The Response of Lake-Glacier Ar ea Change to Climate Variations in Namco Basin, Central Tibetan Plateau, dur ing the Last Three Decades

  • 1. Institute of Geographic Sciences and Natural Resources Research, CAS, Beijing 100101, China;
    2. Graduate School of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100039, China;
    3. Institute of Tibetan Plateau Research, CAS, Beijing 100085, China;
    4. College of Population, Resources and Environment, Shandong Normal University, Jinan 250014, China

Received date: 2006-07-25

  Revised date: 2007-01-26

  Online published: 2007-03-25

Supported by

National Natural Science Foundation of China, No.40331006; No.40571172; Knowledge Innovation Project of CAS, No.KZCX3-SW-339


Based upon the 1970 aero-photo topographic map and TM/ETM satellite images taken in 1976, 1991 and 2000, the authors artificially interpret boundary of lake water and glaciers and calculate their areas in different stages with the support of GIS. Results show that from 1970 to 2000, lake area increased from 1941.64 km2 to 1979.79 km2 with a rate of 1.27 km2/a, while glacier area decreased from 167.62 km2 to 141.88 km2 with a rate of 0.86 km2/a. The increased rate of lake area in 1991-2000 was 1.76 km2/a that was faster than 1.03 km2/a in 1970-1991, while in the same period of time, the shrinking rates of glaciers area were 0.97 km2/a and 0.80 km2/a respectively. Climatic factors such as air temperature, precipitation, maximum possible evaporation and their values in warm seasons and cold seasons over the past 30 years are analyzed with linkage of the lake and glaciers variations. The results suggest that temperature increasing is the main reason for accelerated melting of glaciers. Lake area enlargement is mainly induced from the increase of glacier melting water, while slight increase of precipitation and obvious decrease of evaporation are also important factors. Regional precipitation and evaporation and their linkages with lake area enlargement need to be thoroughly studied under the global warming and glaciers retreating.

Cite this article

WU Yanhong, ZHU Liping, YE Qinghua, WANG Liben . The Response of Lake-Glacier Ar ea Change to Climate Variations in Namco Basin, Central Tibetan Plateau, dur ing the Last Three Decades[J]. Acta Geographica Sinica, 2007 , 62(3) : 301 -310 . DOI: 10.11821/xb200703007


[1] Albritton D L et al. Technical summary. In: Houghton J T (ed.). Climate Change: The Science of Climate Change. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2001. 21-83.

[2] Sun Honglie, Zheng Du. Formation, Evolution and Development of Tibetan Plateau. Guangzhou: Guangdong Science and Technology Press, 1998. 155-169.
[孙鸿烈, 郑度. 青藏高原形成演化和发展. 广州: 广东科学技术出版社, 1998. 155-169.]

[3] Wang Sumin, Dou Hongshen. Records of Lakes in China. Beijing: Science Press, 1998. 398-399.
[王苏民, 窦鸿身. 中国 湖泊志. 北京: 科学出版社, 1998. 398-399.]

[4] Yu G, Harrison S P. Holocene changes in atmospheric circulation patterns as shown by lake status changes in northern Europe. Boreas, 1995, 24: 260-268.

[5] Qin Boqiang, Shi Yafeng, Yu Ge. Lake level fluctuations of Asia inland lakes during 18 ka BP and 6 ka BP with their significance. Chinese Science Bulletin, 1997, 42(24): 2586-2595.
[秦伯强, 施雅风, 于革. 亚洲内陆湖泊在18ka BP 及 6ka BP 的水位变化及其指示意义. 科学通报, 1997, 42(24): 2586-2595.]

[6] Zhu Liping, Ju Jianting, Wang Junbo et al. Environmental changes recorded in core sediments from the Pumoyum Co Lake of the Tibetan Plateau during the initial stage of the Last Deglacial Period. Quaternary Sciences, 2006, 26 (5): 772-780.
[朱立平, 鞠建廷, 王君波等. 湖芯沉积物揭示的末次冰消开始时期普莫雍错湖区环境变化. 第四纪研究, 2006, 26(5): 772-780.]

[7] Lu Anxin, Yao Tandong, Wang Lihong et al. Study on the fluctuations of typical glaciers and lakes in the Tibetan Plateau using remote sensing. Journal of Glaciology and Geocryology, 2005, 27(6): 783-792.
[鲁安新, 姚檀栋, 王丽红 等. 青藏高原典型冰川和湖泊变化遥感研究. 冰川冻土, 2005, 27(6): 783-792.]

[8] Zhu L P, Zhang P Z, Xia W L et al. 1400-yrs cold/warm fluctuations reflected by environmental magnetism of a lake sediment core from the Chen Co, southern Tibet, China. Journal of Paleolimnology, 2003, 29(4): 391-401.

[9] Kang Ersi, Cheng Guodong, Dong Zengchuan. Glacier-Snow Water Resources and Mountain Runoff in the Arid Area of Northwest China. Beijing: Science Press, 2002. 55-71.
[康尔泗, 程国栋, 董增川. 中国西北干旱区冰雪水资源和出山 径流. 北京: 科学出版社, 2002. 55-71.]

[10] Singh P, Bengtsson L. Impact of warmer climate on melt and evaporation for the rainfed, snowfed and glacierfed basins in the Himalayan region. Journal of Hydrology, 2005, 300(1-4): 140-154.

[11] Singh P, Bengtsson L, Berndtsson R. Relating air temperatures to the depletion of snow covered area in a Himalayan basin. Nordic Hydrology, 2003, 34: 267-280.

[12] Harrison S et al. A glacial lake outburst flood associated with recent mountain glacier retreat, Patagonian Andes. Holocene, 2006, 16: 611-620.

[13] Barry R G. The status of research on glaciers and global glacier recession: A review. Progress in Physical Geography, 2006, 30: 285-306.

[14] Ren Jiawen, Qin Dahe, Jing Zhefan. Climatic warming makes the glaciers retreated in Mt Everest region. Journal of Glaciology and Geocryology, 1998, 20(5): 17-18.
[任贾文, 秦大河, 井哲帆. 气候变暖使珠穆朗玛峰地区冰川处于退 缩状态. 冰川冻土, 1998, 20(2): 184-185.]

[15] Kulkarni A V, Bahuguna I M. Glacial retreat in the Baspa basin, Himalaya, monitored with satellite stereo data. Journal of Glaciology, 2002, 48(160): 171-172.

[16] Yao T D, Liu S Y, Pu J C. Changing Glaciers in High Asia, Glaciers and Earth's Changing Environment. Oxford: Blackwell Publisher, 2004. 65-78.

[17] Pu Jianchen, Yao Tandong, Wang Ninglian et al. Fluctuations of the glaciers on the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau during the past century. Journal of Glaciology and Geocryology, 2004, 26(5): 517-522.
[蒲健辰, 姚檀栋, 王宁练等. 近百年来青 藏高原冰川的进退变化研究. 冰川冻土, 2004, 26(5): 517-522.]

[18] Shi Yafeng, Liu Shiyin. Pre-estimation for the response of China glaciers to global warming in 21st century. Chinese Science Bulletin, 2000, 45(4): 434-438.
[施雅风, 刘时银. 中国冰川对21 世纪全球变暖响应的预估. 科学通报, 2000, 45(4): 434-438.]

[19] Su Zhen, Shi Yafeng. Response of monsoonal temperate glaciers in China to global warming since the Little Ice Age. Journal of Glaciology and Geocryology, 2000, 22(3): 223-228.
[苏珍, 施雅风. 小冰期以来中国季风温冰川对全球变 暖的响应. 冰川冻土, 2000, 22(3): 223-229.]

[20] Meier M F, Dyurgerov M B. How Alaska affects the world. Science, 2002, 297: 350-351.

[21] Nemec J, Schaake J. Sensitivity of water resource systems to climatic variation. Hydrological Science, 1982, 27: 327-343.

[22] IPCC. Third Assessment Report--Climate change: Summary to Policymakers. By Houghton J T, Meira F, Callander B A, Harris N, Kattenberg, Maskell K, 2002.

[23] Liu Tianchou. Changes of Yamzho Lake water stage in Xizang. Scientia Geographica Sinica, 1995, 15(1): 91-98.
[刘天 仇. 西藏羊卓雍湖水位动态研究. 地理科学, 1995, 15(1): 91-98.]

[24] Khromova T E, Osipova G B, Tsvetkov D G et al. Changes in glacier extent in the eastern Pamir, Central Asia, determined from historical data and ASTER imagery. Remote Sensing of Environment, 2006, 102: 24-32.

[25] Guan Zhihua, Chen Chuanyou, Ou Yuxiong et al. Rivers and Lakes in Tibet. Beijing: Science Press, 1984. 176-182.
[关志华, 陈传友, 区裕雄等. 西藏河流与湖泊. 北京: 科学出版社, 1984. 176-182.]

[26] Wu Shaohong, Yin Yunhe, Zheng Du et al. Aridity/humidity status of land surface in China during the last three decades. Science in China (Series D), 2005, 35(3): 276-283.
[吴绍洪, 尹云鹤, 郑度等. 近30 年中国陆地表层干湿 状况研究. 中国科学(D 辑), 2005, 35(3): 276-283.]

[27] Dorothy K, Halla K, Bayrb J et al. Consideration of the errors inherent in mapping historical glacier positions in Austria from the ground and space (1893-2001). Remote Sensing of Environment, 2003, 86: 566-577.

[28] Williams R S, Jr Hall D K, Sigurdsson O et al. Comparison of satellite-derived with ground-based measurements of the fluctuations of the margins of Vatnaj!kull, Iceland, 1973-1992. Annals of Glaciology, 1997, 24: 72-80.

[29] Ye Q, Yao T, Kang S et al. Glacier variations in the Mt. Naimona'Nyi Region, western Himalayas in the last three decades. Annuals of Glaciology, 2006, 43: 385-389.

[30] Ding Yongjian. Response of cryosphere to climatic warming since 1980 over the Northern Hemisphere. Journal of Glaciology and Geocryology, 1996, 18(2): 131-138.
[丁永建. 1980 年以来冰冻圈对气候变暖响应的若干证据. 冰川 冻土, 1996, 18(2): 131-138.]

[31] Su Zhen, Liu Zongxiang, Wang Wenti et al. Glacier fluctuations responding to climate change and forecast of its tendency over the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau. Advance in Earth Sciences, 1999, 14(6): 607-612.
[苏珍, 刘宗香, 王文体等. 青藏高原冰川对气候变化的响应及趋势预测. 地球科学进展, 1999, 14(6): 607-612.]

[32] Gao Xiaoqing, Tang Maocang, Feng Song. Discussion on the relationship between glacial fluctuation and climate change. Plateau Meteorology, 2000, 19(1): 10-19.
[高晓清, 汤懋苍, 冯松. 冰川变化与气候变化关系的若干探讨. 高 原气象, 2000, 19(1): 9-16.]

[33] Zhang Tangtang, Ren Jiawen, Kang Shichang. Lanong Glacier retreat in Nyainqêntanglha Range of Tibetan Plateau during 1970-2003. Journal of Glaciology and Geocryology, 2004, 26(6): 36-739.
[张堂堂, 任贾文, 康世昌. 近期气候 变暖念青唐古拉山拉弄冰川处于退缩状态. 冰川冻土, 2004, 26(6): 36-739.]

[34] Dyurgerov M B, Meier M F. Twentieth century climate change: Evidence from small glaciers. In: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 2000, 97: 1406-1411.

[35] Wang Guoya, Shen Yongping, Mao Weiyi. Climate warming at headwater of Urumqi River, Xinjiang in past 44 years and its impact on glacier shrinking. Journal of Glaciology and Geocryology, 2005, 27(6): 813-819.
[ 王国亚, 沈永平, 毛炜峄. 乌鲁木齐河源区44a 来气候变暖特征及其对冰川的影响. 冰川冻土, 2005, 27(6): 813-809.]

[36] Liu Shiyin, Ding Yongjian, Wang Ninglian et al. Mass balance sensitivity to climate change of the Glacier No.1 at the Urumqi River head, Tianshan Mts. Journal of Glaciology and Geocryology, 1998, 20(1): 9-13.
[刘时银, 丁永建, 王宁 练等. 天山乌鲁木齐河源1 号冰川物质平衡对气候变化的敏感性研究. 冰川冻土, 1998, 20(1): 9-13.]

[37] Liu Shiyin, Wang Ninglian, Ding Yongjian et al. On the characteristic of glacier fluctuations during the last 30 years in Urumqi River Basin and the estimation of temperature rise in the high mountain area. Advance in Earth Sciences, 1999, 14(3): 279-285.
[刘时银, 王宁练, 丁永建等. 近30 年来乌鲁木齐河流域冰川波动特征与流域高山带升温幅 度的估算. 地球科学进展, 1999, 14(3): 279-285.]

[38] Bian Duo, Yang Zhigang, Li Lin et al. The response of lake area change to climate variations in north Tibetan Plateau during last 30 years. Acta Geographica Sinica, 2006, 61(5): 510-518.
[边多, 杨志刚, 李林等. 近30 年来西藏那曲地 区湖泊变化对气候波动的响应. 地理学报, 2006, 61(5): 510-518.]

[39] Lin Zhenyao, Zhao Xinyi. Spatial characters of temperature and precipitation in the Tibetan Plateau. Science in China (Series D), 1996, 26(4): 354-358.
[林振耀, 赵昕奕. 青藏高原气温降水变化的空间特征. 中国科学(D 辑), 1996, 26 (4): 354-358.]

[40] Bian Duo, Du Jun. Climate variation feature and its effect on environment change in central Tibet from 1961 to 2000. Journal of Applied Meteorological Science, 2006, 17(2): 169-175.
[边多, 杜军. 近40 年西藏" 一江两河" 流域气候 变化特征. 应用气象学报, 2006, 17(2): 169-175.]

[41] Li Lin, Li Fengxia, Guo Anhong et al. Study on the climate change trend and its catastrophe over “Sanjiangyuan” region in recent 43 years. Journal of Natural Resources, 2006, 21(1): 79-85.
[李林, 李凤霞, 郭安红等. 近43 年来 “三江源”地区气候变化趋势及其突变研究. 自然资源学报, 2006, 21(1): 79-85.]