25 February 2024, Volume 79 Issue 2 Previous Issue   
Integrated Urban-rural Development
The evolution and optimized reconstructing analysis of rural settlement system in Guangdong province
YANG Ren, DENG Yingxian
2024, 79 (2):  281-298.  doi: 10.11821/dlxb202402001
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According to the strategic direction of urban-rural integration and rural revitalization, the spatial reconstruction of rural settlement system is the spatial organization foundation of future urban-rural integration development. This paper focused on the hierarchical scale and spatial organization characteristics of the rural settlement system. It comprehensively revealed the evolution process and regional characteristics of rural settlement systems of 111 administrative units in Guangdong province from 1990 to 2020, and discussed their evolutionary mechanism and spatial optimizing and reorganizing regional modes. The results show that: (1) There were significant regional differences in the hierarchical scale distribution of the rural settlement system in Guangdong. The patches of rural settlements show the characteristics of concentric aggregation and distribution centered on the geometric barycenter of each administrative unit. The spatial distribution pattern of the rank cumulative size coefficients of rural settlement system was "high in the southwest, but low in the northeast" and "high in coastal areas, and low in the inland". The decreasing region of the rank cumulative size coefficient was concentrated on the east bank of the Pearl River Estuary and coastal areas of eastern Guangdong, while the increasing region was mainly distributed on the west bank of the Pearl River Estuary. (2) The influencing factors such as natural background, economic development, urbanization development, transportation and location, institutions and policies jointly drove the development and evolution of the rural settlement system. Rural settlement system of urban areas is small in scale in the mature stage of urbanization, which will gradually die out and integrate into the city. Driven by urbanization, industrialization and policies, rural settlement system of suburban areas has experienced survival of the fittest and maintains a stable scale, but the mixed distribution of urban and rural land makes the spatial organization of rural settlements increasingly loose. Driven by the continuous outflow of production factors, exurb rural settlements appear to be "hollowing out". The villagers returning to build new houses and the lack of homestead exit mechanism have led to a continuous and stable growth in rural settlement scale, and their spatial distribution is characterized by more peripheral diffusion. Rural settlement system with poor location in mountainous areas develops slowly under the support of policies, and the aggregation characteristic along the transportation line is significant. (3) Facing the integrated development of urban and rural spaces, four models of spatial optimization and reorganization of rural settlement system are proposed: urban-rural integration development, dual-core-driven development, central place hierarchical system development, and pan-center chain-connecting cluster development.

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Formation mechanism and optimization of the reverse logistics model of domestic waste in the farming-pastoral ecotone
2024, 79 (2):  299-320.  doi: 10.11821/dlxb202402002
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Reverse logistics of domestic waste is a critical link in the domestic waste treatment within villages and towns. Hence, revealing the formation mechanism of reverse logistics models and establishing a cost-effective reverse logistics system for domestic waste treatment plays a pivotal role in the stabilization of the ecological security and improvement of the living environment of urban residents, farmers, and herdsmen in the farming-pastoral ecotone. This study analyzed the disequilibrium of the level of waste treatment at multiple scales based on a multi-source heterogeneous dataset of 1499 village settlements, taking Haidong city as an example. Further, the determinants of the spatial variation of domestic waste reverse logistics models were clarified by using a multinomial logistic regression model. Lastly, the spatial optimization of the reverse logistics model was proposed based on the evaluation of the spatial accessibility of waste treatment facilities by the improved potential model. The results show that the level of domestic waste generation was relatively low in Haidong, with the distribution of domestic waste characterized by an overall pattern of "locally clustered, globally dispersed". The level of waste treatment was unable to meet the demand of residents, with a pattern of decrease from the urban areas of the valley of the Huangshui River to the surrounding farmers' settlements and remote herdsmen settlements. In addition, the alpine environment and the fragmentation of village settlements of the farming-pastoral ecotone were the underlying reasons that hindered the implementation of the centralized logistics model. Moreover, village settlements with a small resident population and poor socio-economic development usually belonged to disadvantaged regions for the implementation of the centralized logistics model. Besides, the increase in the number of grass-roots cadres and the decrease in the average age contributed to implementing the decentralized logistics model. At last, the overall spatial accessibility of waste treatment facilities in rural areas of Haidong was primarily low. It is recommended to adopt a comprehensive optimization strategy that combines decentralized and centralized logistics models and implement three optimization models: centralized logistics in the city, diffusional logistics in the townships, and decentralized logistics in the farming and pastoral areas. Aiming at minimizing logistics costs and eliminating environmental stress in waste treatment, the main policy implications according to the characteristics of logistics nodes are as follows. Greater efforts are needed to enhance the function of coordinating hardware and software facilities for waste transportation in the county, promote effective collaboration in waste treatment at the town level, strengthen the village-level functions of source separation and local elimination of waste, and ultimately establish a reverse logistics system of domestic waste that focuses on waste reduction, resource utilization, and harmless treatment.

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The mechanism and improvement path of rural perceived resilience from the perspective of farmers: A case study of Qufu city, Shandong province
WANG Yanan, LYU Xiao, ZHANG Xuebo
2024, 79 (2):  321-336.  doi: 10.11821/dlxb202402003
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Improving rural sustainable development capability from the perspective of perceived resilience is crucial to comprehensively promote rural revitalization. Based on the theoretical connotation of rural perceived resilience, this paper discusses the operational logic of rural perceived resilience from the level of "pressure-state-perception-behavior-response", and constructs an indicator system from the perspective of "state-perception" and "behavior-response" based on the data of farmers' questionnaires in 12 villages in 3 towns, Qufu city, Shandong province in 2020. While evaluating the rural perceived resilience, we use the structural equation model to demonstrate the mechanism of rural perceived resilience. The results show that: (1) Rural perceived resilience refers to the ability of rural system to use rural resources to predict, absorb and adapt to rural change, and promote the restructuring of rural elements and the transformation of production and lifestyle, depending on its level of resource elements; (2) The diversified response of social networks and the state of production and construction have become the main components of rural perceived resilience, while the response path of livelihood diversification and material capital enrichment has not been fully formed; (3) Whether the way the rural system responds to the pressure can promote the transformation of traditional villages to modernization depends on the farmers' perception and behavioral decision-making. The better the farmers' perception of the rural state, the more inclined they are to actively use resources to promote the restructuring of rural elements, and fundamentally realize the transformation and development of villages; (4) We should improve the rural perceived resilience by optimizing spatial governance, promoting the transformation from "state-perception" to "behavior-response", and accurately regulating rural "pressure".

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Policies and practices of promoting rural revitalization through territory development and urban-rural integration in Japan
LI Dongpo, MI Jie, ZHOU Hui
2024, 79 (2):  337-351.  doi: 10.11821/dlxb202402004
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In China, territory development and urban-rural integration have become important ways to promote rural revitalization. However, Japan has relevant policies and rich experiences that are worth summarizing and referencing. This article examines Japan's socio-economic background and changes in the legislation and regulation of rural revitalization. Further, it summarizes policies and practices related to territory development and urban-rural integration, referring to the implementation mechanisms of rural revitalization to demonstrate the implications for China. The findings demonstrate that after World War II, urban-rural Japan shifted from competition to integration, and rural areas became important for ecological and environmental protection, cultural exchanges, sightseeing, and leisure. Through decades of exploration, Japan has formed a rural revitalization mechanism based on territory development and urban-rural integration, with multiple factor flow and spatial expansion functions. The main experiences in Japan provide a solid basis for rural revitalization through economic growth, legal systems, government-led planning and support measures, policy orientation transformation from external to endogenous rural development, balanced regional development with focused sectors, and IT-driven urban-rural value development and exchanges. Noteworthy problems include excessive dependence on centrally driven investments in the early stages, a lack of independent rural revitalization plans, and poor coordination between local and central authorities. In a relatively mature stage of economic development, with a unified national governance system, China has also formed effective rural revitalization policies and practice models. Japan's instructive experiences include improving territory development planning systems, accelerating specified legislation, developing innovative models of business management and rural governance, and smoothing urban-rural information exchanges.

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Multilevel quantitative measurement of urban-rural living service equivalence from the perspective of demand difference:A case study of Western Chongqing
ZHOU Yongwei, LIU Rui, MA Taquan, ZHAO Zihui, HU Jinchao
2024, 79 (2):  352-367.  doi: 10.11821/dlxb202402005
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The demand for urban and rural living services exhibits multilevel differentiation, and currently, there has been little research addressing the issues of multilevel demand differences and supply imbalances between urban and rural areas. This paper proposes and empirically proves the "Different configurations - Equivalent value" path of urban-rural living services equivalence based on the equivalence theory and the people-centered philosophy. Using four types of urban and rural spaces serving as the research objects, we primarily used the kernel density estimation and Densi-Graph threshold determination method to identify the urban core, urban-rural fringe, market town, and the countryside. Based on field questionnaire data of urban and rural residents, we construct a multilevel difference evaluation system for urban and rural living services; hence, the study aims at quantitatively describing the demand differences and shortcomings of living services for urban and rural residents. Our research shows that there are multilevel differences in the demand preference for living services between urban and rural residents, with resident diverse demands gradually converging from the urban core to the rural areas. Rural residents have more pressing demands for public basic services, and countryside-biased infrastructure investment can efficiently promote urban-rural equivalence. The degree of equivalence of urban and rural living services is low, with a multilevel gradient gap between urban and rural areas in the level of living services, manifested in the urban core > market town > urban-rural fringe > the countryside, and an urban-rural gap of 28 times. The gradient gap between the urban core and market towns is the largest and is the main component of the urban-rural gap. Improving the production and living environment in the countryside and implementing differential allocation between urban and rural areas are important means of achieving urban-rural equivalence. This paper provides a quantitative description of multilevel demand differences and supply shortcomings between urban and rural areas and proposes equivalent paths and suggestions for urban and rural living services; thus, the paper offers a scientific basis and methodological reference for the study of multilevel supply and demand relationships and equivalent development between urban and rural areas.

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The impact of regional financial supply on high-quality rural development
WANG Yi, MIAO Zhuanying, LU Yuqi, ZHU Yingming
2024, 79 (2):  368-389.  doi: 10.11821/dlxb202402006
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It is the mission and task entrusted to finance in the new era to "drip irrigate" the fertile land for rural development. In view of this, this paper presents an initial attempt to investigate whether and how regional financial supply promotes high-quality rural development in China. We first explain the influence mechanism of financial supply on high-quality rural development at the theoretical level, and hold that finance can contribute to the high-quality development of rural areas through its multiple effects released by its functional exertion, such as industrial promotion, environmental improvement, social norms and improvement of people's livelihood. Based on this theoretical analysis, we combine panel data from 31 provincial-level regions in China during the period 2005-2020 to construct an evaluation index system of finance and the high-quality rural development. Then the driving effect, mechanism and heterogeneity of finance on high-quality rural development were tested and revealed by using panel fixed effect model and mediation effect model. The results indicate that the improvement of the regional financial supply is conducive to the high-quality rural development, and this conclusion still holds after a series of robustness tests conducted. However, this positive effect shows obvious spatial and temporal heterogeneity. For the eastern region and the period after 2014, the positive impacts of finance on the high-quality rural development are stronger. This finding was also confirmed by the Fisher Permutation Test. In addition, the analysis of action mechanism shows that for the total sample of all provinces and the five sub-samples, "promoting rural consumption upgrading and releasing the effect of improving people's livelihood" is the common channel of finance driving high-quality rural development. However, the industrial driving effect, environmental improvement effect and human capital effect brought by financial development only exist in some molecular samples. In general, this paper advances the understanding of the drivers of high-quality rural development and the effects, mechanisms and regional differences of financial empowerment for rural revitalization, and enriches the research perspectives of financial geography and rural geography.

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Population and Urban Studies
Construction and application of multi-regional population spatial equilibrium model in the Yangtze River Delta region
CHENG Chen, DING Jinhong, GU Gaoxiang, TIAN Yang
2024, 79 (2):  390-401.  doi: 10.11821/dlxb202402007
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Population equilibrium development is the valuable guide and ideal pursuit of China's population policy and has significant implications for regional equilibrium development. However, there are still misunderstandings about interpreting population spatial equilibrium, and its scientific connotation requires further explanation and promotion. Population spatial equilibrium gives the meaning of space based on population equilibrium, which can be understood as the spatial equilibrium of population distribution. When other factors remain unchanged, the net migration between regions is zero; that is, the total number of immigrants of each region are equal to its total number of emigrants to achieve the dynamic equilibrium of population distribution among regions. A migration stream will exist between regions in an equilibrium state. Migration and equilibrium can coexist, but the population distribution between regions remains dynamic and stable, and the population spatial distribution structure will not change. Specific conditions cause the inherent stipulation of population spatial equilibrium. The equilibrium point will also change with economic, social, resource, and environmental changes. Equilibrium is a relative concept derived from the instantaneous concept; instantaneous equilibrium is an ideal state in the long term. The population spatial distribution is constantly changing from disequilibrium to equilibrium and from equilibrium to disequilibrium. This paper describes a theoretical model of multi-regional population spatial equilibrium based on the regional wage rate, human climate suitability index, urban crowding degree, and distance. Using the Yangtze River Delta as an example, the study analyzes the equilibrium population spatial distribution under current economic, social, environmental, and population conditions. The study found that the population of the study area is concentrated along the river and the coast, mainly in the south of Jiangsu, along the coast of Hangzhou Bay, and the canal from Nanjing to the north of Jiangsu. By comparing the equilibrium population with the current distribution, the Yangtze River Delta can be divided into quasi-equilibrium, attractive, and repulsive areas. The attractive areas, such as Shanghai, Nanjing, and Hangzhou, have large population agglomeration potential. In contrast, the repulsive areas are mainly located in northern and western Anhui, northern Zhejiang, and other areas close to the quasi-equilibrium area. This suggests that under free migration, the population will further concentrate in the areas of Shanghai, Nanjing, Hangzhou, and southern Jiangsu.

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Economic performance evaluation of the city government relocation:Based on the comprehensive exploration of move-in, move-out districts and other areas
SUN Bindong, PAN Yuqi, ZHANG Tinglin, ZHOU Huimin
2024, 79 (2):  402-420.  doi: 10.11821/dlxb202402008
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The city government relocation in China will stimulate the spatial reallocation of resources, thus affecting regional economic development. In previous studies, only impacts of city government relocation in single move-in or move-out districts are evaluated. More, the results are usually relied on individual city case studies. Therefore, large sample empirical studies from a multi-regional perspective are urgently needed. This paper expands the theoretical framework of the relocation impact of city government, a regional factor in political geography, on economic development, and constructs panel data from 2000 to 2017 to examine the economic performance of government relocation policy of prefecture-level cities on the move-in districts, move-out districts, and other areas and its impact path through the difference-in-difference method. It is found that the government relocation could significantly promote the economic development of the move-in districts and drive the economic development of other districts and counties in the city through spillover effect, while the move-out districts are not significantly improved or damaged. Further mechanism testing show that the government relocation policy promotes local economic development through the effect of enterprise agglomeration and industrial upgrading in the move-in districts. Therefore, a reasonable relocation of city government can be an effective policy tool to promote the economic development of different regions within a city, but strict demonstration and approval are important prerequisites.

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Differentiation pattern and cross-scale comparison of daytime and nighttime social space in Nanjing inner city
SONG Weixuan, XU Di, WANG Jiekai, CAO Hui, HUANG Qinshi
2024, 79 (2):  421-438.  doi: 10.11821/dlxb202402009
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Residential differentiation is an essential component of socio-spatial differentiation, but only part of it, since there might be considerable differences in urban social space structure at different times and in a different context because of the high mobility of urban population. However, integrated and comparative research of urban social space that integrates multiple temporal and spatial scales as well as multi-domain dimensions at home and abroad is still in its infancy. Based on mobile terminal user portrait data supported by big data environment and AI simulation technology, this paper explores the spatial differentiation pattern of daytime activities (10:00-17:00) and night residence (21:00-06:00) of social groups in Nanjing inner city, and conducts a comparative study of multi-dimensional and multi-scale spatial differentiation indexes. The research finds that: (1) Both similarity and difference exist in the spatial distribution of day / night social groups. There is a large proportion of middle-aged rich groups along Beijing West Road and Beijing East Road, and a high density of local elderly residents in the north and south of the city. In the city center, there are a large number of white-collar employees during the day and a mix of different social groups at night. (2) Different from the existing research findings in European and American countries, the daily mobility of urban population does not mitigate the socio-spatial differentiation. The spatial differentiation degree of most social attribute indicators, such as gender, occupation and consuming capacity on the street, community and grid scales, shows that daytime activities are higher than nighttime residence. (3) The scale effect of socio-spatial differentiation is significant, more specifically, not only the spatial differentiation index of smaller scale units is higher, but subtler even different socio-spatial differentiation can be revealed from smaller scale units, and this differentiation can be evidently presented by cross-scale comparison. As an exploratory attempt to the problem of "multi-contextual segregation" in social space, it is conducive to construct the research framework of urban social space integrating multi-space, multi-dimension and cross-domain, and further expanding the theory and practice of urban socio-spatial differentiation in China.

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Spatiotemporal differentiation and influencing mechanism of urban expansion in the Yangtze River Economic Belt, China
ZHANG Min, YANG Liya, HU Zhuowei, YANG Ziqing
2024, 79 (2):  439-461.  doi: 10.11821/dlxb202402010
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Nowadays, the disordered expansion of urban land has become an important problem on China's urbanization. Urban population growth is widely recognized as a crucial driver of urban spatial expansion. Therefore, it is necessary to clarify the spatiotemporal differentiation characteristics of urban expansion and understand the relationship between urban population size and urban expansion. Based on Landsat TM/OLI remote sensing images and socioeconomic statistics data, this paper identified the urban land in the Yangtze River Economic Belt (YREB), China, between 1990 to 2020. This was achieved by combining object-oriented automatic extraction and human-computer interaction visual interpretation. The study then examined the spatiotemporal differentiation characteristics of urban expansion at difference scales using expansion speed, expansion difference index, kernel density analysis and spatial autocorrelation. Finally, the relationship between urban population size and urban expansion in different regions was investigated using the Two-way Fixed Effects Model. The main results are as follows: (1) After 2015, urban expansion speed decreased significantly in different parts of the YREB. Moreover, the time series characteristics of urban expansion in the cities of the upper and middle reaches were found to be different from those in the lower reaches. The upper reaches had higher expansion speed than the middle reaches after 2010. Spatially, the urban expansion in the YREB shows significant spatial heterogeneity. High-speed expansion areas have shifted from east to west, and the differences in urban land scale between the upper-middle and the lower reaches tend to converge. Urban expansion in the lower reaches exhibits strong spatial dependency, while in the middle-upper reaches, there is no significant spatial autocorrelation. (2) The relationship between urban population size and urban expansion differs significantly among different regions. The upper reaches show a negative correlation, while the middle-lower reaches exhibit a "U-shaped" relationship. This indicates that there is no obvious over-expansion of population size in the upper reaches, whereas there is in the middle-lower reaches. Residents in the middle reaches have demonstrated a higher sensitivity to urban comfort and quality of life. Finally, the study provides regional policy recommendations, aiming to offer scientific references for targeted urban policies and promote high-quality urban development.

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The spatiotemporal evolution and influencing factors of resilience of county-level cities in the East China Sea coastal zone based on "background-operation-efficiency"
YING Chao, LI Jialin, LIU Yongchao, ZHANG Haitao, TIAN Peng, GONG Hongbo
2024, 79 (2):  462-483.  doi: 10.11821/dlxb202402011
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As the frontier of China's land and sea economic development, the coastal zone of the East China Sea (ECS) has witnessed a significant escalation of urban risks against a backdrop of high-intensity utilization. Research on urban resilience provides a basis for mitigating the impact of human activities and natural disasters, holding crucial significance for the sustainable socioeconomic development of coastal cities. Taking into account both resilience capabilities and resource environmental costs, we established a "background-operation-efficiency" evaluation system to analyze the spatiotemporal evolution characteristics of urban resilience at the county scale in the ECS coastal zone. Additionally, geographic detectors and GTWR models were employed to investigate the influencing factors of resilience operation capacity. The results show that: (1) The resilience background capacity of county-level cities in the study area continues to increase, and the spatial pattern is relatively stable. It exhibits a distribution trend with a higher level in Shanghai, a higher level in northern Zhejiang but a lower level in southern Zhejiang, a higher level in the middle of Fujian while a lower level in the north and south of Fujian. Generally, cities tend to cluster homogeneously, mainly forming low-low agglomerations. (2) The resilience operation capacity of county-level cities has steadily improved, showing a positional pattern of Shanghai > Zhejiang > Fujian. High value areas are concentrated in urban areas, presenting a spatial evolution pattern of resilience operation in two stages of polarization and diffusion. Cities in the ECS coastal zone generally exhibit low-low agglomerations. (3) The resilience efficiency of county-level cities initially decreases, then slowly increases before rapidly increasing. High value areas are mostly distributed in urban areas and island cities. The most common city type is "low background-low operation-medium efficiency", and there are many cities of the "low background-low operation-low efficiency" and "medium background-medium operation-low efficiency" types; (4) The level of economic development is the primary factor influencing the resilience operation capabilities of county-level cities in the ECS coastal zone, but its impact tends to weaken. The influence of urban openness and infrastructure level is increasing, while that of urbanization level and urban agglomeration level is gradually diminishing.

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Transportation and Tourism Geography
Supply levels of ports invested by China along the 21st-Century Maritime Silk Road
SU Han, WANG Liehui
2024, 79 (2):  484-501.  doi: 10.11821/dlxb202402012
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Since the Belt and Road Initiative was put forward, Chinese enterprises have invested in ports along the 21st-Century Maritime Silk Road in various ways. In the context of the impact of COVID-19, trade protectionism, and geopolitical instability, it is of great practical significance to analyze the supply status of invested ports for improving port operation efficiency, optimizing port resource utilization, and promoting sustainable development of the 21st-Century Maritime Silk Road. This study is based on the construction of port supply theory framework, and utilizes multi-source port and shipping data, remote sensing data and the entropy weight-TOPSIS evaluation model to establish the comprehensive evaluation system of port supply. The system includes 8 first-level indexes and 37 second-level indexes, such as natural conditions, infrastructures and production conditions. Then, this study measures the supply level of invested ports from three aspects: overall, regional and dimensional. The results show that: (1) The overall supply level of invested ports is not high, with most ports categorized as medium or lower levels. At the same time, the equilibrium of supply and demand is low, indicating that the majority of supply falls short of meeting the demand. (2) Before 2015, Chinese enterprises predominantly invested in the ports with higher supply level, mostly in Europe. However, after 2015, the focus shifted to strategically located ports with lower supply level such as strategic fulcrum ports, gateway ports and ports along strategic corridors. (3) The enterprise-cooperation type-port supply level can be categorized into three types: terminal operators-equity acquisition-ports with higher supply level; engineering contractors-contract construction-ports with medium and low supply level; shipping companies-equity acquisitions and franchises-ports with higher supply levels. (4) From regional perspective, the spatial structure of port supply systems in West Asia, South Asia, Africa, Southeast Asia and Europe are at the stage of low-level equilibrium, isolated dual-core, primitive single-core, hub polar core and multi-core development, respectively. (5) From different dimensions, the main factors affecting the comprehensive supply level of ports lie in the derivative and improving factors, such as logistics level, service level and storage conditions.

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Refined assessment of accessibility to hierarchical health care facilities in Xizang
LIU Ze, CHENG Yang, TAO Zhuolin, KONG Jinsong
2024, 79 (2):  502-514.  doi: 10.11821/dlxb202402013
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The Xizang Autonomous Region is located in the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau and has a unique geographical environment. The refined assessment of the accessibility to health care facilities in the region is of great practical significance for promoting the equalization of health care services. This study applies the geographical data of Xizang, such as data on topography and elevation, land use, road networks, health care facilities, and population, for refined assessment of the travel time to the hierarchical health care facilities at the 1 km×1 km grid scale. The proportion of population covered by different time periods of travel time to health care facilities is evaluated and the health care shortage areas are identified. In addition, the spatial differences between proximity-based and administrative district-based accessibility to health care facilities at each level are evaluated in order to provide suggestions for optimizing the locations of health care facilities in Xizang. The results show that the proportion of population traveling to municipal hospitals, county-level hospitals, and health centers within one hour at the township level in Xizang is 36.01%, 65.55% and 86.54%, respectively. The proportion of population covered by low-level health care facilities is higher than that of the high-level health care facilities within one hour. By applying coupling analysis of population density and health care accessibility, the identified health care shortage areas in Xizang are mainly located in Nagqu and Qamdo. The areas with differences between proximity-based and administrative district-based accessibility to health care facilities are mainly located in Shannan and Nyingchi. Therefore, policies should be suggested to promote the convenience of local residents accessing the nearest health care facilities by crossing the administrative boundaries. This study establishes a methodological framework for the refined evaluation of health care accessibility in the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau, systematically evaluating the spatial pattern of accessibility to health care facilities in Xizang so as to provide scientific evidence for promoting the equalization of health care services in the region.

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Unbalanced and inadequate development of rural tourism destinations and the types of areal systems in China
ZHOU Xiaofang, DENG Jun
2024, 79 (2):  515-533.  doi: 10.11821/dlxb202402014
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Rural vitalization strategy in China aims to address the principal conflict facing Chinese society in the new era, which has changed to a conflict between unbalanced and inadequate development on the one hand, and people's ever-growing desire for a better life on the other. Mastering the situation, pattern, and process of rural tourism destination development and understanding the regional differentiation mechanism and type characteristics can provide a decision basis and planning guidance for developing rural tourism and promoting rural vitalization. The paper first explores the four stages of rural tourism destinations in China. Then, Point of Interest (POI) data for agritainment and guesthouses, data from the demonstration site directory published by the Chinese government for leisure agriculture and rural tourism, beautiful leisure villages, and key rural tourism villages are collected using GIS spatial techniques to analyze the pattern characteristics of rural tourism destinations at different stages of development. Finally, the differentiation mechanism of rural tourism destination development in China, based on the perspective of the human Earth areal system, is used to divide and summarize the areal system types. The conclusions are as follows: (1) Development of rural tourism destinations in China is unbalanced and inadequate. Its spatial and temporal processes follow the evolution law from core-edge and point-axis plane structures for complex networking. All rural tourism destinations in China are still in the first stage, except Beijing, Tianjin, the Yangtze River Delta, and the Pearl River Delta. (2) China's rural tourism destination system can be divided into three categories and 15 basic types. Different types of rural tourism areas have different imbalances and insufficiency characteristics, and their regional driving factors are also different. The natural ecological environment is the foundation of the rural tourism areal system structure and socioeconomic culture is the driving force. Under the function of rural tourism, these destinations are geographically distributed along mountains, rivers, roads, cities, tourist sight and literary resorts, showing a growing trend of unbalanced and inadequate development. (3) The unbalanced and inadequate process of rural tourism destination development is accelerating. However, this also indicates that the essence of rural tourism destination development is urbanizing, but it may be inconsistent with the connotation of stability in agricultural production and the solid foundations for agriculture reflected in the rural vitalization strategy in China.

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Commoditized encounter between visitors and star animals in tourist destinations: A case study of Sichuan giant panda bases
YIN Duo, LU Wei, ZHU Hong
2024, 79 (2):  534-548.  doi: 10.11821/dlxb202402015
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Recently, studying the interaction between human and animals has become an important way for human geographers to explore the relationship between society and nature. By adopting qualitative research methods such as in-depth interviews, participatory observation, and text analysis, this paper analyzes encounters of visitors and star animals in Sichuan giant panda bases. It reveals animal agencies and multi-species tourism experiences based on the concept of nonhuman charisma. This research found various encounters between visitors and wild animals, and these diversities are specifically designed, which has variegated effects. Specifically, (1) in the "foreground" of the physical space of the tourist destination, the panda's ecological and aesthetic charisma can arouse natural goodwill among tourists, which is manipulated by the tourist destination to maintain popularity to panda tourism; (2) the virtual space constructed by tourist destinations provides biological characteristics and life course of panda that cannot be directly observed, thus complementing and enriching the encounters between visitors and panda; (3) the "backstage" of the physical space of the tourist destination combines tourism with public welfare in volunteer activities, allows tourists to enter the living space of the pandas and thus shapes deeper and more intimate encounters based on panda's charm of the flesh. In general, the charisma of pandas not only shapes tourists' multi-species tourism experience, but also constructs tourists' place identity with Sichuan. The research explores the relationship network constructed by human animal interaction and the power operation mechanism mapped from a spatial perspective, which provides a new attempt to explore the relationship between humans and animals in tourism and reflects the construction of community of all life on earth from a geographical lens.

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