Mapping Runoff Based on Water Balance:A Case Study of the Huaihe River Basin above Bengbu

  • 1. Institute of Geographic Sciences and Natural Resources Research, CAS, Beijing 100101, China;
    2. Graduate University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049, China;
    3. Department of Geosciences, University of Oslo, N-0315 Oslo, Norway

Received date: 2010-01-20

  Revised date: 2010-05-18

  Online published: 2010-07-20

Supported by

National Basic Research Program of China, No.2010CB428406; Key Project of the Natural Science Foundation of China,No.40730632


This presentation describes a hydro-stochastic approach method for producing choropleth maps of average runoff and computing mean discharge along the main river network. The approach applied to mean annual runoff is based on geostatistical interpolation procedures coupled with water balance and data uncertainty analyses. It is proved by an application in the Huaihe River Basin above Bengbu, a typical basin in China. By disaggregating the mean annual streamflow measured at the outlet of a basin to estimate water depths on elements of an exact partition of this basin, it works out gridded runoff yield maps with a resolution of 10 km × 10 km and the discharge map along the river with a 1 km basic unit in length. These results are consistent with water balance.

Cite this article

YAN Ziqi, XIA Jun, Lars GOTTSCHALK . Mapping Runoff Based on Water Balance:A Case Study of the Huaihe River Basin above Bengbu[J]. Acta Geographica Sinica, 2010 , 65(7) : 841 -852 . DOI: 10.11821/xb201007008


[1] Wang Hao, Wang Chengming, Wang Jianhua et al. Theory of runoff spatial distribution and the application in Wudinghe Basin. Science in China: Series E, 2004, 34(Suppl.1): 74-86.
[王浩, 王成明, 王建华等. 径流时空分布理论 及其在无定河流域的应用. 中国科学: E辑, 2004, 34(增刊I): 74-86.]

[2] Eric S, Siegfried D. FRIEND: A global perspective 2002-2006. Koblenz: IHP/HWRP-Sekretariat.

[3] Xia Jun. Recent advances in hydrology. Water Resources and Hydropower Engineering, 1998, 29(10): 5-9.
[夏军. 水文 学研究与进展. 水利水电技术, 1998, 29(10): 5-9.]

[4] Krug W R, Gebert W A. Map of mean annual runoff for the northeastern, southeastern, and Mid-Atlantic United States, water years 1951-1980. US Geol. Surv. Water Resour. Invest. Rep. 1990, 88-4094, Madison, WI.

[5] Solomon S I, Denouvilliez J P, Chart E J et al. The use of a square grid system for computer estimation of precipitation, temperature, and runoff. Water Resources Research, 1968, 4: 919-929.

[6] Liebscher H. A method for runoff-mapping from precipitation and air temperature data//Proceedings of the Symposium on World Water Balance (Gent Brugge, Belgium, 15-23 July 1970), AISH Publication No.92, 1972, 1: 115-121.

[7] Dingman S L. Elevation: A major influence on the hydrology of New Hampshire and Vermont, USA. Hydrological Sciences Bulletin, 1981, 26(4): 399-413.

[8] Hawley E M, Mac Cuen R H. Water yield estimation in western United States. Journal of Irrigation and Drainage Division, 1982, 108: 25-34.

[9] Gustard A, Roald L A. Flow Regimes from Experimental and Network Data (FREND), vol. 1. UNESCO, Paris, 1989.

[10] Herschy R W. Encyclopaedia of Hydrology and Water Resources. Cambridge: Kluwer Academic Publishers, 1998.

[11] Vogel R M, Wilson I, Daly C. Regional regression models of annual streamflow for the United States. Journal of Irrigation and Drainage Engineering, 1999, 125: 148-157.

[12] Jutman T. Runoff//Climate, Lakes and Rivers: National Atlas of Sweden. Stockholm: SNA Publishing, 1995: 106-111.

[13] Bishop G D, Church M R, Aber J D et al. A comparison of mapped estimates of longterm runoff in the northeast United States. Journal of Hydrology, 1998, 206: 176-190.

[14] Villeneuve J P, Morin G, Bobee B et al. Kriging in the design of streamflow sampling networks. Water Resources Research, 1979, 15: 1833-1840.

[15] Gottschalk L, Krasovskaia I. Interpolation of annual runoff to grid networks applying objective methods//Macroscale Modelling of the Hydrosphere. IAHS Publ, 1993, 214: 81-90.

[16] Gottschalk L. Correlation and covariance of runoff. Stochastic Hydrology and Hydraulics, 1993, 7: 85-101.

[17] Huang W C, Yang F T. Streamflow estimation using Kriging. Water Resources Research, 1998, 34: 1599-1608.

[18] Gottschalk L, Krasovskaia I. Development of grid-related estimates of hydrological variables. Report of the WCP-Water Project B.3, Geneva, WCP/WCA, February 1998.

[19] Merz R, Blo schl G. Flood frequency regionalisation. Journal of Hydrology, 2005, 302: 283-306.

[20] Gottschalk L. Correlation and covariance of runoff. Stochastic Hydrology and Hydraulics, 1993, 7: 85-101.

[21] Gottschalk L. Interpolation of runoff applying objective methods. Stochastic Hydrology and Hydraulics, 1993, 7: 269-281.

[22] Sauquet E, Gottschalk L, Leblois E. Mapping average annual runoff: A hierarchical approach applying a stochastic interpolation scheme. Hydrological Sciences Journal, 2000, 45(6): 799-815.

[23] Gottschalk L, Krasovskaia I, Leblois E et al. Mapping mean and variance of runoff in a river basin. Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 2006, 10: 1-16.

[24] Gottschalk L, Krasovskaia I. Climate change and river runoff in Scandinavia, approaches and challenges. Boreal Environment Research, 1997, 2: 145-162.

[25] Gannett H. Map of the United States showing mean annual runoff//Surface Water Supply of the United States, 1911, US Geological Survey, Water Supply Papers, No.301-312, Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, Part II, 1912.

[26] Krasovskaia I, Gottschalk L. Stability of river flow regimes. Nordic Hydrology, 1992, 23: 137-154.

[27] Krasovskaia I. Frequency of extremes and its relation to climatic fluctuations. Nordic Hydrology, 1992, 24: 1-12.

[28] Li Yungang, He Daming, Ye Changqing. The variation of runoff of Red River Basin in Yunnan. Acta Geographica Sinica, 2008, 63(1): 41-49.
[李运刚, 何大明, 叶长青. 云南红河流域径流的时空分布变化规律. 地理学报, 2008, 63 (1): 41-49.]

[29] China Institute of Water Resources and Hydropower Research. Hydrological Atlas of China. Beijing: China Institute of Water Resources and Hydropower Research, 1963.
[中国科学院水利水电科学研究院水文研究所. 中国水文图集. 北 京: 中国科学院水利水电科学研究院, 1963.]

[30] Liu Changming, Zeng Yan, Qiu Xinfa. Atlas of Hydrology and Meteorology in Yellow River Basin. Zhengzhou: Yellow River Conservancy Press, 2004.
[刘昌明, 曾燕, 邱新法. 黄河流域气象水文学要素图集. 郑州: 黄河水利出版 社, 2004.]

[31] Guo Jinghui. The physiographic factor in generating surface runoff in china. Acta Geographica Sinica, 1958, 24(2): 145-158.
[郭敬辉. 中国地表径流形成的自然地理因素. 地理学报, 1958, 24(2): 145-158.]

[32] Sun Weiguo, Cheng Bingyan, Li Rong. Multitime scale correlations between runoff and regional climate variations in the source region of the Yellow River. Acta Geographica Sinica, 2009, 64(1): 117-127.
[孙卫国, 程炳岩, 李荣. 黄河源 区径流量与区域气候变化的多时间尺度相关. 地理学报, 2009, 64(1): 117-127.]

[33] Ye Aizhong. Study on catchment water cycle simulation in changing environments
[D]. Wuhan: Wuhan University, 2007.
[叶爱中. 变化环境下流域水循环模拟研究
[D]. 武汉: 武汉大学, 2007.]

[34] Pang Lixin. The study of spatial variability of rainfall and its effects on runoff response
[D]. Wuhan: Wuhan University, 2005.
[庞立新. 降雨空间变异性及其径流响应研究
[D]. 武汉: 武汉大学, 2005.]

[35] Wu Xianfeng, Wang Zhonggen, Liu Changming et al. Digital rainfall-runoff model based on DEM: The application to Xiaolangdi-Huayuankou section of the Yellow River Basin. Acta Geographica Sinica, 2002, 57(6): 671-678.
[吴险峰, 王中根, 刘昌明等. 基于DEM的数字降水径流模型: 在黄河小花间的应用. 地理学报, 2002, 57(6): 671-678.]

[36] Du Jinkang, Xie Shunping, Luo Weijia et al. A grid-based distributed rainfall-runoff simulation system and its application. Scientia Geographica Sinica, 2006, 26(1): 58-63.
[都金康, 谢顺平, 罗维佳. 基于栅格的分布式降雨径流 模拟系统及应用. 地理科学, 2006, 26(1): 58-63.]

[37] Xie Zhenghui, Liu Qian, Yuan Fei et al. Macro-scale land hydrological model hased on 50 km×50 km grids system. Journal of Hydraulic Engineering, 2004, (5): 76-82.
[谢正辉, 刘谦, 袁飞等. 基于全国50km×50km网格的大尺度陆面 水文模型框架. 水利学报, 2004, (5): 76-82.]

[38] Lin Zhaohui, Liu Huizhi, Xie Zhenghui et al. Recent progress in the land-surface and hydrological process studies. Chinese Journal of Atmospheric Sciences, 2008, 32(4): 935-949.
[林朝晖, 刘辉志, 谢正辉等. 陆面水文过程研究进 展. 大气科学, 2008, 32(4): 935-949.]

[39] Zhang J Y, Dong W J, Fu C B et al. Streamflow simulation for the Yellow River Basin using RIEMS and LRM. Advances in Atmospheric Sciences, 2003, 20(3): 415-424.

[40] Matheron G. The theory of regionalized variables and its applications, Ecole de Mines, 1971: 212.

[41] Creutin J D, Obled C. Objective analysis and mapping techniques for rainfall fields an objective comparison. Water Resources Research, 1982, 18: 413-431.

[42] Dingman S L, Seely-Reynolds D M, Reynolds R C. Application of kriging to estimating mean annual precipitation in a region of orographic influence. Water Resources Bulletin, 1988, 24: 329-339.

[43] Goovaerts P. Geostatistical approaches for incorporating elevation into the spatial interpolation of rainfall. Journal of Hydrology, 2000, 228(1/2): 113-129.

[44] Huang W C, Yang F T. Streamflow estimation using Kriging. Water Resources Research, 1998, 34: 1599-1608.

[45] Ghosh B. Random distances within a rectangle and between two rectangles. Bulletin Calcutta Mathematical Society, 1951, 43.

[46] Mate′rn B. Spatial Variation. Meddelanden fran Statens Skogsforskiningsinstitut, 1960, 49.

[47] Arnell N W. Grid mapping of river discharge. Journal of Hydrology, 1995, 169: 39-56.