Acta Geographica Sinica ›› 2016, Vol. 71 ›› Issue (9): 1640-1652.doi: 10.11821/dlxb201609014

• Orginal Article • Previous Articles     Next Articles

Spatial and temporal pattern of the 4.2-3.5 kaBP settlements and its succession models in the south of the Songshan Mountain

Zhongxuan LI1(), Guoxi WU1, Cheng ZHU2, Jinggang ZHENG1, Kaifeng LI3, Shixing JIAO4   

  1. 1. School of Urban-Rural Planning Science, Xuchang University, Xuchang 461000, Henan, China
    2. School of Geographic and Oceanographic Sciences, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210023, China
    3. College of Environment and Planning, Henan University, Kaifeng 475001, Henan, China
    4.School of Environment and Tourism, Anyang Normal College, Anyang 455000, Henan, China
  • Received:2016-02-25 Revised:2016-04-28 Online:2016-11-25 Published:2016-11-25
  • Supported by:
    National Natural Science Foundation of China, No.41541005;Henan Provincial Key Research Program for Higher Schools, No.16A170011


Being the birthplace of the Longshan Culture in Henan Province, the south of the Songshan Mountain has been focused due to its continuity and changes in settlement pattern. Considering the regional differences, the study area was divided into two parts: 1) the upper reaches of the Yinghe River, which have small plains along the valley, and 2) the upper region of Shuangji River, where the loess highlands and narrow valleys are distributed. Influenced by the 4 ka BP cooling event, natural disasters occurred frequently and the settlements tended to move towards high elevation areas. Also, terrain properties of the settlements, slope directions and gradients for instance, varied significantly. Unlike the Xia-Shang Period, the Rank-Size curves of the settlements showed equilibrium characteristics in the late Longshan Period, suggesting a result from interaction of multiple factors. Using domain analysis of Thiessen polygon, we found that environmental changes had greater influence upon the upper reaches of the Yinghe River than upon the upper region of the Shuangji River. With both the nature and the culture considered, this article suggested that the succession of the settlements was driven by cultural factors in the late Longshan Period. And in the Xia-Shang Period, to a large extent, the succession of the settlements corresponded to the rule of natural selection.

Key words: the Songshan Mountain, prehistoric settlements, the Longshan Period, rank-size law