Hydrological Studies of the Holocene Palaeoflood in the Hukou Reach of the Yellow River

  • College of Tourism and Environmental Sciences, Shaanxi Normal University, Xi'an 710062, China

Received date: 2010-08-03

  Revised date: 2010-09-09

  Online published: 2010-11-20

Supported by

National Natural Science Foundation of China,No.40771018; No.41030637


Palaeoflood hydrological studies were carried out in the middle reach gorges of the Yellow River. Palaeoflood slackwater deposit was found at the MFT site in the Hukou gorges of the mainstream of the river. Analysis of the grain-size distribution indicates that these SWD consist of sandy silt, sourced from the suspended sediment load of the floodwater. The low magnetic susceptibility indicates they are fresh deposit without weathering and pedogenic alteration. Stratigraphic correlation with the chronological framework established in the middle reaches of the Yellow River and OSL dating shows that these extreme floods occurred in two periods, that is, at the turn from early to middle Holocene, and at the end of the mid-Holocene Climatic Optimum. The reconstructed peak discharges of the palaeoflood range from 27,490 m3/ s to 40,920 m3/s which is much larger than those of gauged floods. These results were further tested and proved to be reliable in reconstruction of the modern floods at the same reach. This research is of great importance to hydrological engineering and flood mitigation. And it is also very important in the establishment of the relationships between extreme flood events and global climate change.

Cite this article

LI Xiaogang, HUANG Chunchang, PANG Jiangli, ZHA Xiaochun, HAO Gaojian, GE Benwei . Hydrological Studies of the Holocene Palaeoflood in the Hukou Reach of the Yellow River[J]. Acta Geographica Sinica, 2010 , 65(11) : 1371 -1380 . DOI: 10.11821/xb201011007


[1] Baker V R. Palaeoflood hydrology in a global context. Catena, 2006, 66(1/2): 161-168.

[2] Zhan Daojiang, Xie Yuebo. Palaeoflood Study. Beijing: China WaterPower Press, 2001: 1-83.

[詹道江, 谢悦波. 古洪水研 究. 北京: 中国水利水电出版社, 2001: 1-83.]

[3] Alpa S. A mid-late Holocene flood record from the alluvial reach of the Mahi River, western India. Catena, 2007, 70: 330-339.

[4] Gerardo B, Alfonso S, Yolanda S et al. Palaeoflood record of the Tagus River (Central Spain) during the Late Pleistocene and Holocene. Quaternary Science Reviews, 2003, 22: 1737-1756.

[5] Vishwas S K, Ashok K S, Praveen K M et al. Sedimentary records and luminescence chronology of Late Holocene palaeofloods in the Luni River, Thar Desert, northwest India. Catena, 2000, 40(4):337-358.

[6] Thorndycraft V R, Benito G, Rico M et al. A long-term flood discharge record derived from slackwater flood deposits of the Llobregat River, NE Spain. Journal of Hydrology, 2005, 313: 16-31.

[7] James C Knox. Sensitivity of modern and Holocene floods to climate change. Quaternary Science Reviews, 2000, 19: 439-457.

[8] Yang Dayuan, Ge Yu, Xie Yuebo et al. Sedimentary records of large Holocene floods from the middle reaches of the Yellow River, China. Geomorphology, 2000, 33(1/2): 73-88.

[9] Huang Chunchang, Pang Jiangli, Zha Xiaochun et al. Impact of monsoonal climatic change on Holocene overbank flooding along Sushui River, middle reach of the Yellow River, China. Quaternary Science Reviews, 2007, 26: 2247-2264.

[10] Huang Chunchang, Jia Yaofeng, Pang Jiangli et al. Holocene colluviation and its implications for tracing human-induced soil erosion and redeposition on the piedmont loess lands of the Qinling Mountains, northern China. Geoderma, 2006, 136: 838-851.

[11] Zha Xiaochun, Huang Chunchang, Pang Jiangli. Holocene extreme floods and environmental change of Qishuihe River in western Guanzhong Basin. Acta Geographica Sinica, 2007, 62(3): 291-300.

[查小春, 黄春长, 庞奖励. 关中西部漆水河全 新世特大洪水与环境演变. 地理学报, 2007, 62(3): 291-300.]

[12] Yao Ping, Huang Chunchang, Pang Jiangli et al. Palaeoflood hydrological studies in the middle reaches of the Beiluohe River. Acta Geographica Sinica, 2008, 63(11): 1198-1206.

[姚平, 黄春长, 庞奖励等. 北洛河中游黄陵洛川段全新世古 洪水研究. 地理学报, 2008, 63(11): 1198-1206.]

[13] Li Xiaogang, Huang Chunchang, Pang Jiangli et al. Sedimentary characteristics of the slackwater deposits of Holocene extreme floods in the Weishui River Valley in the western Guanzhong Basin. Journal of Stratigraphy, 2009, 33(2): 198-205.

[李晓刚, 黄春长, 庞奖励等. 关中西部湋水河全新世古洪水平流沉积地层研究. 地层学杂志, 2009, 33(2): 198-205.]

[14] Li Yuqin, Huang Chunchang, Zha Xiaochun et al. Paleoflood occurrencen in the late period of the Longshan Culture in the middle reaches of the Jinghe River. Acta Geographica Sinca, 2009, 64(5): 541-552.

[李瑜琴, 黄春长, 查小春等. 泾河中 游龙山文化晚期特大洪水水文学研究. 地理学报, 2009, 64(5): 541-552.]

[15] Zha Xiaochun, Huang Chunchang, Pang Jiangli et al. Comparison about flood frequency analysis on different time scales in Jinghe River channel. Scientia Geographica Sinca, 2009, 29(6): 858-863.

[查小春, 黄春长, 庞奖励等. 泾河流域不同 时间尺度洪水序列频率分析对比研究. 地理科学, 2009, 29(6): 858-863.]

[16] Ge Benwei, Huang Chunchang, Zhou Yali et al. OSL dating of the Jinghe River palaeoflood events in the late period of the Longshan Culture. Quaternary Science, 2010, 30(2): 422-429.

[葛本伟, 黄春长, 周亚利等. 龙山文化末期泾河特大洪水 事件光释光测年研究. 第四纪研究, 2010, 30(2): 422-429.]

[17] Wan Honglian, Huang Chunchang, Pang Jiangli et al. Holocene extreme floods of the Baoji Gorges of the Weihe River. Quaternary Science, 2010, 30(2): 430-440.

[万红莲, 黄春长, 庞奖励等. 渭河宝鸡峡全新世特大洪水水文学研究. 第四纪研究, 2010, 30(2): 430-440.]

[18] Zhu Xiangfeng, Huang Chunchang, Pang Jiangli et al. Palaeo-hydrologrcal studies of the Holocene extreme floods in the Tianshui gorges of theWeihe River. Progress in Geography, 2010, 29(7): 840-846.

[朱向锋, 黄春长, 庞奖励等. 渭河天水 峡谷全新世特大洪水水文学研究. 地理科学进展, 2010, 29(7): 840-846.]

[19] Huang Chunchang, Pang Jiangli, Zha Xiaochun et al. Extraordinary floods of 4100-4000 a BP recorded at the Late Neolithic ruins in the Jinghe River gorges, middle reach of the Yellow River, China. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, 2010, 289(3): 1-9.

[20] Yang Xiaoyan, Xia Zhengkai, Cui Zhijiu. Holocene extreme floods and its sedimentary characteristic in the upper reaches of the Yellow River. Quaternary Sciences, 2005, 25(1): 80-85.

[杨晓燕, 夏正楷, 崔之久. 黄河上游全新世特大洪水及其 沉积特征. 第四纪研究, 2005, 25(1): 80-85.]

[21] Xie Yuebo, Yang Yurong, Wang Hui. Index system of ancient diluvial deposits at TGP dam site. Yangtze River, 1999, 30 (8): 4-6.

[谢悦波, 杨玉荣, 王辉. 三峡河段古洪水滞流沉积指标体系. 人民长江, 1999, 30(8): 4-6.]

[22] Ge Zhaoshuai, Yang Dayuan, Li Xusheng et al. The paleoflooding record along the up reaches of the Yangtze River since the late Pleistocene epoch. Quaternary Sciences, 2004, 24(5): 555-560.

[葛兆帅, 杨达源, 李徐生等. 晚更新世晚期以来 的长江上游古洪水记录. 第四纪研究, 2004, 24(5): 555-560.]

[23] Li Changan, Huang Junhua, Zhang Yufen et al. Preliminary study of paleoflood of Last Glacial Maximum in upper reaches of the Yellow River. Earth Science: Journal of China University of Geosciences, 2002, 27(4): 456-458.

[李长安 黄俊华, 张玉芬等. 黄河上游末次冰盛期古洪水事件的初步研究. 地球科学: 中国地质大学学报, 2002, 27(4): 456-458.]

[24] Cheng Longyuan, Guo Xiangqin, Zhang Songlin et al. Effect of flood synthesis at Tongguan station on the Weihe River and the Beiluohe River. Journal of Sediment Research, 2002, (6): 31-35.

[程龙渊, 郭相秦, 张松林等. 黄河潼关站洪水组 合对渭河北洛河的影响. 泥沙研究, 2002, (6): 31-35.]

[25] Shi Fucheng, Yi Yuanjun, Mu Ping. Investigation, research and study on the Yellow River historical flood. Zhengzhou: Yellow River Water Conservancy Press, 2000: 81-123.

[史辅成, 易元俊, 慕平. 黄河历史洪水调查、考证和研究. 郑州: 黄河水利出版社, 2002: 81-123.]

[26] Yellow River Conservancy Commission. The water and sediment results of main sections of the main and tributary of the Yellow River from 1919 to 1960. Zhengzhou: Yellow River Conservancy Commission, 1962: 30.

[黄河水利委员会. 黄河 干支流主要断面1919 年-1960 年水量、沙量计算成果. 郑州: 黄河水利委员会, 1962: 30.]

[27] Huang Chunchang, Pang Jiangli, Chen Shu'e. Charcoal records of the fire history in the Holocene loess-soil sequences over the southern Loess Plateau of China. Palaeogeography Palaeoecology Palaeoclimatology, 2006, 239: 28-44.

[28] Huang Chunchang, Zhao Shichao, Pang Jiangli et al. Climatic aridity and the relocations of the Zhou Culture in the southern Loess Plateau of China. Climatic Change, 2003, 61(3): 361-378.

[29] Huang Chunchang, Pang Jiangli, Chen Shu'e et al. Holocene dust accumulation and the formation of policyclic cinnamon soils in the Chinese Loess Plateau. Earth Surface Processes and Landforms, 2003, 28(12): 1259-1270.

[30] Huang Chunchang, Pang Jiangli, Huang Ping et al. High-resolution studies of the oldest cultivated soils in the southern Loess Plateau of China. Catena, 2002, 47(1): 29-42.

[31] Pang Jiangli, Huang Chunchang, Jia Yaofeng. Hydrological events recorded in the Holocene soil in Guanzhong area, China. Acta Pedologica Sinica, 2005, 42(2): 187-193.

[庞奖励, 黄春长, 贾耀峰. 关中东部地区全新世土壤发育及记录 的水文事件. 土壤学报, 2005, 42(2): 187-193.]

[32] Huang Chunchang, Pang Jiangli, Zhou Qunying et al. Holocene pedogenic change and the emergence and decline of rain-fed cereal agriculture on the Chinese Loess Plateau. Quaternary Science Reviews, 2004, 23: 2529-2539.

[33] Zhang Qiang, Yang Dayuan, Shi Yafeng et al. Flood events since 5000aB. P. recorded in natural sediments of Zhongba Site, Chuanjiang River. Scientia Geographica Sinica, 2004, 24(6): 715-720.

[张强, 杨达源, 施雅风等. 川江中坝遗址 5000 年来的洪水事件研究. 地理科学, 2004, 24(6): 715-720.]

[34] Zhao Chenglin. Sedimentary Petrology. Beijing: Petroleum Industry Press, 2001: 57-71.

[赵澄林. 沉积岩石学. 北京: 石油 工业出版社, 2001: 57-71.]

[35] Xie Yuebo, Wang Wenhui, Wang Ping. Characteristics of grain size for palaeoflood slackwater deposits. Journal of China Hydrology, 2000, 20(4):18-20.

[谢悦波, 王文辉, 王平. 古洪水平流沉积粒度特征. 水文, 2000, 20(4): 18-20.]

[36] Xu Jianhua, Li Xuemei, Zhang Peide et al. Delimitation of coarse sediment and study on overlap of coarse sediment and sediment abundant areas in the middle Yellow River Basin. Journal of Sediment Research, 1998, (4): 36-46.

[徐建华, 李雪 梅, 张培德等. 黄河粗泥沙界限与中游多沙粗沙区区域研究. 泥沙研究, 1998, (4): 36-46.]

[37] Ren Mingda, Wang Nailiang. Generality of Modern Sedimentation Environment. Beijing: Science Press, 1981: 8-26.

[任明 达, 王乃梁. 现代沉积环境概论. 北京: 科学出版社, 1981: 8-26.]

[38] Liu Tungsheng. Loess and Environment. Beijing: Science Press, 1985: 62-81.

[刘东生. 黄土与环境. 北京: 科学出版社,1982: 62-81.]

[39] Liu Xiuming, Liu Tungsheng, John Shaw. Magnetic mineral characteristics of Chinese loess and its palaeoclimatic significance. Quaternary Sciences, 1993, 13(3): 281-287.

[刘秀铭, 刘东生, John Shaw. 中国黄土磁性矿物特征及其古气 候意义. 第四纪研究, 1993, 13(3): 281-287.]

[40] Deng Chenglong, Liu Qingsong. Environmental magnetism of Chinese loess paleosol sequences. Quaternary Sciences, 2007, 27(2): 193-209.

[邓成龙, 刘青松. 中国黄土环境磁学. 第四纪研究, 2007, 27(2): 193-209.]

[41] Zhang Wenhe, Mu Guijin. Precision control on measuring organic and carbonate content with loss on ignition method. Arid Land Geography, 2007, 30(3): 455-459.

[张文河, 穆桂金. 烧失法测定有机质和碳酸盐的精度控制. 干旱区地理, 2007, 30(3): 455-459.]

[42] Xie Yuebo, Fei Yuhong, Shen Qipeng. Slack water deposits and flow peak level of a paleoflood. Acta Geoscientia Sinica, 2001, 22(4): 320-323.

[谢悦波, 费宇红, 沈起鹏. 古洪水平流沉积与水位. 地球学报, 2001, 22(4): 320-323.]

[43] Pan Xiandi, Li Yong, Zhang Xiaohua. The influences of water and sediment characteristics on watershed comprehensive management of Hekou-Longmen Region in Huanghe River Basin. Yellow River, 1999, 21(8): 13-15.

[潘贤娣, 李勇, 张晓 华. 河龙区间流域综合治理对水沙特性的影响. 人民黄河, 1999, 21(8): 13-15.]

[44] Zhao Liyi, Zhao Guangyao, Wang Hongbin. Summary of storms, floods and sediment yield laws of coarse sediment concentrated region in the middle Yellow River. Yellow River, 2006, 28(3): 64-67.

[赵力毅, 赵光耀, 王鸿斌. 黄河中游粗 泥沙集中来源区产沙规律综述. 人民黄河, 2006, 28(3): 64-67.]

[45] Liu Tangsheng, Guo Zhengtang, Wu Naiqin. Prehistoric vegetation on the Loess Plateau. Acta Geoscientica Sinica, 1994, 15(2): 226-234.

[刘东生, 郭正堂, 吴乃琴. 史前黄土高原的自然植被景观. 地球学报, 1994, 15(2): 226-234.]

[46] Xie Yuebo, Zhang Suting, Bi Dongsheng. Palaeoflood channel cross section area estimates. Journal of Hohai University, 1999, 27(5): 8-11.

[谢悦波, 张素亭, 毕东生. 古洪水行洪断面面积的估算. 河海大学学报, 1999, 27(5): 8-11.]

[47] School of Water Resource and Hydropower. Hydraulics. Beijing: Higher Education Press, 1980: 335-336.

[武汉水利电力 学院水力学教研室. 水力学. 北京: 高等教育出版社, 1986: 335-336.]