Research on Interactive Relationship between Terrain Cognition and Spatial Behavior in Small-Scale Environment: A Case Study of Pukou Campus in Nanjing University

  • 1. School of Geographic and Oceanographic Sciences, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093, China;
    2. Jingling College, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210089, China

Received date: 2010-08-19

  Revised date: 2010-12-24

  Online published: 2011-06-20

Supported by

National Natural Science Foundation of China, No.40871072


Although the interactive relationship between terrain cognition and spatial behavior plays an important role in human-environment relationships, few studies have explored this issue which has been recently paid more attention in behavioral geography. To examine such relationship in daily activities, the Pukou Campus in Nanjing University is chosen as a study area. On the basis of pre-research, the stratified proportional sampling method is used to obtain the samples in the survey of the terrain cognition and spatial behavior respectively, while sketch mapping and verbal description methods are also employed to collect the data. Then the data were analyzed by using the coding method of the geographical elements and attributes, public maps of terrain cognition and spatial behavior, overlay and buffer analysis, bias correlation. Some conclusions can be drawn as follows: (1) The rank orders of elevation cognition of terrain have been coded in subject's cognitive map, and most parts of spatial pattern of terrain in the case area have been recognized. (2) Most major points of campus activities are correlated with requisite activities, while more minor points of campus activities are in relation to spontaneous activities and social activities. The routes of requisite activities which lined the living area and teaching area are straight-line and distributed in south of the campus. Moreover the routes of spontaneous activities which lined more stadium and landscape are scattered in campus. (3) There is interactive relationship between terrain cognition and spatial behavior. The spatial pattern of behavior is influenced by terrain cognition, but such influence is mediated by the motive and cognition of efficiency. The spatial behavior is among the dominant factors of terrain cognition and vise versa, and its effect is mediated by the motive and period of behavior. (4) It is the location of dorm instead of gender and subject that significantly influences the interactive relationship between terrain cognition and spatial behavior. Finally the insufficiency and future direction of research is discussed.

Cite this article

JIANG Zhijie, ZHANG Jie, LI Li, NIE Shouhong . Research on Interactive Relationship between Terrain Cognition and Spatial Behavior in Small-Scale Environment: A Case Study of Pukou Campus in Nanjing University[J]. Acta Geographica Sinica, 2011 , 66(6) : 821 -830 . DOI: 10.11821/xb201106011


[1] Chai Yanwei, Wang Maojun. Progress of geographical study on consumer behavior in Japan. Acta Geographica Sinica,2004, 59: 167-174. [柴彦威, 王茂军. 日本消费者行为地理学研究进展. 地理学报, 2004, 59: 167-174.]

[2] Nolan J M. "An inconvenient truth" increases knowledge, concern, and willingness to reduce greenhouse gases.Environment and Behavior, 2010, 42(5): 643-658.

[3] Basolo V, Steinberg L J, Burby R J. The effects of confidence in government and information on perceived and actualpreparedness for disasters, Joyce Levine, Ana Maria Cruz and Chihyen Huang. Environment and Behavior, 2009, 41(3):338-364.

[4] Meinhold J L, Malkus A J. Adolescent environmental behaviors: Can knowledge, attitudes, and self-efficacy make adifference? Environment and Behavior, 2005, 37(4): 511-532.

[5] Bai Kai, Ma Yaofeng, Li Tianshun et al. An association study on tourists' cognition, perceived value and behavior intentionbased on structural equation model (SEM): A case study of inbound tourists in Xi'an city. Acta Geographica Sinica, 2010, 65(2): 244-255. [白凯, 马耀峰, 李天顺等. 西安入境旅游者认知和感知价值与行为意图. 地理学报, 2010, 65(2): 244-255.]

[6] Wang Xingzhong, Gao Li. Gentrification and spatial structure of recreational places in big cities. Human Geography, 2008,23(2): 49-55. [王兴中, 高丽. 大城市中产阶层化与商娱场所的空间结构. 人文地理, 2008, 23(2): 49-55.]

[7] Dennis R P, Bhalla M, Gossweile R et al. Perceiving geographical slant. Psychonomic Bulletin and Review, 1995, 2(4):409-428.

[8] Creem S H, Gooch A A, Sahm C S et al. Perceiving virtual geographical slant :Action influences perception. Journal ofExperimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance, 2004, 30(5): 811-821.

[9] Schnall S, Harber K D, Stefanucci J K et al. Social support and the perception of geographical slant. Journal ofExperimental Social Psychology , 2008, 44: 1246-1255.

[10] Huang Xueming. Pukou Campus plan and teaching building and dormitory design in Nanjing University. ArchitecturalJournal, 1996, (8): 34-37. [黄学明. 南京大学浦口校区规划与教学楼学生宿舍楼设计. 建筑学报, 1996, (8): 34-37.]

[11] Wang Haimeng. Landscape and garden environment, humanistic campus: Pukou Campus plan in Nanjing University.Central China Architetural Journal, 2002, 20(2): 76-78. [王海蒙. 山水园林环境. 人文校园——南京大学浦口校区规划.华中建筑, 2002, 20(2): 76-78.]

[12] Deng Zhu. Applied Experimental Psychology. Shanghai: Shanghai Educational Publishing House, 2006: 45-46. [邓铸. 应用实验心理学. 上海: 上海教育出版社, 2006: 112-113.]

[13] Shen Si, Xue Lulu, Liu Yu. Beijing resident's cognitive map distortion and sources analysis based on sketch mappingmethod. Acta Geogrphica Sinica, 2008, 63(6): 625-634. [申思, 薛露露, 刘瑜. 基于手绘草图的北京居民认知地图变形及因素分析. 地理学报, 2008, 63(6): 625-634.]

[14] Luo Changhai, Du Siyun. Study on the feminism perspective in university campus outdoor activity place planning.Chinese Landscape Architecture, 2010, (4): 37-41. [罗长海, 杜思赟. 高校户外活动场所规划中的女性主义视角. 中国园林, 2010, (4): 37-41.]

[15] Lynch K. The Image of the City. Cambridge: MIT Press, 1960: 123-134.

[16] Tang Guo'an, Yang Xin. ArcGIS Spatial Analysis Experimental Course. Beijing: Science Press, 2006: 202-212. [汤国安,杨昕. ArcGIS地理信息系统空间分析实验教程. 北京: 科学出版社, 2006: 202-212.]

[17] Chai Yanwei, Yan Yaning, Okomoto Kohei. Development of behavioral geographical reseserch in western: Countries andits recent progress. Human Geography, 2006, 23(6): 49-55. [柴彦威, 颜亚宁, 冈本耕平. 西方行为地理学的研究历程及最新进展. 人文地理, 2006, 23(6): 49-55.]

[18] Peng Danling. General Psychology. Beijing: Beijing Normal University Press, 2004: 212-226. [彭聃龄. 普通心理学. 北京: 北京师范大学出版社, 2004: 212-226.]

[19] G?rling T, B??k A, Lindberg E et al. Is elevation encoding in cognitive maps? Journal of Environmental Psychology,1990, (10): 341-351.

[20] Qi Huangxiong, Chen Lizhang. Study of temporal and spatial characteristics of students'behavior in Hangzhou Xiashahigher education eastern park. Geographical Research, 2010, 29(7): 1281-1290. [祁黄雄, 陈立章.杭州下沙高教东区学生行为时空特征研究. 地理研究, 2010, 29(7): 1281-1290.]

[21] Kweon B, Ellis C D, Lee S W. Large-scale environmental knowledge: investigating the relationship between self-reportedand objectively measured physical environments. Environment and Behavior, 2006, 38(1): 72-91.