Multitime Scale Correlations Between Runoff and Regional Climate Variations in the Source Region of the Yellow River

  • 1. College of Applied Meteorology,Nanjing University of Information Science and Technology,Nanjing 210044,China;
    2. Climate Center of Chongqing City,Chongqing 401147,China;
    3. Zhengzhou Meteorological Bureau,Zhengzhou 450005,China

Received date: 2008-09-09

  Revised date: 2008-11-10

  Online published: 2009-01-25

Supported by

National Natural Science Foundation of China, No.40675067;Scientific Research Fund from Nanjing University of Information Science and Technology, No.9922


The cross wavelet transform method is adopted to study the time-frequency characteristics and multitime scale correlations between the runoff and precipitation, evaporation, maximum and minimum temperature in the source region of the Yellow River. The results show that the variations of runoff and regional climate in the source region of the Yellow River present periodic oscillations of different significance in frequency space and the localization characteristics in time space. There are significant periods at scales of quasi-biannual, 4a, 6-8a, 12-14a and above 20a in both of the runoff and regional climate variations. The power of periodic oscillation at different frequency scales and phase differences in time space are important causes for the unstableness and the lag correlations. The coherence of positive correlation between runoff and regional precipitation is the highest in the climatic factors, indicating that the variations of regional precipitation have a predominant effect on the runoff variations. The unconventionality of regional precipitation at pre-period has durative influence on the runoff. Negative correlation between runoff and regional evaporation is significant, but unstable with lag correlations on the interannual timescale. The coherence of negative correlation between runoff and maximum temperature is higher than the positive correlation between runoff and minimum temperature on interdecadal timescale, that is to say, the effect of decreasing the runoff supply due to maximum temperature rise induced the regional evaporation increase is greater than the effect of increasing the runoff supply due to minimum temperature rise caused ice thawing and snowmelt in the long term change. The unstableness of the interannual timescale correlations between runoff and maximum and minimum temperature is distributed in some of the time space. And the phase differences of them indicate that responding time of runoff to temperature variations is different. Analysis makes it known that the primary factor is the regional precipitation on the runoff variations, maximum temperature is important factor, and the regional evaporation and minimum temperature also have different influences on the runoff variations. Synthetic effect of regional climatic elements is the prime cause for runoff variations in the source region of the Yellow River.

Cite this article

SUN Weiguo,CHENG Bingyan,LI Rong . Multitime Scale Correlations Between Runoff and Regional Climate Variations in the Source Region of the Yellow River[J]. Acta Geographica Sinica, 2009 , 64(1) : 117 -127 . DOI: 10.11821/xb200901012


[1] Chen Liqun, Liu Changming, Hao Fanghua et al. Change of the baseflow and its impacting factors in the source regions of Yellow River. Journal of Glaciology and Geocryology, 2006, 28(2): 141-148.
[陈利群, 刘昌明, 郝芳华等. 黄河源 区基流变化及影响因子分析. 冰川冻土, 2006, 28(2): 141-148.]

[2] Qi Dengchen, Li Guangyu, Chen Wenye et al. Present status, causes and control countermeasures of natural grassland degeneration in Maqu county. Journal of Desert Research, 2006, 26(2): 202-207.
[戚登臣, 李广宇, 陈文业等. 黄河上 游玛曲县天然草场退化现状、成因及治理对策. 中国沙漠, 2006, 26(2): 202-207.]

[3] Kang Ersi, Cheng Guodong, Lan Yongchao et al. A model for simulating the response of runoff from the mountainous watersheds of inland river basins in the arid area of Northwest China to climatic changes. Science in China (Series D), 1999, 29(suppl.1): 52-63.

[4] Chen Liqun, Liu Changming. Influence of climate and land-cover change on runoff of the source regions of Yellow River. China Environmental Science, 2007, 27(4): 559-565.
[陈利群, 刘昌明. 黄河源区气候和土地覆被变化对径流的 影响. 中国环境科学, 2007, 27(4): 559-565.]

[5] Chang Guogang, Li Lin, Zhu Xide et al. Changes and influencing factors of surface water resources in the source region of the Yellow River. Acta Geographica Sinica, 2007, 62(3): 312-320.
[常国刚, 李林, 朱西德等. 黄河源区地表水资源 变化及其影响因子. 地理学报, 2007, 62(3): 312-320.]

[6] Zhang Jishi, Kang Ersi, Yao Jinzhong et al. Influence of climate change on water resources in Taohe River basin. Journal of Desert Research, 2003, 23(3): 263-267.
[张济世, 康尔泗, 姚尽忠等. 气候变化对洮河流域水资源的影响. 中国沙漠, 2003, 23(3): 263-267.]

[7] Dong Xiaohui, Yao Zhijun, Chen Chuanyou. Runoff variation and responses to precipitation in the source regions of the Yellow River. Resources Science, 2007, 29(3): 67-73.
[董晓辉, 姚治君, 陈传友. 黄河源区径流变化及其对降水的响 应. 资源科学, 2007, 29(3): 67-73.]

[8] Zhao Renrong, Chen Haichao, Zhu Songli et al. Analysis on variations of runoff and reasons of headwater region of the Yellow River. Yellow River, 2007, 29(4): 15-16.
[赵仁荣, 陈海潮, 朱松立等. 黄河源区径流变化及原因分析. 人民黄河, 2007, 29(4): 15-16.]

[9] Huang Junxiong, Xu Zongxue, Gong Tongliang. Characteristics and driving factors of the runoff variations in the Yarlung Zangbo River. Journal of China Hydrology, 2007, 27(5): 31-35.
[黄俊雄, 徐宗学, 巩同梁. 雅鲁藏布江径流演 变规律及其驱动因子分析. 水文, 2007, 27(5): 31-35.]

[10] Jia Yangwen, Gao Hui, Niu Cunwen et al. Impact of climate change on runoff process in headwater area of the Yellow River. Journal of Hydraulic Engineering, 2008, 39(1): 53-58.
[贾仰文, 高辉, 牛存稳等. 气候变化对黄河源区径流过 程的影响. 水利学报, 2008, 39(1): 52-58.]

[11] Lan Yongchao, Lin Shu, Li Zhouying et al. Study on variations of water cycle factors in upper Yellow River basin during recent 50 years. Journal of Desert Research, 2006, 26(5): 849-854.
[蓝永超, 林舒, 李州英等. 近50a 来黄河上 游水循环要素变化分析. 中国沙漠, 2006, 26(5): 849-854.]

[12] Ma Zhuguo. Historical regular patterns of the discharge in the Yellow River and the cause of their formation. Chinese Journal of Geophysics, 2005, 48(6): 1270-1275.
[马柱国. 黄河径流量的历史演变规律及成因. 地球物理学报, 2005, 48(6): 1270-1275.]

[13] Lan Yongchao, Ding Yongjian, Kang Ersi et al. Change trends of the annual runoff in the upper Yellow River and time series Markov-chain forecast model. Journal of Glaciology and Geocryology, 2003, 25(3): 321-326.
[蓝永超, 丁永建, 康尔泗等. 黄河上游径流长期变化及趋势预测模型. 冰川冻土, 2003, 25(3): 321-326.]

[14] Zhao Xuehua, HuangQiang, Xi Qiuyi. Dynamic change trend forecast of runoff in the upper reaches of the Yellow river. Journal of Hydroelectric Engineering, 2004, 23(4): 1-4.
[赵雪花, 黄强, 席秋义. 黄河上游径流动态变化趋势预 测. 水力发电学报, 2004, 23(4): 1-4.]

[15] Li Daofeng, Tian Ying, Liu Changming. Distributed hydrological simulation of the source regions of the Yellow River under environmental changes. Acta Geographica Sinica, 2004, 59(4): 565-573.
[李道峰, 田英, 刘昌明. 黄河河源区变 化环境下分布式水文模拟. 地理学报, 2004, 59(4): 565-573.]

[16] Yang Jianping, Ding Yongjian, Chen Rensheng. Analysis on periodic variations of annual hydrologic and meteorological series in source regions of Yangtze and Yellow rivers. Journal of Desert Research, 2005, 25 (3): 351-355.
[杨建平, 丁永建, 陈仁升. 长江黄河源区水文和气象序列周期变化分析. 中国沙漠, 2005, 25(3): 351-355.]

[17] Liang Sihai, Wan Li, Zhang Jianfeng et al. Periodic variations of low flows and cause of formation in the upper reaches of the Yellow River. Progress in Natural Science, 2007, 17(9): 1222-1228.
[梁四海, 万力, 张建锋等. 黄河源区枯季 基流的周期变化规律与成因. 自然科学进展, 2007, 17(9): 1222-1228.]

[18] Ding Yongjian, Yang Jianping, Liu Shiyi et a1. Eco-environment range in the source regions of the Yangtze and Yellow rivers. Journal of Geographical Sciences, 2003, 13(2): 172-180.

[19] Sun Weiguo. Summary on Climate Resources. Beijing: China Meteorological Press, 2008. 150-220.
[孙卫国. 气候资源 学. 北京: 气象出版社, 2008, 150-220.]

[20] Allen R G, Pereiral L S, Raes D et al. Crop evapotranspiration guidelines for computing crop water requirements. FAO Irrigation & Drainage Paper 56. FAO, 1998, ISBN 92-5-104219-5.

[21] Torrence C. A practical guide to wavelet analysis. Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society, 1998, 79 (1): 61-78.

[22] Sun Weiguo, Cheng Bingyan. Application of cross wavelet transform to analysis on regional climate variations. Journal of Applied Meteorological Science, 2008, 19(4): 479-487.
[孙卫国, 程炳岩. 交叉小波变换在区域气候分析中的应用. 应用气象学报, 2008, 19(4) : 479-487.]