plateau uplift in west China. Science in China Series D: Earth Sciences, 2002, 45(4): 289-299.

[50] Sun D, An Z, Su R et al. Eolian sedimentary records for the evolution of monsoon and westerly circulations of northern China in the last 2.6 Ma. Science in China Series D: Earth Sciences, 2003, 46(10): 1049-1059

[51] Kutzbach J E, Guetter P J, Ruddiman W F. Sensitivity of climate to late Cenozoic uplift in Southern Asia and the American West: Numerical experiments. Journal of Geophysical Research, 1989, 94: 18393-18407.

[52] Amold E, Merrill J, Leinen M. The effect of source area and atmospheric transport on mineral aerosol collected over the North Pacific Ocean. Global and Planetary Change, 1998, 18: 137-159.

[53] Zheng H, Chen H, Cao J. Palaeoenvironmental implication of the Plio-Pleistocene loess deposits in southern Tarim Basin. Chinese Science Bulletin, 2002, 47(8): 700-704.

[54] Wu Zheng. Approach to the genesis of the Taklamakan Desert. Acta Geographica Sinica, 1981, 36(3): 280-291.[吴正. 塔克拉玛干沙漠成因的探讨. 地理学报, 1981, 36(3): 280-291.]

[55] Li Baosheng, Jin Jiong. A preliminary study on the sedimentary strata of the Pulu sandy hills at the south edge of the Taklamakan Desert. Chinese Science Bulletin, 1988, 33(2): 140-143.[李保生, 金炯. 塔克拉玛干沙漠南缘沙山普鲁地 层剖面的初步研究. 科学通报, 1988, 33(2): 140-143.]

[56] Chang H, An Z, Liu W et al. Magnetostratigraphic and paleoenvironmental records for a Late Cenozoic sedimentary sequence drilled from Lop Nor in the eastern Tarim Basin. Global and Planetary Change, 2012, 80/81: 113-122.

[57] Krijgsman W. Chronology, causes and progression of the Messinian salinity crisis. Nature, 1999, 400: 652-655.

[58] Dong Guangrong. A new progress of the Quaternary geological study on the Taklamakan Desert. Journal of Desert Research, 1997, 17(1): 77-79.[董光荣. 塔克拉玛干沙漠第四纪地质研究的新进展. 中国沙漠, 1997, 17(1): 77-79.]

[59] Aobluqiv B A. On Issues of Sand and Loess. Le Zhu, Liu Tungsheng trans. Beijing: Science Press, 1958.[奥布鲁契夫 B A. 砂与黄土问题. 乐铸, 刘东生译. 北京: 科学出版社, 1958.]

[60] Zhou Tingru. Major types of the Quaternary continental sediments in Xinjiang and its relationship with the development of Xinjiang geomorphology and climate. Acta Geographica Sinica, 1963, 29: 109-129.[周廷儒. 新疆第四 纪陆相沉积的主要类型及其和地貌气候发展的关系. 地理学报, 1963, 29: 109-129.]

[61] Liu Tungsheng. Loess Deposits in China. Beijing: Science Press, 1965.[刘东生. 中国黄土堆积. 北京: 科学出版社, 1965.]

[62] Wu Guangjian, Pan Baotian, Guan Qingyu et al. The maximum glaciation and desert expansion in China during MIS16. Journal of Glaciology and Geocryology, 2002, 24(5): 544-549.[邬光剑, 潘保田, 管清玉等. 中更新世全球最 大冰期与中国沙漠扩张. 冰川冻土, 2002, 24(5): 544-549.]

[63] Ding Z L, Ren J Z, Yang S L et al. Climate instability during the penultimate glaciation: Evidence from two high-resolution loess records, China, Journal of Geophysical Research, 1999, 104: 20123-20132.

[64] Yang X, Rost K T, Lehmkuhl F et al. The evolution of dry lands in northern China and in the Republic of Mongolia since the Last Glacial Maximum. Quaternary International, 2004, 118/119: 69-85.

[65] Li Baosheng, Ling Yuquan, Lu Jinhua et al. Eolian sand of the Pulu area and the vicissitudes on southern border of Taklamakan Desert in Sinkiang. Journal of Desert Research, 1986, 6(4): 43-50.[李保生, 凌裕泉, 陆锦华等. 新疆普鲁 地区的风成沙与塔克拉玛干沙漠南缘的变迁. 中国沙漠, 1986, 6(4): 43-50.]

[66] Yang X. The oases along the Keriya River in the Taklamakan Desert, China, and their evolution since the end of the last glaciation. Environmental Geology, 2001, 41: 314-320.

[67] Yang X, Zhu Z, Jaekel D et al. Late Quaternary palaeoenvironment change and landscape evolution along the Keriya River, Xinjiang, China. Quaternary International, 2002, 97: 155-166.

[68] Feng Q, Su Z, Jin H. Desert evolution and climatic changes in the Tarim River basin since 12 ka BP. Science China Series D, 1999, 42(Suppl.1): 101-112.

[69] Xinjiang Branch of Chinese Academy of Sciences. The Scientific Survey and Study on the Luobupo. Beijing: Science Press, 1987.[中国科学院新疆分院, 罗布泊综合科学考察队//夏训诚. 罗布泊科学考察与研究. 北京: 科学出版社, 1987.]

[70] Han Shuti. Environmental evolution of Holocene epoch and its exploitation in several areas of Xinjiang. Journal of Desert Research, 1987, 7(4): 37-44.[韩淑媞. 新疆若干地区全新世环境演变与开发利用. 中国沙漠, 1987, 7(4): 37-44.]

[71] Fang X, Shi Z, Yang S et al. Loess in the Tian Shan and its implications for the development of the Gurbantunggut Desert and drying of northern Xinjiang. Chinese Science Bulletin, 2002, 47: 1381-1387.

[72] Shi Zhengtao. Evolution of Gurbantunggut Desert recorded by Tianshan Loess. Journal of Desert Research, 2006, 26 (5): 675-679.[史正涛. 天山黄土记录的古尔班通古特沙漠形成演化. 中国沙漠, 2006, 26(5): 675-679.]

[73] Cui Z, Wu Y, Liu G. On Kunlun-Yellow River tectonic movement. Science in China Series D: Earth Sciences, 1998, 41 (6): 592-600.

[74] Huang Qiang, Zhou Xingjia. The climate-environment changes in the south of Gurbantunggut Desert since 80 ka BP. Arid Land Geography, 2000, 23(1): 55-60.[黄强, 周兴佳. 晚更新世晚期以来古尔班通古特沙漠南部的气候环境演 化. 干旱区地理, 2000, 23(1): 55-60.]

[75] Wang Tao. Deserts and Desertification in China. Shijiazhuang: Hebei Science and Technology Publishing House, 2002.[王涛. 中国沙漠与沙漠化. 石家庄: 河北科学技术出版社, 2002.]

[76] Tang Jinnian, Su Zhizhu, Ding Feng. Formative age and evolution of Kumtagh Desert. Arid Land Geography, 2010, 33 (3): 325-333.[唐进年, 苏志珠, 丁峰. 库姆塔格沙漠的形成时代与演化. 干旱区地理, 2010, 33(3): 325-333.]

[77] Han Shuti, Zai Zhang. Characterization of the inter-continental Holocene climate for the region of Balikun Lake in northern Xinjiang. Science in China: Series B, 1992, 11: 1021-1029.[韩淑媞, 瞿章. 北疆巴里坤湖内陆型全新世气候 特征. 中国科学: B辑, 1992, 11: 1021-1029.]

[78] Li Jiangfeng. Study on the Tree-ring Climatic Hydrology in Xinjiang. Beijing: China Meteorological Press, 1989.[李江 风. 新疆年轮气候年轮水文研究. 北京: 气象出版社, 1989.]

[79] Li Jijun. The patterns of environmental changes since late Pleistocene in northwestern China. Quaternary Sciences, 1990, (4): 197-204.[李吉均. 中国西北地区晚更新世以来环境变化模式. 第四纪研究, 1990, (4): 197-204.]

[80] Ye Wei. The climatic characteristics and environmental patterns during Holocene in North Xinjiang. Journal of Desert Research, 2000, 20(2): 185-191.[叶玮. 北疆地区全新世气候波动与水热组合特点. 中国沙漠, 2000, 20(2): 185-191.]

[81] Wunnemann B, Mischke S, Chen F. A Holocene sedimentary record from Bosten Lake, China. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, 2006, 234: 223-238.

[82] Chen F, Huang X, Zhang J et al. Humid Little Ice Age in arid central Asia documented by Bosten Lake, Xinjiang, China. Science in China Series D: Earth Sciences, 2006, 49(12): 1280-1290.

[83] Zhong W, Xue J, Shu Q et al. Climate change during the last 4000 years in the southern Tarim Basin, Xinjiang, Northwest China. Journal of Quaternary Science, 2007, 22(7): 659-665.

[84] Chen F, Yu Z, Yang M et al. Holocene moisture evolution in arid central Asia and its out-of-phase relationship with Asian monsoon history. Quaternary Science Reviews, 2008, 27: 351-364.

[85] Wang Sumin, Feng Min. A relationship between the Daihai Lake environmental change in the Inner Mongolia and the strength of the Southeastern Monsoon. Science in China: Series B, 1991, (7): 759-768.[王苏民, 冯敏. 内蒙古岱海湖 泊环境变化与东南季风强弱的关系. 中国科学: B辑, 1991, (7): 759-768.]

[86] Xiao J, Chang Z, Wen R et al. Holocene weak monsoon intervals indicated by low lake levels at Hulun Lake in the monsoonal margin region of northeastern Inner Mongolia, China. The Holocene, 2009, 19(6): 899-908.

[87] Xiao J, Si B, Zhai D et al. Hydrology of Dali Lake in central-eastern Inner Mongolia and Holocene East Asian monsoon variability. Journal of Paleolimnology, 2008, 40: 519-528.

[88] Shi Yafeng, Kong Zhaochen, Wang Sumin. The basic characteristics of the Holocene warm climate and environment in China//The Holocene Warm Climate and Environment in China. Beijing: Science Press, 1992: 1-17.[施雅风, 孔昭寰, 王苏民. 中国全新世大暖期气候与环境的基本特征//中国全新世大暖期气候与环境. 北京: 科学出版社, 1992: 1-17.]

[89] Li Shuanke. Fluctuation of closed lake-level and its climatic significance on the middle Kunlun Mountains. Journal of Lake Sciences, 1992, 4(1): 19-29.[李栓科. 中昆仑山区封闭湖泊湖面波动及其气候意义. 湖泊科学, 1992, 4(1): 19-29.]

[90] Jiang Q, Shen J, Liu X et al. A high-resolution climatic change since Holocene inferred from multi-proxy of lake sediment in westerly area of China. Chinese Science Bulletin, 2007, 52(14): 1970-1979.

[91] Zhong Wei. Some important progresses of recent research in Quaternary environmental changes in Xinjiang. Arid Land Geography, 1996, 19(3): 88-95.[钟巍. 新疆第四纪环境演变研究近期的几点重要进展. 干旱区地理, 1996, 19(3): 88-95.]

[92] Zhu Zhenda. Desertification processes and developmental tendency in Taklimakan Desert region. Journal of Desert Research, 1987, 7(3): 19-31.[朱震达. 塔克拉玛干沙漠地区沙漠化过程及其发展趋势. 中国沙漠, 1987, 7(3): 19-31.]

[93] Xia Xuncheng, Li Chongshun, Zhou Xingjia. Desertification and Aeolian Sand Disaster Control in Xinjiang. Beijing: Science Press, 1991: 1-39.[夏训诚, 李崇舜, 周兴佳. 新疆沙漠化与风沙灾害治理. 北京: 科学出版社, 1991: 1-39.]

[94] Xiong Heigang, Zhong Wei, TashPolat T et al. The coupling relationship between the nature and the man in south edge of Tarim Basin. Acta Geographica Sinica, 2000, 55(2): 191-198.[熊黑钢, 钟巍, 塔西甫拉提等. 塔里木盆地南缘 自然与人文历史变迁的耦合关系. 地理学报, 2000, 55(2): 191-198.]

[95] Lu H, Xia X, Liu J et al. A preliminary study of chronology for a newly-discovered ancient city and five archaeological sites in Lop Nor, China. Chinese Science Bulletin, 2010, 55(1): 63-71.

[96] Qin X, Liu J, Jia H et al. New evidence of agricultural activity and environmental change associated with the ancient Loulan Kingdom, China, around 1500 years ago. Holocene, 2012, 22(1): 53-61.

[97] Zhang F, Wang T, Yimit H et al. Hydrological changes and settlement migrations in the Keriya River delta in central Tarim Basin ca. 2.7-1.6 ka BP. Science China Earth Sciences, 2011, 54: 1971-1980.

[98] Yonenobu H, Itoh T. 14C dating of the Niya site in the Tarim Basin. Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research B, 2000, 172: 741-744.